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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886245/early-evidence-of-stone-tool-use-in-bone-working-activities-at-qesem-cave-israel
#1
Andrea Zupancich, Stella Nunziante-Cesaro, Ruth Blasco, Jordi Rosell, Emanuela Cristiani, Flavia Venditti, Cristina Lemorini, Ran Barkai, Avi Gopher
For a long while, the controversy surrounding several bone tools coming from pre-Upper Palaeolithic contexts favoured the view of Homo sapiens as the only species of the genus Homo capable of modifying animal bones into specialised tools. However, evidence such as South African Early Stone Age modified bones, European Lower Palaeolithic flaked bone tools, along with Middle and Late Pleistocene bone retouchers, led to a re-evaluation of the conception of Homo sapiens as the exclusive manufacturer of specialised bone tools...
November 25, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821191/nutritional-management-of-hyperapob
#2
Valérie Lamantia, Allan Sniderman, May Faraj
Plasma apoB is a more accurate marker of the risk of CVD and type 2 diabetes (T2D) than LDL-cholesterol; however, nutritional reviews targeting apoB are scarce. Here we reviewed eighty-seven nutritional studies and present conclusions in order of strength of evidence. Plasma apoB was reduced in all studies that induced weight loss of 6-12 % using hypoenergetic diets (seven studies; 5440-7110 kJ/d; 1300-1700 kcal/d; 34-50 % carbohydrates; 27-39 % fat; 18-24 % protein). When macronutrients were compared in isoenergetic diets (eleven studies including eight randomised controlled trials (RCT); n 1189), the diets that reduced plasma apoB were composed of 26-51 % carbohydrates, 26-46 % fat, 11-32 % protein, 10-27 % MUFA, 5-14 % PUFA and 7-13 % SFA...
November 8, 2016: Nutrition Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783985/geochemical-and-mineralogical-fingerprints-to-distinguish-the-exploited-ferruginous-mineralisations-of-grotta-della-monaca-calabria-italy
#3
Luca Antonio Dimuccio, Nelson Rodrigues, Felice Larocca, João Pratas, Ana Margarida Amado, Luís A E Batista de Carvalho
This study examines the geochemical and mineralogical variations in the ferruginous mineralisations that crop out within Grotta della Monaca, which is considered to be the most striking and best known example of a prehistoric iron mine-cave from the southern Apennines (Calabria, Italy). Previous archaeological research identified three local and distinct ancient exploitation phases of these ferruginous mineralisations: (1) an Upper Palaeolithic phase; (2) a Late Neolithic phase; and (3) a post-Medieval phase...
October 17, 2016: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760117/wild-monkeys-flake-stone-tools
#4
Tomos Proffitt, Lydia V Luncz, Tiago Falótico, Eduardo B Ottoni, Ignacio de la Torre, Michael Haslam
Our understanding of the emergence of technology shapes how we view the origins of humanity. Sharp-edged stone flakes, struck from larger cores, are the primary evidence for the earliest stone technology. Here we show that wild bearded capuchin monkeys (Sapajus libidinosus) in Brazil deliberately break stones, unintentionally producing recurrent, conchoidally fractured, sharp-edged flakes and cores that have the characteristics and morphology of intentionally produced hominin tools. The production of archaeologically visible cores and flakes is therefore no longer unique to the human lineage, providing a comparative perspective on the emergence of lithic technology...
