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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146099/art-the-visual-imagination-and-neuroscience-the%C3%A2-chauvet-cave-mona-lisa-s-smile-and-michelangelo-s-terribilit%C3%A3
#1
John Onians
This paper considers several types of imagination relevant to art historical enquiry. These are exemplified in artistic expressions ranging from palaeolithic paintings in the Chauvet Cave, to drawings, sculptures and buildings designed by Michelangelo and drawings and paintings by Leonardo, and are related to recent neuroscientific discoveries. From this it emerges that important types of imagination cannot be understood without an appreciation of the neural processes that underlie them and especially without an acknowledgement of the importance of neurochemistry...
October 23, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139648/upper-palaeolithic-and-mesolithic-ornamental-traditions-in-the-eastern-adriatic-coast-and-hinterland
#2
Barbara Cvitkušić
Archaeological finds of personal ornaments reveal not only behavioural patterns of the society they belong to, but also their forms of manifestations indicate connections, contacts and communication paths, exchange networks and movements of prehistoric populations. This paper advances the current knowledge regarding ornamental traditions in Eastern Adriatic area during Late Upper Palaeolithic and Mesolithic periods. Thirteen prehistoric sites from this area have yielded more than thousand finds of ornamental assemblage, making Eastern Adriatic coast and hinterland fruitful area for the research of this type of archaeological assemblage...
March 2017: Collegium Antropologicum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054170/morphological-description-and-morphometric-analyses-of-the-upper-palaeolithic-human-remains-from-dzudzuana-and-satsurblia-caves-western-georgia
#3
Cristiana Margherita, Gregorio Oxilia, Veronica Barbi, Daniele Panetta, Jean-Jacques Hublin, David Lordkipanidze, Tengiz Meshveliani, Nino Jakeli, Zinovi Matskevich, Ofer Bar-Yosef, Anna Belfer-Cohen, Ron Pinhasi, Stefano Benazzi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054162/a-chronological-framework-connecting-the-early-upper-palaeolithic-across-the-central-asian-piedmont
#4
Kathryn E Fitzsimmons, Radu Iovita, Tobias Sprafke, Michelle Glantz, Sahra Talamo, Katharine Horton, Tyler Beeton, Saya Alipova, Galymzhan Bekseitov, Yerbolat Ospanov, Jean-Marc Deom, Renato Sala, Zhaken Taimagambetov
Central Asia has delivered significant paleoanthropological discoveries in the past few years. New genetic data indicate that at least two archaic human species met and interbred with anatomically modern humans as they arrived into northern Central Asia. However, data are limited: known archaeological sites with lithic assemblages generally lack human fossils, and consequently identifying the archaeological signatures of different human groups, and the timing of their occupation, remains elusive. Reliable chronologic data from sites in the region, crucial to our understanding of the timing and duration of interactions between different human species, are rare...
December 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032037/ecocultural-range-expansion-scenarios-for-the-replacement-or-assimilation-of-neanderthals-by-modern-humans
#5
Joe Yuichiro Wakano, William Gilpin, Seiji Kadowaki, Marcus W Feldman, Kenichi Aoki
Recent archaeological records no longer support a simple dichotomous characterization of the cultures/behaviors of Neanderthals and modern humans, but indicate much cultural/behavioral variability over time and space. Thus, in modeling the replacement or assimilation of Neanderthals by modern humans, it is of interest to consider cultural dynamics and its relation to demographic change. The ecocultural framework for the competition between hominid species allows their carrying capacities to depend on some measure of the levels of culture they possess...
October 12, 2017: Theoretical Population Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029191/evaluating-the-neolithic-expansion-at-both-shores-of-the-mediterranean-sea
#6
João Pimenta, Alexandra M Lopes, David Comas, António Amorim, Miguel Arenas
During the Neolithic, human populations underwent cultural and technological developments that led to an agricultural revolution. Although the population genetics and evolution of European Neolithic populations have been extensively studied, little is known regarding the Neolithic expansion in North Africa with respect to Europe. One could expect that the different environmental and geological conditions at both shores of the Mediterranean Sea could have led to contrasting expansions. In order to test this hypothesis, we compared the Neolithic expansion in Europe and North Africa accounting for possible migration between them through the Strait of Gibraltar...
