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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694922/vestibular-signals-in-primate-cortex-for-self-motion-perception
#1
REVIEW
Yong Gu
The vestibular peripheral organs in our inner ears detect transient motion of the head in everyday life. This information is sent to the central nervous system for automatic processes such as vestibulo-ocular reflexes, balance and postural control, and higher cognitive functions including perception of self-motion and spatial orientation. Recent neurophysiological studies have discovered a prominent vestibular network in the primate cerebral cortex. Many of the areas involved are multisensory: their neurons are modulated by both vestibular signals and visual optic flow, potentially facilitating more robust heading estimation through cue integration...
April 21, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694804/shifting-balance-of-protein-synthesis-and-degradation-sets-a-threshold-for-larval-growth-under-environmental-stress
#2
Christina A Frieder, Scott L Applebaum, T-C Francis Pan, Donal T Manahan
Exogenous environmental factors alter growth rates, yet information remains scant on the biochemical mechanisms and energy trade-offs that underlie variability in the growth of marine invertebrates. Here we study the biochemical bases for differential growth and energy utilization (as adenosine triphosphate [ATP] equivalents) during larval growth of the bivalve Crassostrea gigas exposed to increasing levels of experimental ocean acidification (control, middle, and high pCO2 , corresponding to ∼400, ∼800, and ∼1100 µatm, respectively)...
February 2018: Biological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694685/effects-of-24-months-of-treatment-with-romosozumab-followed-by-12-months-of-denosumab-or-placebo-in-postmenopausal-women-with-low-bone-mineral-density-a-randomized-double-blind-phase-2-parallel-group-study
#3
Michael R McClung, Jacques P Brown, Adolfo Diez-Perez, Heinrich Resch, John Caminis, Paul Meisner, Michael A Bolognese, Stefan Goemaere, Henry G Bone, Jose R Zanchetta, Judy Maddox, Sarah Bray, Andreas Grauer
Over 12 months, romosozumab increased bone formation and decreased bone resorption, resulting in increased BMD in postmenopausal women with low BMD (NCT00896532). Herein we report the study extension evaluating 24 months treatment with romosozumab, discontinuation of romosozumab, alendronate followed by romosozumab, and romosozumab followed by denosumab. Postmenopausal women age 55-85 years with a lumbar spine (LS), total hip (TH), or femoral neck T-score ≤-2.0 and ≥-3.5 were enrolled and randomly assigned to placebo, one of five romosozumab regimens (70mg, 140mg, 210mg monthly [QM]; 140mg Q3M; 210mg Q3M) for 24 months, or open-label alendronate for 12 months followed by romosozumab 140mg QM for 12 months...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694665/systematic-evaluation-of-desmopressin-applied-to-the-patients-with-aneurysmal-subarachnoid-haemorrhage-in-the-light-of-the-literature
#4
Numan Karaarslan, Ibrahim Yilmaz, Feride Sinem Akgun, Tezcan Caliskan, Hanefi Ozbek, Ozkan Ates
AIM: This study discusses the management of patients with the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH), developed after subarachnoid hemorrhage, in a comparative manner in light of the literature. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Without country or language restrictions, articles with high evidential value found in electronic databases were compared to our patients' data. RESULTS: After the literature review, three articles were included for systematic evaluation...
April 9, 2018: Turkish Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694617/patient-safety-and-the-value-of-pharmaceutical-intervention-in-a-cancer-hospital
#5
Karina da Silva Aguiar, Jamile Machado Dos Santos, Mônica Cristina Cambrussi, Solane Picolotto, Marcela Bechara Carneiro
Objective To demonstrate economic impact of pharmaceutical evaluation in detection and prevention of errors in antineoplastic prescriptions. Methods This was an observational and retrospective study performed in a cancer hospital. From July to August 2016 pharmacists checked prescriptions of antineoplastic and adjuvant drugs. Drug-related problems observed were classified and analyzed concerning drug, pharmaceutical intervention, acceptability and characteristic of the error. In case of problem related to dose, we calculated a deviation percentage related with correct dose and value spent or saved...
