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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434287/la-donna-di-ostuni-a-case-of-eclampsia-28-000%C3%A2-years-ago
#1
Pierre-Yves Robillard, Marco Scioscia, Donato Coppola, Jean Chaline, Francesco Bonsante, Silvia Iacobelli
La "Donna di Ostuni", the Lady from Ostuni (fortified medieval city, on the southern Italian Adriatic coast) is the skeleton of "the human most ancient mother" ever found by paleoanthropologists, grave dated of 28,000 years BP. It concerns a 20-years-old woman buried with her baby in her womb estimated at 8 months gestation. To date, the cause of the maternal-fetal deaths is qualified of unknown origin. We propose that eclampsia may be a possible explanation for these deaths (mother and baby together). Eclampsia (convulsions), the curse of human births (non-existent in other mammals), has been described since writings has existed 5000 years ago in all civilisations...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383570/high-precision-14-c-and-40-ar-39-ar-dating-of-the-campanian-ignimbrite-y-5-reconciles-the-time-scales-of-climatic-cultural-processes-at-40-ka
#2
Biagio Giaccio, Irka Hajdas, Roberto Isaia, Alan Deino, Sebastien Nomade
The Late Pleistocene Campanian Ignimbrite (CI) super-eruption (Southern Italy) is the largest known volcanic event in the Mediterranean area. The CI tephra is widely dispersed through western Eurasia and occurs in close stratigraphic association with significant palaeoclimatic and Palaeolithic cultural events. Here we present new high-precision (14)C (34.29 ± 0.09 (14)C kyr BP, 1σ) and (40)Ar/(39)Ar (39.85 ± 0.14 ka, 95% confidence level) dating results for the age of the CI eruption, which substantially improve upon or augment previous age determinations and permit fuller exploitation of the chronological potential of the CI tephra marker...
April 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383521/assessing-the-calorific-significance-of-episodes-of-human-cannibalism-in-the-palaeolithic
#3
James Cole
Episodes of Palaeolithic cannibalism have frequently been defined as 'nutritional' in nature, but with little empirical evidence to assess their dietary significance. This paper presents a nutritional template that offers a proxy calorie value for the human body. When applied to the Palaeolithic record, the template provides a framework for assessing the dietary value of prehistoric cannibalistic episodes compared to the faunal record. Results show that humans have a comparable nutritional value to those faunal species that match our typical body weight, but significantly lower than a range of fauna often found in association with anthropogenically modified hominin remains...
April 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355292/a-decorated-raven-bone-from-the-zaskalnaya-vi-kolosovskaya-neanderthal-site-crimea
#4
Ana Majkić, Sarah Evans, Vadim Stepanchuk, Alexander Tsvelykh, Francesco d'Errico
We analyze a radius bone fragment of a raven (Corvus corax) from Zaskalnaya VI rock shelter, Crimea. The object bears seven notches and comes from an archaeological level attributed to a Micoquian industry dated to between 38 and 43 cal kyr BP. Our study aims to examine the degree of regularity and intentionality of this set of notches through their technological and morphometric analysis, complemented by comparative experimental work. Microscopic analysis of the notches indicate that they were produced by the to-and-fro movement of a lithic cutting edge and that two notches were added to fill in the gap left between previously cut notches, probably to increase the visual consistency of the pattern...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272540/ancient-mitochondrial-lineages-support-the-prehistoric-maternal-root-of-basques-in-northern-iberian-peninsula
#5
Leire Palencia-Madrid, Sergio Cardoso, Christine Keyser, Juan Carlos López-Quintana, Amagoia Guenaga-Lizasu, Marian M de Pancorbo
The Basque population inhabits the Franco-Cantabrian region in southwest Europe where Palaeolithic human groups took refuge during the Last Glacial Maximum. Basques have been an isolated population, largely considered as one of the most ancient European populations and it is possible that they maintained some pre-Neolithic genetic characteristics. This work shows the results of mitochondrial DNA analysis of seven ancient human remains from the Cave of Santimamiñe in the Basque Country dated from Mesolithic to the Late Roman period...