October 19, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27732605/a-unique-collection-of-palaeolithic-painted-portable-art-characterization-of-red-and-yellow-pigments-from-the-parpall%C3%A3-cave-spain
#5
Clodoaldo Roldán García, Valentín Villaverde Bonilla, Isabel Ródenas Marín, Sonia Murcia Mascarós
In this work we analyze the pigments used in the decoration of red and yellow motifs present in the portable art of the Parpalló Cave (Gandía, Spain), one of the most important Palaeolithic sites in the Spanish Mediterranean region. Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (EDXRF) and spectrophotometry in the visible region (CIEL*a*b*color coordinates and spectral reflectance curves) were used to perform in situ fast analyses of the red and yellow motifs with portable equipment and to characterize their elemental composition and their colorimetric perception, respectively...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27704536/a-neanderthal-deciduous-human-molar-with-incipient-carious-infection-from-the-middle-palaeolithic-de-nadale-cave-italy
#6
Julie Arnaud, Stefano Benazzi, Matteo Romandini, Alessandra Livraghi, Daniele Panetta, Piero A Salvadori, Lisa Volpe, Marco Peresani
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study is the assessment of Nadale 1, a Neanderthal deciduous tooth recently discovered in Northeastern Italy in the De Nadale cave (Middle Palaeolithic). Together with the clear archaeological context of the site, this study brings new insight on Neanderthal behavior and dental morphological variability. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used microCT data to provide a morphological description and morphometric analysis (diameter measurements and dental tissue volumes) of the Nadale 1 human tooth...
October 5, 2016: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27389305/direct-radiocarbon-dating-and-genetic-analyses-on-the-purported-neanderthal-mandible-from-the-monti-lessini-italy
#7
Sahra Talamo, Mateja Hajdinjak, Marcello A Mannino, Leone Fasani, Frido Welker, Fabio Martini, Francesca Romagnoli, Roberto Zorzin, Matthias Meyer, Jean-Jacques Hublin
Anatomically modern humans replaced Neanderthals in Europe around 40,000 years ago. The demise of the Neanderthals and the nature of the possible relationship with anatomically modern humans has captured our imagination and stimulated research for more than a century now. Recent chronological studies suggest a possible overlap between Neanderthals and anatomically modern humans of more than 5,000 years. Analyses of ancient genome sequences from both groups have shown that they interbred multiple times, including in Europe...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27331397/the-effects-of-paleoclimatic-events-on-mediterranean-trout-preliminary-evidences-from-ancient-dna
#8
Andrea Splendiani, Tatiana Fioravanti, Massimo Giovannotti, Alessandra Negri, Paolo Ruggeri, Luigi Olivieri, Paola Nisi Cerioni, Massimo Lorenzoni, Vincenzo Caputo Barucchi
In this pilot study for the first time, ancient DNA has been extracted from bone remains of Salmo trutta. These samples were from a stratigraphic succession located in a coastal cave of Calabria (southern Italy) inhabited by humans from upper Palaeolithic to historical times. Seven pairs of primers were used to PCR-amplify and sequence from 128 to 410 bp of the mtDNA control region of eleven samples. Three haplotypes were observed: two (ADcs-1 and MEcs-1) already described in rivers from the Italian peninsula; one (ATcs-33) belonging to the southern Atlantic clade of the AT Salmo trutta mtDNA lineage (sensu Bernatchez)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27298472/the-empirical-case-against-the-demographic-turn-in-palaeolithic-archaeology
#9
REVIEW
Mark Collard, Krist Vaesen, Richard Cosgrove, Wil Roebroeks
Recently, it has become commonplace to interpret major transitions and other patterns in the Palaeolithic archaeological record in terms of population size. Increases in cultural complexity are claimed to result from increases in population size; decreases in cultural complexity are suggested to be due to decreases in population size; and periods of no change are attributed to low numbers or frequent extirpation. In this paper, we argue that this approach is not defensible. We show that the available empirical evidence does not support the idea that cultural complexity in hunter-gatherers is governed by population size...
July 5, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27260176/the-age-of-three-middle-palaeolithic-sites-single-grain-optically-stimulated-luminescence-chronologies-for-pech-de-l-az%C3%A3-i-ii-and-iv-in-france
#10
Zenobia Jacobs, Nathan R Jankowski, Harold L Dibble, Paul Goldberg, Shannon J P McPherron, Dennis Sandgathe, Marie Soressi
Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) measurements were made on individual, sand-sized grains of quartz from Middle Palaeolithic deposits at three sites (Pech de l'Azé I, II and IV) located close to one another in the Dordogne region of southwest France. We were able to calculate OSL ages for 69 samples collected from these three sites. These ages reveal periods of occupation between about 180 and 50 thousand years ago. Our single-grain OSL chronologies largely support previous age estimates obtained by thermoluminescence dating of burnt flints at Pech IV, electron spin resonance dating of tooth enamel at Pech I, II and IV and radiocarbon dating of bone at Pech I and IV, but provide a more complete picture due to the ubiquitous presence of sand-sized quartz grains used in OSL dating...
