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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743170/current-trends-in-patient-enrollment-for-robotic-assisted-laparoscopic-prostatectomy-in-belgium
#1
Simone Albisinni, Steven Joniau, Thierry Quackels, Greet De Coster, Peter Dekuyper, Ben Van Cleynenbreugel, Nancy Van Damme, Elisabeth Van Eycken, Filip Ameye, Thierry Roumeguère
BACKGROUND: During the last decade, an inverse stage migration has been observed in radical prostatectomy series at tertiary centers. However, it remains unclear whether similar trends can also be observed in solely robotic practices, including nonreferral centers. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical and pathological trends in robotic-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP) enrollment in Belgium over a period of 6 years through an analysis of a prospective registry...
July 25, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742952/na%C3%A3-ve-simplicity-the-overlooked-piece-of-the-complexity-simplicity-paradigm
#2
Franklin W Schwartz, Ganming Liu, Pradeep Aggarwal, Cynthia M Schwartz
Concepts of simplicity and complexity in modeling have been explored in papers, editorials, and talks. The concept is not well understood because there are at least two flavors of simplicity. Modelers envision simplicity (i.e., elegant simplicity) as the sought-after goal in modeling, but naïve simplicity, which is the focus of this paper, is commonly unrecognized and dangerous. The problem is that naïve or simple ideas are often mistaken for settled science and come with the prospect of being more wrong than right...
July 25, 2017: Ground Water
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742632/the-middle-ear-cleft-status-in-a-natural-cohort-with-eustachian-tube-dysfunction
#3
Udi Cinamon, Dov Albukrek, Yahav Oron, Sharon Ovnat Tamir, Abraham Goldfarb, David Dvir, Tal Marom
BACKGROUND: The Eustachian tube (ET) has a major role in the middle ear (ME) pressure homeostasis. ET dysfunction is the accepted paradigm for pressure-related ME disorders. We studied the ME status in patients with severely diminished ET opening abilities, and anticipated to find ME disorders in most of them. PATIENTS AND METHODS: ME status was evaluated in unconscious adults, who were hospitalized in a rehabilitation center with severe brain damage, requiring tracheotomy and gastrostomy...
July 24, 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742399/nutrition-and-cancer-an-historical-perspective-the-past-present-and-future-of-nutrition-and-cancer-part-2-misunderstanding-and-ignoring-nutrition
#4
T Colin Campbell
The role that nutrition plays in cancer development and treatment has received considerable attention in recent decades, but it still engenders considerable controversy. Within the cancer research and especially the clinical community, for example, nutritional factors are considered to play, at best, a secondary role. The role of nutrition in cancer development was noted by authorities as far back as the early 1800s, generally under the theory that cancer is "constitutional" in its origin, implying a complex, multifactorial, multistage etiology...
July 25, 2017: Nutrition and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742119/doestrare-a-statistical-test-to-identify-local-enrichments-in-rare-genomic-variants-associated-with-disease
#5
Elodie Persyn, Matilde Karakachoff, Solena Le Scouarnec, Camille Le Clézio, Dominique Campion, French Exome Consortium, Jean-Jacques Schott, Richard Redon, Lise Bellanger, Christian Dina
Next-generation sequencing technologies made it possible to assay the effect of rare variants on complex diseases. As an extension of the "common disease-common variant" paradigm, rare variant studies are necessary to get a more complete insight into the genetic architecture of human traits. Association studies of these rare variations show new challenges in terms of statistical analysis. Due to their low frequency, rare variants must be tested by groups. This approach is then hindered by the fact that an unknown proportion of the variants could be neutral...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742045/a-multi-class-tactile-brain-computer-interface-based-on-stimulus-induced-oscillatory-dynamics
#6
Lin Yao, Mei Lin Chen, Xinjun Sheng, Natalie Mrachacz-Kersting, Xiangyang Zhu, Dario Farina, Ning Jiang
We proposed a multi-class tactile brain-computer interface that utilizes stimulus-induced oscillatory dynamics. It was hypothesized that somatosensory attention can modulate tactile induced oscillation changes, which can decode different sensation attention tasks. Subjects performed four tactile attention tasks, prompted by cues presented in random order and while both wrists were simultaneously stimulated: 1) selective sensation on left hand (SS-L), 2) selective sensation on right hand (SS-R), 3) bilateral selective sensation (SS-B), and 4) selective sensation suppressed or idle state (SS-S)...
July 24, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742020/symmetry-broken-and-rebroken-during-the-atp-hydrolysis-cycle-of-the-mitochondrial-hsp90-trap1
#7
Daniel Elnatan, Miguel Betegon, Yanxin Liu, Theresa Ramelot, Michael A Kennedy, David A Agard
Hsp90 is a homodimeric ATP-dependent molecular chaperone that remodels its substrate "client" proteins, facilitating their folding and activating them for biological function. Despite decades of research, the mechanism connecting ATP hydrolysis and chaperone function remains elusive. Particularly puzzling has been the apparent lack of cooperativity in hydrolysis of the ATP in each protomer. A crystal structure of the mitochondrial Hsp90, TRAP1, revealed that the catalytically active state is closed in a highly-strained asymmetric conformation...
