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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526291/direct-radiocarbon-dating-and-dna-analysis-of-the-darra-i-kur-afghanistan-human-temporal-bone
#1
Katerina Douka, Viviane Slon, Chris Stringer, Richard Potts, Alexander Hübner, Matthias Meyer, Fred Spoor, Svante Pääbo, Tom Higham
The temporal bone discovered in the 1960s from the Darra-i-Kur cave in Afghanistan is often cited as one of the very few Pleistocene human fossils from Central Asia. Here we report the first direct radiocarbon date for the specimen and the genetic analyses of DNA extracted and sequenced from two areas of the bone. The new radiocarbon determination places the find to ∼4500 cal BP (∼2500 BCE) contradicting an assumed Palaeolithic age of ∼30,000 years, as originally suggested. The DNA retrieved from the specimen originates from a male individual who carried mitochondrial DNA of the modern human type...
June 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489015/tracking-the-evolution-of-causal-cognition-in-humans
#2
Marlize Lombard, Peter Gärdenfors
We suggest a seven-grade model for the evolution of causal cognition as a framework that can be used to gauge variation in the complexity of causal reasoning from the panin-hominin split until the appearance of cognitively modern hunter-gatherer communities. The intention is to put forward a cohesive model for the evolution of causal cognition in humans, which can be assessed against increasingly fine-grained empirical data from the palaeoanthropological and archaeological records. We propose that the tracking behaviour (i...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Anthropological Sciences, Rivista di Antropologia: JASS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469196/malaria-was-a-weak-selective-force-in-ancient-europeans
#3
Pere Gelabert, Iñigo Olalde, Toni de-Dios, Sergi Civit, Carles Lalueza-Fox
Malaria, caused by Plasmodium parasites, is thought to be one of the strongest selective forces that has shaped the genome of modern humans and was endemic in Europe until recent times. Due to its eradication around mid-twentieth century, the potential selective history of malaria in European populations is largely unknown. Here, we screen 224 ancient European genomes from the Upper Palaeolithic to the post-Roman period for 22 malaria-resistant alleles in twelve genes described in the literature. None of the most specific mutations for malaria resistance, like those at G6PD, HBB or Duffy blood group, have been detected among the available samples, while many other malaria-resistant alleles existed well before the advent of agriculture...
May 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468920/greater-than-the-sum-of-its-parts-modelling-population-contact-and-interaction-of-cultural-repertoires
#4
Nicole Creanza, Oren Kolodny, Marcus W Feldman
Evidence for interactions between populations plays a prominent role in the reconstruction of historical and prehistoric human dynamics; these interactions are usually interpreted to reflect cultural practices or demographic processes. The sharp increase in long-distance transportation of lithic material between the Middle and Upper Palaeolithic, for example, is seen as a manifestation of the cultural revolution that defined the transition between these epochs. Here, we propose that population interaction is not only a reflection of cultural change but also a potential driver of it...
May 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447646/a-130-000-year-old-archaeological-site-in-southern-california-usa
#5
Steven R Holen, Thomas A Deméré, Daniel C Fisher, Richard Fullagar, James B Paces, George T Jefferson, Jared M Beeton, Richard A Cerutti, Adam N Rountrey, Lawrence Vescera, Kathleen A Holen
The earliest dispersal of humans into North America is a contentious subject, and proposed early sites are required to meet the following criteria for acceptance: (1) archaeological evidence is found in a clearly defined and undisturbed geologic context; (2) age is determined by reliable radiometric dating; (3) multiple lines of evidence from interdisciplinary studies provide consistent results; and (4) unquestionable artefacts are found in primary context. Here we describe the Cerutti Mastodon (CM) site, an archaeological site from the early late Pleistocene epoch, where in situ hammerstones and stone anvils occur in spatio-temporal association with fragmentary remains of a single mastodon (Mammut americanum)...
