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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29916153/sugar-sweetened-beverage-demand-and-tax-simulation-for-federal-food-assistance-participants-a-case-of-two-new-england-states
#1
Theepakorn Jithitikulchai, Tatiana Andreyeva
BACKGROUND: Excessive consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages is a major concern in the efforts to improve diet and reduce obesity in USA, particularly among low-income populations. One of the most commonly proposed strategies to reduce sugar-sweetened beverage consumption is increasing beverage prices through taxation. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate whether and how price-based policies could reduce sugar-sweetened beverage consumption among participants in the federal Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program...
June 19, 2018: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29915946/impact-of-change-in-body-mass-index-during-neoadjuvant-chemotherapy-and-survival-among-breast-cancer-subtypes
#2
Takahiro Kogawa, Takeo Fujii, Tamer M Fouad, Diane D Liu, Kenichi Harano, Hiroko Masuda, Toshiaki Iwase, Chad Barnett, Young Sam Park, Bora Lim, Debu Tripathy, Jennifer K Litton, Naoto T Ueno
PURPOSE: We hypothesized that an increase in BMI category during neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) would be associated with pathological complete response (pCR) rate and worse survival outcomes in primary breast cancer patients. METHODS: We reviewed the records of 4029 patients with stage I-III breast cancer who had undergone NAC and definitive surgery at our institution between May 1, 1990 and April 30, 2013. BMI values at baseline and after NAC were recorded, and the corresponding BMI category was assessed with the WHO classification...
June 18, 2018: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29915523/the-prevalence-of-obesity-and-metabolic-syndrome-in-the-korean-military-compared-with-the-general-population
#3
Jung Hwan Lee, Da Hea Seo, Min Jung Nam, Geon Hui Lee, Dong Hee Yang, Min Joo Lee, Ung-Rim Choi, Seongbin Hong
Background: Obesity and related metabolic disorders are growing health challenges worldwide and individuals at military service are not exceptions. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of obesity and metabolic syndrome (MS) in the Korean military and to compare with the general population. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of 4,803 young military participants who underwent a corporal health-screening program between October 2013 and October 2014...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914210/an-exploratory-study-examining-obesity-risk-in-non-obese-mothers-of-young-children-using-a-socioecological-approach
#4
Jennifer Martin-Biggers, Virginia Quick, Kim Spaccarotella, Carol Byrd-Bredbenner
This cross-sectional, exploratory study aimed to (1) develop an obesity risk score using a comprehensive set of variables assessing mothers’ intrapersonal weight-related characteristics and those of their homes’ interpersonal and physical environments, and (2) determine how weight-related characteristics differ by obesity risk level. U.S. mothers ( N = 550) of preschool-aged children completed an online survey that assessed maternal self-report weight status, sociodemographics, health-related characteristics, and maternal intrapersonal and their homes’ interpersonal and physical environment weight-related characteristics...
June 17, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914108/interval-outcomes-of-a-lifestyle-weight-loss-intervention-in-early-adolescence
#5
Christina Wei, Toby Candler, Elizabeth Crowne, Julian P Hamilton-Shield
We undertook a feasibility study to reassess metabolic outcomes in young people with early onset obesity who attended a hospital-based lifestyle weight-loss intervention during adolescence. Comparisons of metabolic assessments, including body mass index standard deviation scores (BMI⁻SDSs), blood pressure (BP), oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs), lipid profile, and alanine transaminase (ALT), before and after treatment were made. Twenty-five subjects (10 males) with median ages (interquartile range, IQR) of 14...
June 15, 2018: Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913228/effects-of-prenatal-exposure-to-cigarettes-on-anthropometrics-energy-intake-energy-expenditure-and-screen-time-in-children
#6
Jameason D Cameron, Éric Doucet, Kristi B Adamo, Mark Walker, Alessandro Tirelli, Joel D Barnes, Kaamel Hafizi, Marisa Murray, Gary S Goldfield
BACKGROUND: Maternal prenatal smoking is associated with downstream childhood obesity. Although animal research suggests reduced resting energy expenditure (REE), decreased physical activity (PA), and increased energy intake as mechanisms, these relationships are unclear in humans. The objectives were to examine the association of prenatal maternal smoking with non-volitional energy expenditure (REE and the thermic effect of feeding [TEF]), child adiposity, energy intake, free-living PA (daily light PA (LPA), daily moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA), daily sedentary behavior (SB)), and screen time (television and computer/video game) in children...