2018: Einstein
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694342/effects-of-postural-and-cognitive-difficulty-levels-on-the-standing-of-healthy-young-males-on-an-unstable-platform
#6
Shahram Oliaei, Mohammed N Ashtiani, Kamran Azma, Sandra Saidi, Mahmood-Reza Azghani
Standing on an unstable platform requires continuous effort of the neuro‑musculoskeletal system. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the ability to remain standing on an unstable platform at different levels of postural and cognitive difficulty. Healthy young males stood in the sagittal plane on an unstable platform supported by a pair of springs with modifiable stiffness. The balance test also assessed different levels of vision and cognitive function. Linear and nonlinear metrics of standing, based on motion captured kinematic data, were assessed to analyze the stability of standing...
2018: Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694253/serum-levels-of-proinflammatory-antiinflammatory-cytokines-and-rankl-opg-in-synovitis-acne-pustulosis-hyperostosis-and-osteitis-sapho-syndrome
#7
Shuo Zhang, Chen Li, Siya Zhang, Li Li, Weihong Zhang, Zhenhua Dong, Wen Zhang
Objective To measure the expression of proinflammatory, antiinflammatory cytokines, and RANKL/OPG in SAPHO Syndrome, and to assess the relationship between those factors and disease activity. Methods We studied 30 cases of SAPHO syndrome and 15 healthy controls. According to the visual analogue scale pain scores and Bath ankylosing spondylitis activity index, patients were divided into active group and stable group. The serum levels of IFN-γ, TNF-α, TGF-β1, IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-17A, IL-22, receptor activator NK-κB ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) were determined by ELISA...
April 25, 2018: Modern Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694252/the-effect-of-the-50-g-glucose-challenge-test-on-the-thiol-disulfide-homeostasis-in-pregnancy
#8
Cuma Mertoğlu, Murat Gunay, Gulsah Siranli, Mehmet Kulhan, Gamze Gok, Özcan Erel
AIM: A 50 g glucose challenge test (GCT) is recommended for screening all pregnant women for gestational diabetes mellitus. In this study, the effect of GCT on the thiol/disulfide balance was investigated. METHODS: One-hundred women that underwent a 50 g GCT at 24-28 weeks of gestation (63 positive and 37 negative results) were evaluated in terms of thiol/disulfide in serum samples at test hours 0 and 1. RESULTS: Compared to the baseline values (hour 0), after the glucose load (hour 1), the thiol and native thiol/total thiol (p < 0...
April 25, 2018: Fetal and Pediatric Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694109/prospects-for-detecting-gravitational-waves-at-5-hz-with-ground-based-detectors
#9
Hang Yu, Denis Martynov, Salvatore Vitale, Matthew Evans, David Shoemaker, Bryan Barr, Giles Hammond, Stefan Hild, James Hough, Sabina Huttner, Sheila Rowan, Borja Sorazu, Ludovico Carbone, Andreas Freise, Conor Mow-Lowry, Katherine L Dooley, Paul Fulda, Hartmut Grote, Daniel Sigg
We propose an upgrade to Advanced LIGO (aLIGO), named LIGO-LF, that focuses on improving the sensitivity in the 5-30 Hz low-frequency band, and we explore the upgrade's astrophysical applications. We present a comprehensive study of the detector's technical noises and show that with technologies currently under development, such as interferometrically sensed seismometers and balanced-homodyne readout, LIGO-LF can reach the fundamental limits set by quantum and thermal noises down to 5 Hz. These technologies are also directly applicable to the future generation of detectors...
April 6, 2018: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29693770/histone-deacetylase-inhibitor-treatment-restores-memory-related-gene-expression-and-learning-ability-in-neonicotinoid-treated-apis-mellifera
#10
Y-T Hu, C-K Tang, C-P Wu, P-C Wu, E-C Yang, C-C Tai, Y-L Wu
Apis mellifera plays crucial roles in maintaining the balance of global ecosystems and stability of agricultural systems by helping pollination of flowering plants, including many crops. In recent years, this balance has been disrupted greatly by some pesticides, which results in great losses of honeybees worldwide. Previous studies have found that pesticide-caused memory loss might be one of the major reasons for colony loss. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACis) are chemical compounds that inhibit the activity of histone deacetylases and are known to cause hyperacetylation of histone cores and influence gene expression...