May 2017: European Journal of Human Genetics: EJHG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252042/understanding-the-emergence-of-modern-humans-and-the-disappearance-of-neanderthals-insights-from-kaldar-cave-khorramabad-valley-western-iran
#6
Behrouz Bazgir, Andreu Ollé, Laxmi Tumung, Lorena Becerra-Valdivia, Katerina Douka, Thomas Higham, Jan van der Made, Andrea Picin, Palmira Saladié, Juan Manuel López-García, Hugues-Alexandre Blain, Ethel Allué, Mónica Fernández-García, Iván Rey-Rodríguez, Diego Arceredillo, Faranak Bahrololoumi, Moloudsadat Azimi, Marcel Otte, Eudald Carbonell
Kaldar Cave is a key archaeological site that provides evidence of the Middle to Upper Palaeolithic transition in Iran. Excavations at the site in 2014-2015 led to the discovery of cultural remains generally associated with anatomically modern humans (AMHs) and evidence of a probable Neanderthal-made industry in the basal layers. Attempts have been made to establish a chronology for the site. These include four thermoluminescence (TL) dates for Layer 4, ranging from 23,100 ± 3300 to 29,400 ± 2300 BP, and three AMS radiocarbon dates from charcoal samples belonging to the lower part of the same layer, yielding ages of 38,650-36,750 cal BP, 44,200-42,350 cal BP, and 54,400-46,050 cal BP (all at the 95...
March 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203349/depth-perception-and-the-history-of-three-dimensional-art-who-produced-the-first-stereoscopic-images
#7
Kevin R Brooks
The history of the expression of three-dimensional structure in art can be traced from the use of occlusion in Palaeolithic cave paintings, through the use of shadow in classical art, to the development of perspective during the Renaissance. However, the history of the use of stereoscopic techniques is controversial. Although the first undisputed stereoscopic images were presented by Wheatstone in 1838, it has been claimed that two sketches by Jacopo Chimenti da Empoli (c. 1600) can be to be fused to yield an impression of stereoscopic depth, while others suggest that Leonardo da Vinci's Mona Lisa is the world's first stereogram...
January 2017: I-Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120839/signatures-of-human-european-palaeolithic-expansion-shown-by-resequencing-of-non-recombining-x-chromosome-segments
#8
Pierpaolo Maisano Delser, Rita Neumann, Stéphane Ballereau, Pille Hallast, Chiara Batini, Daniel Zadik, Mark A Jobling
Human genetic diversity in Europe has been extensively studied using uniparentally inherited sequences (mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and the Y chromosome), which reveal very different patterns indicating sex-specific demographic histories. The X chromosome, haploid in males and inherited twice as often from mothers as from fathers, could provide insights into past female behaviours, but has not been extensively investigated. Here, we use HapMap single-nucleotide polymorphism data to identify genome-wide segments of the X chromosome in which recombination is historically absent and mutations are likely to be the only source of genetic variation, referring to these as phylogeographically informative haplotypes on autosomes and X chromosome (PHAXs)...
January 25, 2017: European Journal of Human Genetics: EJHG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000700/different-kinds-of-genetic-markers-permit-inference-of-paleolithic-and-neolithic-expansions-in-humans
#9
Carla Aimé, Frédéric Austerlitz
Recent population genetic studies have provided valuable insights on the demographic history of our species. However, some issues such as the dating of the first demographic expansions in human populations remain puzzling. Indeed, although a few genetic studies argued that the first human expansions were concomitant with the Neolithic transition, many others found signals of expansion events starting during the Palaeolithic. Here we performed a simulation study to show that these contradictory findings may result from the differences in the genetic markers used, especially if two successive expansion events occurred...