September 26, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964077/cave-acoustics-in-prehistory-exploring-the-association-of-palaeolithic-visual-motifs-and-acoustic-response
#7
Bruno Fazenda, Chris Scarre, Rupert Till, Raquel Jiménez Pasalodos, Manuel Rojo Guerra, Cristina Tejedor, Roberto Ontañón Peredo, Aaron Watson, Simon Wyatt, Carlos García Benito, Helen Drinkall, Frederick Foulds
During the 1980 s, acoustic studies of Upper Palaeolithic imagery in French caves-using the technology then available-suggested a relationship between acoustic response and the location of visual motifs. This paper presents an investigation, using modern acoustic measurement techniques, into such relationships within the caves of La Garma, Las Chimeneas, La Pasiega, El Castillo, and Tito Bustillo in Northern Spain. It addresses methodological issues concerning acoustic measurement at enclosed archaeological sites and outlines a general framework for extraction of acoustic features that may be used to support archaeological hypotheses...
September 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860591/experimental-methods-for-the-palaeolithic-dry-distillation-of-birch-bark-implications-for-the-origin-and-development-of-neandertal-adhesive-technology
#8
P R B Kozowyk, M Soressi, D Pomstra, G H J Langejans
The destructive distillation of birch bark to produce tar has recently featured in debates about the technological and cognitive abilities of Neandertals and modern humans. The abilities to precisely control fire temperatures and to manipulate adhesive properties are believed to require advanced mental traits. However, the significance given to adhesive technology in these debates has quickly outgrown our understanding of birch bark tar and its manufacture using aceramic techniques. In this paper, we detail three experimental methods of Palaeolithic tar production ranging from simple to complex...
August 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817156/a-possible-grinder-from-tell-arbid-syria
#9
Mindy C Pitre, Rafał Koliński, Arkadiusz Sołtysiak
Cereal grinding has been practiced in Mesopotamia since the Upper Palaeolithic. While evidence of cereal grinding is clear from the archaeological and textual records, what remains unclear is whether the activity leaves signs on the skeleton in the form of markers of occupational stress (MOS). A particular constellation of MOS (e.g., osteoarthritis, traumatic injuries, and accessory articular facets) has previously been used to infer the habitual grinding of grain. These same MOS were recently observed in the skeleton of a female discovered in the Middle Bronze Age cemetery at Tell Arbid, NE Syria...
August 17, 2017: Anthropologischer Anzeiger; Bericht über die Biologisch-anthropologische Literatur
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792978/an-upper-palaeolithic-engraved-human-bone-associated-with-ritualistic-cannibalism
#10
Silvia M Bello, Rosalind Wallduck, Simon A Parfitt, Chris B Stringer
Cut-marked and broken human bones are a recurrent feature of Magdalenian (~17-12,000 years BP, uncalibrated dates) European sites. Human remains at Gough's Cave (UK) have been modified as part of a Magdalenian mortuary ritual that combined the intensive processing of entire corpses to extract edible tissues and the modification of skulls to produce skull-cups. A human radius from Gough's Cave shows evidence of cut marks, percussion damage and human tooth marks, indicative of cannibalism, as well as a set of unusual zig-zagging incisions on the lateral side of the diaphysis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758891/form-and-function-in-the-lower-palaeolithic-history-progress-and-continued-relevance
#11
Alastair Key, Lycett Stephen
Percussively flaked stone artefacts constitute a major source of evidence relating to hominin behavioural strategies and are, essentially, a product or byproduct of a past individual's decision to create a tool with respect to some broader goal. Moreover, it has long been noted that both differences and recurrent regularities exist within and between Palaeolithic stone artefact forms. Accordingly, archaeologists have frequently drawn links between form and functionality, with functional objectives and performance often being regarded consequential to a stone tool's morphological properties...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Anthropological Sciences, Rivista di Antropologia: JASS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754955/isotopic-analyses-suggest-mammoth-and-plant-in-the-diet-of-the-oldest-anatomically-modern-humans-from-far-southeast-europe
#12
Dorothée G Drucker, Yuichi I Naito, Stéphane Péan, Sandrine Prat, Laurent Crépin, Yoshito Chikaraishi, Naohiko Ohkouchi, Simon Puaud, Martina Lázničková-Galetová, Marylène Patou-Mathis, Aleksandr Yanevich, Hervé Bocherens
Relatively high (15)N abundances in bone collagen of early anatomically modern humans in Europe have often been interpreted as a specific consumption of freshwater resources, even if mammoth is an alternative high (15)N prey. At Buran-Kaya III, access to associated fauna in a secured archaeological context and application of recently developed isotopic analyses of individuals amino acids offer the opportunity to further examine this hypothesis. The site of Buran-Kaya III is located in south Crimea and has provided a rich archaeological sequence including two Upper Palaeolithic layers, from which human fossils were retrieved and directly dated as from 37...