April 25, 2018: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29693729/inflammatory-bowel-disease-and-immunonutrition-novel-therapeutic-approaches-through-modulation-of-diet-and-the-gut-microbiome
#11
REVIEW
Larissa S Celiberto, Franziska A Graef, Genelle R Healey, Else S Bosman, Kevan Jacobson, Laura M Sly, Bruce A Vallance
Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) is a chronic inflammatory condition of the gastrointestinal tract, thought to at least in part reflect an aberrant immune response to gut bacteria. IBD is increasing in incidence, particularly in populations that have recently immigrated to Western countries. This suggests that environmental factors are involved in its pathogenesis. We hypothesize that the increase in IBD rates might reflect the consumption of an unhealthy Western diet, containing excess calories and lacking in key nutritional factors, such as fiber and vitamin D...
April 25, 2018: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29693390/anaerobic-ammonium-oxidation-anammox-with-planktonic-cells-in-a-redox-stable-semicontinuous-stirred-tank-reactor
#12
Chang Ding, Francis O Enyi, Lorenz Adrian
Anaerobic ammonium oxidizing (anammox) bacteria are routinely cultivated in mixed culture in biomass-retaining bioreactors or as planktonic cells in membrane bioreactors. Here, we demonstrate that anammox bacteria can also be cultivated as planktonic cells in a semicontinuous stirred-tank reactor (semi-CSTR) with a specific growth rate μ of 0.33 d-1 at 30 °C. Redox potential inside the reactor stabilized at around 10 mV (±15 mV; vs standard hydrogen electrode) without gas purging. Reactor headspace pressure was used as a sensitive and real-time indicator for nitrogen evolution and anammox activity...
April 25, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29693097/electrical-modulation-of-a-photonic-crystal-band-edge-laser-with-a-graphene-monolayer
#13
Hanbit Kim, Myungjae Lee, Hyunhak Jeong, Min-Soo Hwang, Ha-Reem Kim, Seondo Park, Yun Daniel Park, Takhee Lee, Hong-Gyu Park, Heonsu Jeon
The electrical control of photonic crystal (PhC) lasers has been an attractive but challenging issue. Laser operation by electrical injection is of key importance for the viability and applicability of the PhC lasers. Another key factor is the electrical modulation of the laser output. The Fermi level of a graphene monolayer can be controlled by electrical gating, which adjusts its optical absorption. In this study, a graphene monolayer sheet is integrated on top of a two-dimensional PhC structure composed of InGaAsP multiple-quantum-wells (MQWs) in order to demonstrate the electrical modulation of a high-power (microwatt-scale) PhC band-edge laser...
April 25, 2018: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692758/food-derived-hemorphins-cross-intestinal-and-blood-brain-barriers-in-vitro
#14
Dorothée Domenger, Benoit Cudennec, Mostafa Kouach, Véronique Touche, Christophe Landry, Jean Lesage, Fabien Gosselet, Sophie Lestavel, Jean-François Goossens, Pascal Dhulster, Rozenn Ravallec
A qualitative study is presented, where the main question was whether food-derived hemorphins, i.e., originating from digested alimentary hemoglobin, could pass the intestinal barrier and/or the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Once absorbed, hemorphins are opioid receptor (OR) ligands that may interact with peripheral and central OR and have effects on food intake and energy balance regulation. LLVV-YPWT (LLVV-H4), LVV-H4, VV-H4, VV-YPWTQRF (VV-H7), and VV-H7 hemorphins that were previously identified in the 120 min digest resulting from the simulated gastrointestinal digestion of hemoglobin have been synthesized to be tested in in vitro models of passage of IB and BBB...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692262/active-surveillance-for-low-risk-prostate-cancer-are-all-criteria-similar
#15
Sebastiano Cimino, Salvatore Privitera, Vincenzo Favilla, Stefano Manno, Antonio Cicione, Rocco Damiano, Giorgio Ivan Russo, Giuseppe Morgia
Active surveillance (AS) is a therapeutic strategy for early-stage prostate cancer (PCa) conceived to balance early detection of aggressive disease and overtreatment of indolent tumor. Several active surveillance protocol have been published over the years, however the risk of misclassification still exist. In this review, we revised the current criteria of AS and evaluated the characteristics of potential risk factors of misclassification or deferred treatment. Although the follow-up of reported studies was a quite short compared to the duration of the disease, the data are sufficient to conclude that active surveillance should be offered to men with low-risk disease and to men with intermediate risk and poor life expectancy...