February 2017: European Journal of Human Genetics: EJHG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936135/identifying-major-transitions-in-the-evolution-of-lithic-cutting-edge-production-rates
#10
Antoine Muller, Chris Clarkson
The notion that the evolution of core reduction strategies involved increasing efficiency in cutting edge production is prevalent in narratives of hominin technological evolution. Yet a number of studies comparing two different knapping technologies have found no significant differences in edge production. Using digital analysis methods we present an investigation of raw material efficiency in eight core technologies broadly representative of the long-term evolution of lithic technology. These are bipolar, multiplatform, discoidal, biface, Levallois, prismatic blade, punch blade and pressure blade production...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886245/early-evidence-of-stone-tool-use-in-bone-working-activities-at-qesem-cave-israel
#11
Andrea Zupancich, Stella Nunziante-Cesaro, Ruth Blasco, Jordi Rosell, Emanuela Cristiani, Flavia Venditti, Cristina Lemorini, Ran Barkai, Avi Gopher
For a long while, the controversy surrounding several bone tools coming from pre-Upper Palaeolithic contexts favoured the view of Homo sapiens as the only species of the genus Homo capable of modifying animal bones into specialised tools. However, evidence such as South African Early Stone Age modified bones, European Lower Palaeolithic flaked bone tools, along with Middle and Late Pleistocene bone retouchers, led to a re-evaluation of the conception of Homo sapiens as the exclusive manufacturer of specialised bone tools...
November 25, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821191/nutritional-management-of-hyperapob
#12
Valérie Lamantia, Allan Sniderman, May Faraj
Plasma apoB is a more accurate marker of the risk of CVD and type 2 diabetes (T2D) than LDL-cholesterol; however, nutritional reviews targeting apoB are scarce. Here we reviewed eighty-seven nutritional studies and present conclusions in order of strength of evidence. Plasma apoB was reduced in all studies that induced weight loss of 6-12 % using hypoenergetic diets (seven studies; 5440-7110 kJ/d; 1300-1700 kcal/d; 34-50 % carbohydrates; 27-39 % fat; 18-24 % protein). When macronutrients were compared in isoenergetic diets (eleven studies including eight randomised controlled trials (RCT); n 1189), the diets that reduced plasma apoB were composed of 26-51 % carbohydrates, 26-46 % fat, 11-32 % protein, 10-27 % MUFA, 5-14 % PUFA and 7-13 % SFA...
December 2016: Nutrition Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783985/geochemical-and-mineralogical-fingerprints-to-distinguish-the-exploited-ferruginous-mineralisations-of-grotta-della-monaca-calabria-italy
#13
Luca Antonio Dimuccio, Nelson Rodrigues, Felice Larocca, João Pratas, Ana Margarida Amado, Luís A E Batista de Carvalho
This study examines the geochemical and mineralogical variations in the ferruginous mineralisations that crop out within Grotta della Monaca, which is considered to be the most striking and best known example of a prehistoric iron mine-cave from the southern Apennines (Calabria, Italy). Previous archaeological research identified three local and distinct ancient exploitation phases of these ferruginous mineralisations: (1) an Upper Palaeolithic phase; (2) a Late Neolithic phase; and (3) a post-Medieval phase...
February 15, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760117/wild-monkeys-flake-stone-tools
#14
Tomos Proffitt, Lydia V Luncz, Tiago Falótico, Eduardo B Ottoni, Ignacio de la Torre, Michael Haslam
Our understanding of the emergence of technology shapes how we view the origins of humanity. Sharp-edged stone flakes, struck from larger cores, are the primary evidence for the earliest stone technology. Here we show that wild bearded capuchin monkeys (Sapajus libidinosus) in Brazil deliberately break stones, unintentionally producing recurrent, conchoidally fractured, sharp-edged flakes and cores that have the characteristics and morphology of intentionally produced hominin tools. The production of archaeologically visible cores and flakes is therefore no longer unique to the human lineage, providing a comparative perspective on the emergence of lithic technology...
November 3, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27732605/a-unique-collection-of-palaeolithic-painted-portable-art-characterization-of-red-and-yellow-pigments-from-the-parpall%C3%A3-cave-spain
#15
Clodoaldo Roldán García, Valentín Villaverde Bonilla, Isabel Ródenas Marín, Sonia Murcia Mascarós
In this work we analyze the pigments used in the decoration of red and yellow motifs present in the portable art of the Parpalló Cave (Gandía, Spain), one of the most important Palaeolithic sites in the Spanish Mediterranean region. Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (EDXRF) and spectrophotometry in the visible region (CIEL*a*b*color coordinates and spectral reflectance curves) were used to perform in situ fast analyses of the red and yellow motifs with portable equipment and to characterize their elemental composition and their colorimetric perception, respectively...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27704536/a-neanderthal-deciduous-human-molar-with-incipient-carious-infection-from-the-middle-palaeolithic-de-nadale-cave-italy
#16
Julie Arnaud, Stefano Benazzi, Matteo Romandini, Alessandra Livraghi, Daniele Panetta, Piero A Salvadori, Lisa Volpe, Marco Peresani
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study is the assessment of Nadale 1, a Neanderthal deciduous tooth recently discovered in Northeastern Italy in the De Nadale cave (Middle Palaeolithic). Together with the clear archaeological context of the site, this study brings new insight on Neanderthal behavior and dental morphological variability. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used microCT data to provide a morphological description and morphometric analysis (diameter measurements and dental tissue volumes) of the Nadale 1 human tooth...