April 26, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446526/impact-of-different-dietary-approaches-on-blood-pressure-in-hypertensive-and-prehypertensive-patients-protocol-for-a-systematic-review-and-network-meta-analysis
#6
Lukas Schwingshackl, Anna Chaimani, Georg Hoffmann, Carolina Schwedhelm, Heiner Boeing
INTRODUCTION: Lifestyle modification is one of the cornerstones in the management of hypertension. According to the most recent guidelines by the American Heart Association, all patients with hypertension should adopt the following dietary advices: increased consumption of fresh fruits, vegetables, low-fat dairy products and sodium reduction. The aim of the present study is to assess the efficacy of different dietary approaches on systolic and diastolic blood pressure in patients with hypertension and high normal blood pressure in a systematic review including a pairwise and network meta-analysis of randomised trials...
April 26, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434287/la-donna-di-ostuni-a-case-of-eclampsia-28-000%C3%A2-years-ago
#7
Pierre-Yves Robillard, Marco Scioscia, Donato Coppola, Jean Chaline, Francesco Bonsante, Silvia Iacobelli
La "Donna di Ostuni", the Lady from Ostuni (fortified medieval city, on the southern Italian Adriatic coast) is the skeleton of "the human most ancient mother" ever found by paleoanthropologists, grave dated of 28,000 years BP. It concerns a 20-years-old woman buried with her baby in her womb estimated at 8 months gestation. To date, the cause of the maternal-fetal deaths is qualified of unknown origin. We propose that eclampsia may be a possible explanation for these deaths (mother and baby together). Eclampsia (convulsions), the curse of human births (non-existent in other mammals), has been described since writings has existed 5000 years ago in all civilisations...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383570/high-precision-14-c-and-40-ar-39-ar-dating-of-the-campanian-ignimbrite-y-5-reconciles-the-time-scales-of-climatic-cultural-processes-at-40-ka
#8
Biagio Giaccio, Irka Hajdas, Roberto Isaia, Alan Deino, Sebastien Nomade
The Late Pleistocene Campanian Ignimbrite (CI) super-eruption (Southern Italy) is the largest known volcanic event in the Mediterranean area. The CI tephra is widely dispersed through western Eurasia and occurs in close stratigraphic association with significant palaeoclimatic and Palaeolithic cultural events. Here we present new high-precision (14)C (34.29 ± 0.09 (14)C kyr BP, 1σ) and (40)Ar/(39)Ar (39.85 ± 0.14 ka, 95% confidence level) dating results for the age of the CI eruption, which substantially improve upon or augment previous age determinations and permit fuller exploitation of the chronological potential of the CI tephra marker...
April 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383521/assessing-the-calorific-significance-of-episodes-of-human-cannibalism-in-the-palaeolithic
#9
James Cole
Episodes of Palaeolithic cannibalism have frequently been defined as 'nutritional' in nature, but with little empirical evidence to assess their dietary significance. This paper presents a nutritional template that offers a proxy calorie value for the human body. When applied to the Palaeolithic record, the template provides a framework for assessing the dietary value of prehistoric cannibalistic episodes compared to the faunal record. Results show that humans have a comparable nutritional value to those faunal species that match our typical body weight, but significantly lower than a range of fauna often found in association with anthropogenically modified hominin remains...
April 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355292/a-decorated-raven-bone-from-the-zaskalnaya-vi-kolosovskaya-neanderthal-site-crimea
#10
Ana Majkić, Sarah Evans, Vadim Stepanchuk, Alexander Tsvelykh, Francesco d'Errico
We analyze a radius bone fragment of a raven (Corvus corax) from Zaskalnaya VI rock shelter, Crimea. The object bears seven notches and comes from an archaeological level attributed to a Micoquian industry dated to between 38 and 43 cal kyr BP. Our study aims to examine the degree of regularity and intentionality of this set of notches through their technological and morphometric analysis, complemented by comparative experimental work. Microscopic analysis of the notches indicate that they were produced by the to-and-fro movement of a lithic cutting edge and that two notches were added to fill in the gap left between previously cut notches, probably to increase the visual consistency of the pattern...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272540/ancient-mitochondrial-lineages-support-the-prehistoric-maternal-root-of-basques-in-northern-iberian-peninsula
#11
Leire Palencia-Madrid, Sergio Cardoso, Christine Keyser, Juan Carlos López-Quintana, Amagoia Guenaga-Lizasu, Marian M de Pancorbo
The Basque population inhabits the Franco-Cantabrian region in southwest Europe where Palaeolithic human groups took refuge during the Last Glacial Maximum. Basques have been an isolated population, largely considered as one of the most ancient European populations and it is possible that they maintained some pre-Neolithic genetic characteristics. This work shows the results of mitochondrial DNA analysis of seven ancient human remains from the Cave of Santimamiñe in the Basque Country dated from Mesolithic to the Late Roman period...