June 2016: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27227330/an-early-instance-of-upper-palaeolithic-personal-ornamentation-from-china-the-freshwater-shell-bead-from-shuidonggou-2
#11
Yi Wei, Francesco d'Errico, Marian Vanhaeren, Feng Li, Xing Gao
We report the discovery and present a detailed analysis of a freshwater bivalve from Shuidonggou Locality 2, layer CL3. This layer is located c. 40 cm below layer CL2, which has yielded numerous ostrich eggshell beads. The shell is identified as the valve of a Corbicula fluminea. Data on the occurrence of this species in the Shuidonggou region during Marine Isotope Stage 3 and taphonomic analysis, conducted in the framework of this study, of a modern biocoenosis and thanatocoenosis suggest that the archeological specimen was collected at one of the numerous fossil or sub-fossil outcrops where valves of this species were available at the time of occupation of level CL3...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27216013/palaeolithic-diet-decreases-fasting-plasma-leptin-concentrations-more-than-a-diabetes-diet-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-a-randomised-cross-over-trial
#12
Maelán Fontes-Villalba, Staffan Lindeberg, Yvonne Granfeldt, Filip K Knop, Ashfaque A Memon, Pedro Carrera-Bastos, Óscar Picazo, Madhvi Chanrai, Jan Sunquist, Kristina Sundquist, Tommy Jönsson
BACKGROUND: We have previously shown that a Palaeolithic diet consisting of the typical food groups that our ancestors ate during the Palaeolithic era, improves cardiovascular disease risk factors and glucose control compared to the currently recommended diabetes diet in patients with type 2 diabetes. To elucidate the mechanisms behind these effects, we evaluated fasting plasma concentrations of glucagon, insulin, incretins, ghrelin, C-peptide and adipokines from the same study. METHODS: In a randomised, open-label, cross-over study, 13 patients with type 2 diabetes were randomly assigned to eat a Palaeolithic diet based on lean meat, fish, fruits, vegetables, root vegetables, eggs and nuts, or a diabetes diet designed in accordance with current diabetes dietary guidelines during two consecutive 3-month periods...
2016: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27195518/the-mitogenome-of-a-35-000-year-old-homo-sapiens-from-europe-supports-a-palaeolithic-back-migration-to-africa
#13
M Hervella, E M Svensson, A Alberdi, T Günther, N Izagirre, A R Munters, S Alonso, M Ioana, F Ridiche, A Soficaru, M Jakobsson, M G Netea, C de-la-Rua
After the dispersal of modern humans (Homo sapiens) Out of Africa, hominins with a similar morphology to that of present-day humans initiated the gradual demographic expansion into Eurasia. The mitogenome (33-fold coverage) of the Peştera Muierii 1 individual (PM1) from Romania (35 ky cal BP) we present in this article corresponds fully to Homo sapiens, whilst exhibiting a mosaic of morphological features related to both modern humans and Neandertals. We have identified the PM1 mitogenome as a basal haplogroup U6*, not previously found in any ancient or present-day humans...