October 5, 2016: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27389305/direct-radiocarbon-dating-and-genetic-analyses-on-the-purported-neanderthal-mandible-from-the-monti-lessini-italy
#17
Sahra Talamo, Mateja Hajdinjak, Marcello A Mannino, Leone Fasani, Frido Welker, Fabio Martini, Francesca Romagnoli, Roberto Zorzin, Matthias Meyer, Jean-Jacques Hublin
Anatomically modern humans replaced Neanderthals in Europe around 40,000 years ago. The demise of the Neanderthals and the nature of the possible relationship with anatomically modern humans has captured our imagination and stimulated research for more than a century now. Recent chronological studies suggest a possible overlap between Neanderthals and anatomically modern humans of more than 5,000 years. Analyses of ancient genome sequences from both groups have shown that they interbred multiple times, including in Europe...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27331397/the-effects-of-paleoclimatic-events-on-mediterranean-trout-preliminary-evidences-from-ancient-dna
#18
Andrea Splendiani, Tatiana Fioravanti, Massimo Giovannotti, Alessandra Negri, Paolo Ruggeri, Luigi Olivieri, Paola Nisi Cerioni, Massimo Lorenzoni, Vincenzo Caputo Barucchi
In this pilot study for the first time, ancient DNA has been extracted from bone remains of Salmo trutta. These samples were from a stratigraphic succession located in a coastal cave of Calabria (southern Italy) inhabited by humans from upper Palaeolithic to historical times. Seven pairs of primers were used to PCR-amplify and sequence from 128 to 410 bp of the mtDNA control region of eleven samples. Three haplotypes were observed: two (ADcs-1 and MEcs-1) already described in rivers from the Italian peninsula; one (ATcs-33) belonging to the southern Atlantic clade of the AT Salmo trutta mtDNA lineage (sensu Bernatchez)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27298472/the-empirical-case-against-the-demographic-turn-in-palaeolithic-archaeology
#19
REVIEW
Mark Collard, Krist Vaesen, Richard Cosgrove, Wil Roebroeks
Recently, it has become commonplace to interpret major transitions and other patterns in the Palaeolithic archaeological record in terms of population size. Increases in cultural complexity are claimed to result from increases in population size; decreases in cultural complexity are suggested to be due to decreases in population size; and periods of no change are attributed to low numbers or frequent extirpation. In this paper, we argue that this approach is not defensible. We show that the available empirical evidence does not support the idea that cultural complexity in hunter-gatherers is governed by population size...
July 5, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27260176/the-age-of-three-middle-palaeolithic-sites-single-grain-optically-stimulated-luminescence-chronologies-for-pech-de-l-az%C3%A3-i-ii-and-iv-in-france
#20
Zenobia Jacobs, Nathan R Jankowski, Harold L Dibble, Paul Goldberg, Shannon J P McPherron, Dennis Sandgathe, Marie Soressi
Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) measurements were made on individual, sand-sized grains of quartz from Middle Palaeolithic deposits at three sites (Pech de l'Azé I, II and IV) located close to one another in the Dordogne region of southwest France. We were able to calculate OSL ages for 69 samples collected from these three sites. These ages reveal periods of occupation between about 180 and 50 thousand years ago. Our single-grain OSL chronologies largely support previous age estimates obtained by thermoluminescence dating of burnt flints at Pech IV, electron spin resonance dating of tooth enamel at Pech I, II and IV and radiocarbon dating of bone at Pech I and IV, but provide a more complete picture due to the ubiquitous presence of sand-sized quartz grains used in OSL dating...
June 2016: Journal of Human Evolution
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