May 2017: European Journal of Human Genetics: EJHG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252042/understanding-the-emergence-of-modern-humans-and-the-disappearance-of-neanderthals-insights-from-kaldar-cave-khorramabad-valley-western-iran
#12
Behrouz Bazgir, Andreu Ollé, Laxmi Tumung, Lorena Becerra-Valdivia, Katerina Douka, Thomas Higham, Jan van der Made, Andrea Picin, Palmira Saladié, Juan Manuel López-García, Hugues-Alexandre Blain, Ethel Allué, Mónica Fernández-García, Iván Rey-Rodríguez, Diego Arceredillo, Faranak Bahrololoumi, Moloudsadat Azimi, Marcel Otte, Eudald Carbonell
Kaldar Cave is a key archaeological site that provides evidence of the Middle to Upper Palaeolithic transition in Iran. Excavations at the site in 2014-2015 led to the discovery of cultural remains generally associated with anatomically modern humans (AMHs) and evidence of a probable Neanderthal-made industry in the basal layers. Attempts have been made to establish a chronology for the site. These include four thermoluminescence (TL) dates for Layer 4, ranging from 23,100 ± 3300 to 29,400 ± 2300 BP, and three AMS radiocarbon dates from charcoal samples belonging to the lower part of the same layer, yielding ages of 38,650-36,750 cal BP, 44,200-42,350 cal BP, and 54,400-46,050 cal BP (all at the 95...
March 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203349/depth-perception-and-the-history-of-three-dimensional-art-who-produced-the-first-stereoscopic-images
#13
Kevin R Brooks
The history of the expression of three-dimensional structure in art can be traced from the use of occlusion in Palaeolithic cave paintings, through the use of shadow in classical art, to the development of perspective during the Renaissance. However, the history of the use of stereoscopic techniques is controversial. Although the first undisputed stereoscopic images were presented by Wheatstone in 1838, it has been claimed that two sketches by Jacopo Chimenti da Empoli (c. 1600) can be to be fused to yield an impression of stereoscopic depth, while others suggest that Leonardo da Vinci's Mona Lisa is the world's first stereogram...
January 2017: I-Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120839/signatures-of-human-european-palaeolithic-expansion-shown-by-resequencing-of-non-recombining-x-chromosome-segments
#14
Pierpaolo Maisano Delser, Rita Neumann, Stéphane Ballereau, Pille Hallast, Chiara Batini, Daniel Zadik, Mark A Jobling
Human genetic diversity in Europe has been extensively studied using uniparentally inherited sequences (mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and the Y chromosome), which reveal very different patterns indicating sex-specific demographic histories. The X chromosome, haploid in males and inherited twice as often from mothers as from fathers, could provide insights into past female behaviours, but has not been extensively investigated. Here, we use HapMap single-nucleotide polymorphism data to identify genome-wide segments of the X chromosome in which recombination is historically absent and mutations are likely to be the only source of genetic variation, referring to these as phylogeographically informative haplotypes on autosomes and X chromosome (PHAXs)...
April 2017: European Journal of Human Genetics: EJHG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000700/different-kinds-of-genetic-markers-permit-inference-of-paleolithic-and-neolithic-expansions-in-humans
#15
Carla Aimé, Frédéric Austerlitz
Recent population genetic studies have provided valuable insights on the demographic history of our species. However, some issues such as the dating of the first demographic expansions in human populations remain puzzling. Indeed, although a few genetic studies argued that the first human expansions were concomitant with the Neolithic transition, many others found signals of expansion events starting during the Palaeolithic. Here we performed a simulation study to show that these contradictory findings may result from the differences in the genetic markers used, especially if two successive expansion events occurred...