May 19, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27191164/morphometric-assessment-of-convergent-tool-technology-and-function-during-the-early-middle-palaeolithic-the-case-of-payre-france
#14
M Gema Chacón, Florent Détroit, Aude Coudenneau, Marie-Hélène Moncel
There appears to be little doubt as to the existence of an intentional technological resolve to produce convergent tools during the Middle Palaeolithic. However, the use of these pieces as pointed tools is still subject to debate: i.e., handheld tool vs. hafted tool. Present-day technological analysis has begun to apply new methodologies in order to quantify shape variability and to decipher the role of the morphology of these pieces in relation to function; for instance, geometric morphometric analyses have recently been applied with successful results...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27151189/hammurabi-s-code-a-primary-datum-in-the-conjoined-professions-of-medicine-and-law
#15
John Pearn
The history of our current law dates from Palaeolithic times. The first written laws were codified by the rulers of Mesopotamian kingdoms, from the beginning of the second millennium B.C.E. This history, and those of the medico-legal specialties in particular, trace their origins to Hammurabi's Code. Hammurabi (ruled 1792-1750 B.C.E.) was the sixth King of the First Dynasty of ancient Babylon, today an archaeological site in modern-day Iraq. Hammurabi's Laws (c.1760 B.C.E.), inscribed on at least one diorite stele, were set up in public places in Babylon, towards the end of the King's 43-year reign...
September 2016: Medico-legal Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27149238/left-ventricular-remodelling-changes-without-concomitant-loss-of-myocardial-fat-after-long-term-dietary-intervention
#16
Jonas Andersson, Caroline Mellberg, Julia Otten, Mats Ryberg, Daniel Rinnström, Christel Larsson, Bernt Lindahl, Jon Hauksson, Bengt Johansson, Tommy Olsson
BACKGROUND: Accumulation of myocardial triglycerides (MTG) is associated with impaired left ventricular (LV) remodelling and function in obese and diabetic subjects. The role of MTG accumulation in development of heart failure in this group of patients is unknown. Short-term studies suggest that diets that lead to weight loss could mobilize MTG, with a favourable effect on cardiac remodelling. In a 24-month, randomized, investigator-blinded study, we assessed the effect of two different diets and subsequent weight loss on cardiac function and MTG in postmenopausal women...
August 1, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27099011/palaeolithic-art-old-masters-early-cultures
#17
Jill Cook
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27051985/cutting-through-the-paleo-hype-the-evidence-for-the-palaeolithic-diet
#18
Christopher E Pitt
BACKGROUND: General practitioners (GPs) are commonly asked about popular diets. The Palaeolithic diet is both highly popular and controversial. OBJECTIVE: This article reviews the published literature to establish the evidence for and against the Palaeolithic diet. DISCUSSION: The Palaeolithic diet remains controversial because of exaggerated claims for it by wellness bloggers and celebrity chefs, and the contentious evolutionary discordance hypothesis on which it is based...
January 2016: Australian Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27020421/identification-of-a-new-hominin-bone-from-denisova-cave-siberia-using-collagen-fingerprinting-and-mitochondrial-dna-analysis
#19
Samantha Brown, Thomas Higham, Viviane Slon, Svante Pääbo, Matthias Meyer, Katerina Douka, Fiona Brock, Daniel Comeskey, Noemi Procopio, Michael Shunkov, Anatoly Derevianko, Michael Buckley
DNA sequencing has revolutionised our understanding of archaic humans during the Middle and Upper Palaeolithic. Unfortunately, while many Palaeolithic sites contain large numbers of bones, the majority of these lack the diagnostic features necessary for traditional morphological identification. As a result the recovery of Pleistocene-age human remains is extremely rare. To circumvent this problem we have applied a method of collagen fingerprinting to more than 2000 fragmented bones from the site of Denisova Cave, Russia, in order to facilitate the discovery of human remains...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26994328/microstructure-crystallography-and-diagenetic-alteration-in-fossil-ostrich-eggshells-from-upper-palaeolithic-sites-of-indian-peninsular-region
#20
Sonal Jain, Sunil Bajpai, Giriraj Kumar, Vikas Pruthi
Biominerals studies are of importance as they provide an understanding of natural evolutionary processes. In this study we have investigated the fossil ostrich eggshells using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD). SEM studies demonstrated the ultrastructure of fossil eggshells and formation of calcified cuticular layer. The presence of calcified cuticle layer in eggshell is the basis for ancient DNA studies as it contains preserved biomolecules...
May 2016: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
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