July 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719574/ancient-european-dog-genomes-reveal-continuity-since-the-early-neolithic
#13
Laura R Botigué, Shiya Song, Amelie Scheu, Shyamalika Gopalan, Amanda L Pendleton, Matthew Oetjens, Angela M Taravella, Timo Seregély, Andrea Zeeb-Lanz, Rose-Marie Arbogast, Dean Bobo, Kevin Daly, Martina Unterländer, Joachim Burger, Jeffrey M Kidd, Krishna R Veeramah
Europe has played a major role in dog evolution, harbouring the oldest uncontested Palaeolithic remains and having been the centre of modern dog breed creation. Here we sequence the genomes of an Early and End Neolithic dog from Germany, including a sample associated with an early European farming community. Both dogs demonstrate continuity with each other and predominantly share ancestry with modern European dogs, contradicting a previously suggested Late Neolithic population replacement. We find no genetic evidence to support the recent hypothesis proposing dual origins of dog domestication...
July 18, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622923/consistent-c3-plant-habitat-of-hominins-during-400-300%C3%A2-ka-at-the-longyadong-cave-site-luonan-basin-central-china-revealed-by-stable-carbon-isotope-analyses-of-loess-deposits
#14
Hongyan Zhang, Huayu Lu, Shejiang Wang, Enlou Zhang, Richard Cosgrove, Wenchao Zhang, Lu Li
The proportions of woody and grassland taxa in terrestrial ecosystems played an important role in the origin and evolution of early Palaeolithic hominins. However the influence of ecosystem changes on hominin behavior and adaptations in Asia has not been studied in detail. Hominins have exploited the Luonan Basin in the Eastern Qinling Mountains, central China, since the early Paleolithic. Dated sites, consisting of alternating loess and soil deposits with in situ artefacts, are common in the region, and provide a detailed record of Early to Middle Pleistocene hominin environments...
July 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615641/an-earlier-revolution-genetic-and-genomic-analyses-reveal-pre-existing-cultural-differences-leading-to-neolithization
#15
Michela Leonardi, Guido Barbujani, Andrea Manica
Archaeological evidence shows that, in the long run, Neolitization (the transition from foraging to food production) was associated with demographic growth. We used two methods (patterns of linkage disequilibrium from whole-genome SNPs and MSMC estimates on genomes) to reconstruct the demographic profiles for respectively 64 and 24 modern-day populations with contrasting lifestyles across the Old World (sub-Saharan Africa, south-eastern Asia, Siberia). Surprisingly, in all regions, food producers had larger effective population sizes (N e) than foragers already 20 k years ago, well before the Neolithic revolution...