February 2017: European Journal of Human Genetics: EJHG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936135/identifying-major-transitions-in-the-evolution-of-lithic-cutting-edge-production-rates
#16
Antoine Muller, Chris Clarkson
The notion that the evolution of core reduction strategies involved increasing efficiency in cutting edge production is prevalent in narratives of hominin technological evolution. Yet a number of studies comparing two different knapping technologies have found no significant differences in edge production. Using digital analysis methods we present an investigation of raw material efficiency in eight core technologies broadly representative of the long-term evolution of lithic technology. These are bipolar, multiplatform, discoidal, biface, Levallois, prismatic blade, punch blade and pressure blade production...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886245/early-evidence-of-stone-tool-use-in-bone-working-activities-at-qesem-cave-israel
#17
Andrea Zupancich, Stella Nunziante-Cesaro, Ruth Blasco, Jordi Rosell, Emanuela Cristiani, Flavia Venditti, Cristina Lemorini, Ran Barkai, Avi Gopher
For a long while, the controversy surrounding several bone tools coming from pre-Upper Palaeolithic contexts favoured the view of Homo sapiens as the only species of the genus Homo capable of modifying animal bones into specialised tools. However, evidence such as South African Early Stone Age modified bones, European Lower Palaeolithic flaked bone tools, along with Middle and Late Pleistocene bone retouchers, led to a re-evaluation of the conception of Homo sapiens as the exclusive manufacturer of specialised bone tools...
November 25, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821191/nutritional-management-of-hyperapob
#18
Valérie Lamantia, Allan Sniderman, May Faraj
Plasma apoB is a more accurate marker of the risk of CVD and type 2 diabetes (T2D) than LDL-cholesterol; however, nutritional reviews targeting apoB are scarce. Here we reviewed eighty-seven nutritional studies and present conclusions in order of strength of evidence. Plasma apoB was reduced in all studies that induced weight loss of 6-12 % using hypoenergetic diets (seven studies; 5440-7110 kJ/d; 1300-1700 kcal/d; 34-50 % carbohydrates; 27-39 % fat; 18-24 % protein). When macronutrients were compared in isoenergetic diets (eleven studies including eight randomised controlled trials (RCT); n 1189), the diets that reduced plasma apoB were composed of 26-51 % carbohydrates, 26-46 % fat, 11-32 % protein, 10-27 % MUFA, 5-14 % PUFA and 7-13 % SFA...
December 2016: Nutrition Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783985/geochemical-and-mineralogical-fingerprints-to-distinguish-the-exploited-ferruginous-mineralisations-of-grotta-della-monaca-calabria-italy
#19
Luca Antonio Dimuccio, Nelson Rodrigues, Felice Larocca, João Pratas, Ana Margarida Amado, Luís A E Batista de Carvalho
This study examines the geochemical and mineralogical variations in the ferruginous mineralisations that crop out within Grotta della Monaca, which is considered to be the most striking and best known example of a prehistoric iron mine-cave from the southern Apennines (Calabria, Italy). Previous archaeological research identified three local and distinct ancient exploitation phases of these ferruginous mineralisations: (1) an Upper Palaeolithic phase; (2) a Late Neolithic phase; and (3) a post-Medieval phase...
February 15, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760117/wild-monkeys-flake-stone-tools
#20
Tomos Proffitt, Lydia V Luncz, Tiago Falótico, Eduardo B Ottoni, Ignacio de la Torre, Michael Haslam
Our understanding of the emergence of technology shapes how we view the origins of humanity. Sharp-edged stone flakes, struck from larger cores, are the primary evidence for the earliest stone technology. Here we show that wild bearded capuchin monkeys (Sapajus libidinosus) in Brazil deliberately break stones, unintentionally producing recurrent, conchoidally fractured, sharp-edged flakes and cores that have the characteristics and morphology of intentionally produced hominin tools. The production of archaeologically visible cores and flakes is therefore no longer unique to the human lineage, providing a comparative perspective on the emergence of lithic technology...
November 3, 2016: Nature
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