July 25, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741623/effects-of-suvorexant-a-dual-orexin-hypocretin-receptor-antagonist-on-impulsive-behavior-associated-with-cocaine
#8
Taylor A Gentile, Steven J Simmons, Mia N Watson, Krista L Connelly, Eugen Brailoiu, Yanan Zhang, John W Muschamp
Hypothalamic hypocretin (orexin) peptides mediate arousal, attention, and reward processing. Fibers containing orexins project to brain structures that govern motivated behavior, including the ventral tegmental area (VTA). A number of psychiatric conditions, including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and substance use disorders, are characterized by deficits in impulse control, however the relationship between orexin and impulsive behavior is incompletely characterized. The effects of systemic or centrally administered orexin receptor (OXR) antagonists on measures of impulsive-like behavior in rats were evaluated using the five-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT) and delay discounting procedures...
July 25, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741486/rethinking-lymphatic-vessels-and-antitumor-immunity
#9
REVIEW
Amanda W Lund
Lymphatic vessels facilitate fluid homeostasis, immune cell trafficking, and lipid transport, and contribute to solid tumor progression as routes of metastasis. Given new evidence that lymphatic vessels both correlate with intratumoral lymphocytes and directly suppress immune function, I reevaluate the passive lymphatic vessel paradigm and discuss its relevance to antitumor immunity.
October 2016: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741438/bilateral-arteriovenous-shunts-as-a-method-for-evaluating-tissue-engineered-vascular-grafts-in-large-animal-models
#10
Chin Siang Ong, Takuma Fukunishi, Rui Han Liu, Kevin Nelson, Huaitao Zhang, Elizabeth Wieczorek, McKenna Palmieri, Yukie Ueyama, Erin Ferris, Gail E Geist, Bradley L Youngblood, Jed Johnson, Narutoshi Hibino
There remains a need for large animal models to evaluate tissue engineered vascular grafts (TEVGs) under arterial pressure to provide preclinical data for future potential human clinical trials. We present a comprehensive method for the interrogation of TEVGs, using an ovine bilateral arteriovenous shunt implantation model. Our results demonstrate that this method can be performed safely without complications, specifically acute heart failure, steal syndrome, and hypoxic brain injury and is a viable experimental paradigm...
July 25, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part C, Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741281/microglial-depletion-and-activation-a-11-c-pbr28-pet-study-in-nonhuman-primates
#11
Ansel T Hillmer, Daniel Holden, Krista Fowles, Nabeel Nabulsi, Brian L West, Richard E Carson, Kelly P Cosgrove
BACKGROUND: The 18-kDa translocator protein (TSPO) is an important target for assessing neuroimmune function in brain with positron-emission tomography (PET) imaging. The goal of this work was to assess two [(11)C]PBR28 imaging paradigms for measuring dynamic microglia changes in Macaca mulatta. METHODS: Dynamic [(11)C]PBR28 PET imaging data with arterial blood sampling were acquired to quantify TSPO levels as [(11)C]PBR28 V T. Scans were acquired at three timepoints: baseline, immediately post-drug, and prolonged post-drug...
December 2017: EJNMMI Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741167/microvascular-ultrastructural-changes-precede-cognitive-impairment-in-the-murine-appswe-ps1de9-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#12
Patricia Kelly, Paul Denver, Simon C Satchell, Maximilian Ackermann, Moritz A Konerding, Christopher A Mitchell
Cerebral and systemic organ microvascular pathologies coexist with human Alzheimer's disease (AD) neuropathology. In this study, we hypothesised that both cerebral and systemic microvascular pathologies exist in 4- to 5-month-old male APPswe/PS1dE9 (APP/PS1) transgenic mice prior to the onset of cognitive impairment. To assess this we examined recognition memory in both wild-type and APP/PS1 mice using the object recognition task (ORT; n = 11 per group) and counted thioflavin-S-positive plaques in brain (n = 6 per group)...
July 25, 2017: Angiogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741165/history-and-conceptual-developments-in-vascular-biology-and-angiogenesis-research-a-personal-view
#13
REVIEW
Andreas Bikfalvi
Vascular biology is an important scientific domain that has gradually penetrated many medical and scientific fields. Scientists are most often focused on present problems in their daily scientific work and lack awareness regarding the evolution of their domain throughout history and of how philosophical issues are related to their research field. In this article, I provide a personal view with an attempt to conceptualize vascular development research that articulates lessons taken from history, philosophy, biology and medicine...
July 24, 2017: Angiogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741037/shifted-dynamic-interactions-between-subcortical-nuclei-and-inferior-frontal-gyri-during-response-preparation-in-persistent-developmental-stuttering
#14
F Luise Metzger, Tibor Auer, Gunther Helms, Walter Paulus, Jens Frahm, Martin Sommer, Nicole E Neef
Persistent developmental stuttering is associated with basal ganglia dysfunction or dopamine dysregulation. Here, we studied whole-brain functional connectivity to test how basal ganglia structures coordinate and reorganize sensorimotor brain networks in stuttering. To this end, adults who stutter and fluent speakers (control participants) performed a response anticipation paradigm in the MRI scanner. The preparation of a manual Go/No-Go response reliably produced activity in the basal ganglia and thalamus and particularly in the substantia nigra...