June 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592838/the-first-neanderthal-remains-from-an-open-air-middle-palaeolithic-site-in-the-levant
#16
Ella Been, Erella Hovers, Ravid Ekshtain, Ariel Malinski-Buller, Nuha Agha, Alon Barash, Daniella E Bar-Yosef Mayer, Stefano Benazzi, Jean-Jacques Hublin, Lihi Levin, Noam Greenbaum, Netta Mitki, Gregorio Oxilia, Naomi Porat, Joel Roskin, Michalle Soudack, Reuven Yeshurun, Ruth Shahack-Gross, Nadav Nir, Mareike C Stahlschmidt, Yoel Rak, Omry Barzilai
The late Middle Palaeolithic (MP) settlement patterns in the Levant included the repeated use of caves and open landscape sites. The fossil record shows that two types of hominins occupied the region during this period-Neandertals and Homo sapiens. Until recently, diagnostic fossil remains were found only at cave sites. Because the two populations in this region left similar material cultural remains, it was impossible to attribute any open-air site to either species. In this study, we present newly discovered fossil remains from intact archaeological layers of the open-air site 'Ein Qashish, in northern Israel...
June 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591159/technological-variability-during-the-early-middle-palaeolithic-in-western-europe-reduction-systems-and-predetermined-products-at-the-bau-de-l-aubesier-and-payre-south-east-france
#17
Leonardo Carmignani, Marie-Hélène Moncel, Paul Fernandes, Lucy Wilson
The study of the lithic assemblages of two French sites, the Bau de l'Aubesier and Payre, contributes new knowledge of the earliest Neanderthal techno-cultural variability. In this paper we present the results of a detailed technological analysis of Early Middle Palaeolithic lithic assemblages of MIS 8 and 7 age from the two sites, which are located on opposite sides of the Rhône Valley in the south-east of France. The MIS 9-7 period is considered in Europe to be a time of new behaviours, especially concerning lithic strategies...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526291/direct-radiocarbon-dating-and-dna-analysis-of-the-darra-i-kur-afghanistan-human-temporal-bone
#18
Katerina Douka, Viviane Slon, Chris Stringer, Richard Potts, Alexander Hübner, Matthias Meyer, Fred Spoor, Svante Pääbo, Tom Higham
The temporal bone discovered in the 1960s from the Darra-i-Kur cave in Afghanistan is often cited as one of the very few Pleistocene human fossils from Central Asia. Here we report the first direct radiocarbon date for the specimen and the genetic analyses of DNA extracted and sequenced from two areas of the bone. The new radiocarbon determination places the find to ∼4500 cal BP (∼2500 BCE) contradicting an assumed Palaeolithic age of ∼30,000 years, as originally suggested. The DNA retrieved from the specimen originates from a male individual who carried mitochondrial DNA of the modern human type...
June 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489015/tracking-the-evolution-of-causal-cognition-in-humans
#19
Marlize Lombard, Peter Gärdenfors
We suggest a seven-grade model for the evolution of causal cognition as a framework that can be used to gauge variation in the complexity of causal reasoning from the panin-hominin split until the appearance of cognitively modern hunter-gatherer communities. The intention is to put forward a cohesive model for the evolution of causal cognition in humans, which can be assessed against increasingly fine-grained empirical data from the palaeoanthropological and archaeological records. We propose that the tracking behaviour (i...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Anthropological Sciences, Rivista di Antropologia: JASS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469196/malaria-was-a-weak-selective-force-in-ancient-europeans
#20
Pere Gelabert, Iñigo Olalde, Toni de-Dios, Sergi Civit, Carles Lalueza-Fox
Malaria, caused by Plasmodium parasites, is thought to be one of the strongest selective forces that has shaped the genome of modern humans and was endemic in Europe until recent times. Due to its eradication around mid-twentieth century, the potential selective history of malaria in European populations is largely unknown. Here, we screen 224 ancient European genomes from the Upper Palaeolithic to the post-Roman period for 22 malaria-resistant alleles in twelve genes described in the literature. None of the most specific mutations for malaria resistance, like those at G6PD, HBB or Duffy blood group, have been detected among the available samples, while many other malaria-resistant alleles existed well before the advent of agriculture...
May 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
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