April 25, 2018: Anti-cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692024/-effects-of-different-fertilization-regimes-on-nitrogen-and-phosphorus-balance-and-eco-economic-benefits-in-red-paddy-field
#16
Xi Hong, Ju Sheng Gao, Zun Zhang Luo, Xi Bai Zeng, Ling Yu Bai, Zhi Yong Luo, Ping Yi, Shu Ping Chen
The nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) balance was studied and the eco-economic benefits of N and P were evaluated for the paddy field in a red soil area, under the fertilization treatments of no fertilization (CK), chemical fertilizer (NPK), organic fertilizer (M), and chemical fertilizers combined with organic fertilizers (NPKM, NPM, NKM), based on the long-term experiment started in 1982, to optimize fertilizer application and reduce N and P losses. The results indicated that the slight N surplus (27.10 kg·hm-2 ) and P deficit (-6...
January 2018: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691944/developmental-performance-of-5-year-old-bulgarian-children-an-example-of-translational-neuroscience-in-practice
#17
Ralitsa Yordanova, Ivan Ivanov
RATIONALE, AIMS, AND OBJECTIVES: Developmental testing is essential for early recognition of the various developmental impairments. The tools used should be composed of items that are age specific, adapted, and standardized for the population they are applied to. The achievements of neurosciences, medicine, psychology, pedagogy, etc. are applied in the elaboration of a comprehensive examination tool that should screen all major areas of development. The key age of 5 years permits identification of almost all major developmental disabilities leaving time for therapeutic intervention before school entrance...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691867/progress-towards-pig-nutrition-in-the-last-27-years
#18
REVIEW
Yi Wu, Jianfei Zhao, Chenchen Xu, Ning Ma, Ting He, Jinshan Zhao, Xi Ma, Phil A Thacker
Over the last 27 years (1990-2017), based on the revolutionary progresses of basic nutrition research, novel methods and techniques have been developed which bring a profound technological revolution to pig production from free-range system to intensive farming all over the world. Basic theoretical innovations and feed production studies have provided vital advancements in pig nutrition by developing formula feed, utilizing balanced diets, determining feed energy value, dividing pig physiological stages, enhancing gut health, and improving feed processing technique...
April 24, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691741/high-waterborne-mg-does-not-attenuate-the-toxic-effects-of-fe-mn-and-ba-on-na-regulation-of-amazonian-armored-catfish-tamoat%C3%A3-hoplosternum-litoralle
#19
Rafael M Duarte, Ana Paula Benaduce, Luciano Garcia, Levy C Gomes, Adriana Chippari Gomes, Adalberto L Val, Bernardo Baldisserotto
Formation water (FoW) is a by-product from oil and gas production and usually has high concentrations of soluble salts and metals. Calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) have been shown to reduce the toxicity of metals to aquatic animals, and previous study showed that high waterborne Ca exerts mild effect against disturbances on Na+ regulation in Amazonian armored catfish tamoatá (Hoplosternum littorale) acutely exposed to high Fe, Mn, and Ba levels. Here, we hypothesized that high Mg levels might also reduce the toxic effects of these metals on Na+ regulation of tamoatá...
April 24, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691296/tryptophan-metabolism-contributes-to-radiation-induced-immune-checkpoint-reactivation-in-glioblastoma
#20
Pravin Kesarwani, Antony Prabhu, Shiva Kant, Praveen Kumar, Stewart F Graham, Katie L Buelow, George D Wilson, Christopher Ryan Miller, Prakash Chinnaiyan
PURPOSE: Immune checkpoint inhibitors designed to revert tumor-induced immune suppression have emerged as potent anti-cancer therapies. Tryptophan metabolism represents an immune checkpoint and targeting this pathway's rate limiting enzyme IDO1 is actively being investigated clinically. Here, we studied the intermediary metabolism of tryptophan metabolism in glioblastoma and evaluated the activity of the IDO1 inhibitor GDC-0919, both alone and in combination with radiation (RT).  Experimental Design: LC/GC-MS and expression profiling was performed for metabolomic and genomic analyses of patient-derived glioma...
April 24, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
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