July 24, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741028/transfer-of-time-based-task-expectancy-across-different-timing-environments
#15
Stefanie Aufschnaiter, Andrea Kiesel, Roland Thomaschke
Recent research on time-based expectancy has shown that humans base their expectancies for responses on representations of temporal relations (e.g., shorter vs. longer duration), rather than on representations of absolute durations (e.g., 500 vs. 1000 ms). In the present study, we investigated whether this holds also true for time-based expectancy of tasks instead of responses. Using a combination of the time-event correlation paradigm and the standard task-switching paradigm, participants learned to associate two different time intervals with two different tasks in a learning phase...
July 24, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740904/disparities-in-staging-prostate-magnetic-resonance-imaging-utilization-for-nonmetastatic-prostate-cancer-patients-undergoing-definitive-radiation-therapy
#16
Ayobami Ajayi, Wei-Ting Hwang, Neha Vapiwala, Mark Rosen, Christina H Chapman, Stefan Both, Meera Shah, Xingmei Wang, Atu Agawu, Peter Gabriel, John Christodouleas, Zelig Tochner, Curtiland Deville
PURPOSE: There is growing evidence supporting incorporating multiparametric (mp) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans into risk stratification, active surveillance, and treatment paradigms for prostate cancer. The purpose of our study was to determine whether demographic disparities exist in staging MRI utilization for prostate cancer patients. METHODS AND MATERIALS: An institutional database of 705 nonmetastatic prostate cancer patients treated with radiation therapy from 2005 through 2013 was used to identify patients undergoing versus not undergoing pretreatment diagnostic prostate mpMRI...
October 2016: Advances in Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740821/validating-the-construct-of-aberrant-salience-in-schizophrenia-behavioral-evidence-for-an-automatic-process
#17
Teresa Katthagen, Felix Dammering, Norbert Kathmann, Jakob Kaminski, Henrik Walter, Andreas Heinz, Florian Schlagenhauf
Suspecting significance behind ordinary events is a common feature in psychosis and it is assumed to occur due to aberrant salience attribution. The Salience Attribution Test (SAT; Roiser et al., 2009) measures aberrant salience as a bias towards one out of two equally reinforced cue features as opposed to adaptive salience towards features indicating high reinforcement. This is the first study to validate the latent constructs involved in salience attribution in patients. Forty-nine schizophrenia patients and forty-four healthy individuals completed the SAT, a novel implicit salience paradigm (ISP), a reversal learning task and a neuropsychological test battery...
December 2016: Schizophrenia Research. Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740818/disrupted-latent-inhibition-in-individuals-at-ultra-high-risk-for-developing-psychosis
#18
Michael Kraus, Attilio Rapisarda, Max Lam, Jamie Y J Thong, Jimmy Lee, Mythily Subramaniam, Simon L Collinson, Siow Ann Chong, Richard S E Keefe
The addition of off-the-shelf cognitive measures to established prodromal criteria has resulted in limited improvement in the prediction of conversion to psychosis. Tests that assess cognitive processes central to schizophrenia might better identify those at highest risk. The latent inhibition paradigm assesses a subject's tendency to ignore irrelevant stimuli, a process integral to healthy perceptual and cognitive function that has been hypothesized to be a key deficit underlying the development of schizophrenia...
December 2016: Schizophrenia Research. Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740766/early-cleft-lip-repair-revisited-a-safe-and-effective-approach-utilizing-a-multidisciplinary-protocol
#19
Jeff A Hammoudeh, Thomas A Imahiyerobo, Fan Liang, Artur Fahradyan, Leo Urbinelli, Jennifer Lau, Marla Matar, William Magee, Mark Urata
BACKGROUND: The optimal timing for cleft lip repair has yet to be established. Advances in neonatal anesthesia, along with a growing body of literature, suggesting benefits of earlier cleft lip and nasal repair, have set the stage for a reexamination of current practices. METHODS: In this prospective study, cleft lip and nasal repair occurred on average at 34.8 days (13-69 days). Nasal correction was achieved primarily through molding the nasal cartilage without the placement of nasal sutures at the time of repair...
June 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740405/novel-agents-for-the-treatment-of-childhood-leukemia-an-update
#20
REVIEW
Ertugrul Eryılmaz, Cengiz Canpolat
Achieving lower morbidity and higher survival rates in the treatment of childhood leukemia has been a paradigm of success in modern oncology. However, serious long-term health complications occur in very large populations of childhood leukemia survivors, in the case of both acute lymphoid leukemia and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Additionally, 15% of acute lymphoid leukemia patients have treatment failures, and rates are even higher in childhood AML. In the last few decades, as a result of well-tested experiments that statistically analyzed treatment cohorts, new agents have emerged as alternatives or supplements to established treatments, in which high survival and/or less morbidity were observed...
2017: OncoTargets and Therapy
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