June 15, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913019/association-of-obesity-or-weight-change-with-coronary-heart-disease-among-young-adults-in-south-korea
#7
Seulggie Choi, Kyuwoong Kim, Sung Min Kim, Gyeongsil Lee, Su-Min Jeong, Seong Yong Park, Yeon-Yong Kim, Joung Sik Son, Jae-Moon Yun, Sang Min Park
Importance: Previous studies have shown a U- or J-shaped association of body mass index (BMI) or change in BMI with coronary heart disease (CHD) among middle-aged and elderly adults. However, whether a similar association exists among young adults is unclear. Objective: To determine whether an association exists between BMI or BMI change with CHD among young adults. Design, Setting, and Participants: This population-based longitudinal study used data obtained by the Korean National Health Insurance Service from 2002 to 2015...
June 18, 2018: JAMA Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911994/fasting-induced-jmjd3-histone-demethylase-epigenetically-activates-mitochondrial-fatty-acid-%C3%AE-oxidation
#8
Sunmi Seok, Young-Chae Kim, Sangwon Byun, Sunge Choi, Zhen Xiao, Naoki Iwamori, Yang Zhang, Chaochen Wang, Jian Ma, Kai Ge, Byron Kemper, Jongsook Kim Kemper
Jumonji D3 (JMJD3) histone demethylase epigenetically regulates development and differentiation, immunity, and tumorigenesis by demethylating a gene repression histone mark, H3K27-me3, but a role for JMJD3 in metabolic regulation has not been described. SIRT1 deacetylase maintains energy balance during fasting by directly activating both hepatic gluconeogenic and mitochondrial fatty acid β-oxidation genes, but the underlying epigenetic and gene-specific mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, JMJD3 was identified unexpectedly as a gene-specific transcriptional partner of SIRT1 and epigenetically activated mitochondrial β-oxidation, but not gluconeogenic, genes during fasting...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29910454/residents-of-central-queensland-australia-are-aware-of-healthy-eating-practices-but-consume-unhealthy-diets
#9
Vincent J Dalbo, Matthew I Hiskens, Masaru Teramoto, Michael I Kingsley, Kaelin C Young, Aaron T Scanlan
We aimed to determine nutritional knowledge and behaviors of normal weight, overweight, and obese residents of Central Queensland, Australia. Data were collected as part of the 2010 Central Queensland Social Survey ( N = 1289). Residents were asked questions assessing nutritional knowledge and behaviors. Statistical analyses were performed to examine differences in nutritional knowledge and behaviors by body mass index (BMI) classification: normal weight, overweight, and obese. Independent of BMI, residents ate fewer than the recommended daily servings of vegetables ( p < 0...
December 11, 2017: Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908690/validation-of-resting-metabolic-rate-equations-in-obese-and-non-obese-young-healthy-adults
#10
Hayder Al-Domi, Alaa Al-Shorman
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Although validating resting metabolic rate (RMR) prediction equations in different populations is warranted to estimate total energy requirements, there are no data about the accuracy and applicability of RMR predictive equations in young healthy Jordanians. This study aimed to test the validity of predicted RMR using four prediction equations and its agreement with RMR measured using indirect calorimetry in healthy young obese and non-obese Jordanian adults. METHODS: Predicted RMR was tested for agreement with indirect calorimetry...
August 2018: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907842/reward-representing-d1-type-neurons-in-the-medial-shell-of-the-accumbens-nucleus-regulate-palatable-food-intake
#11
Máté Durst, Katalin Könczöl, Tamás Balázsa, Mark D Eyre, Zsuzsanna E Tóth
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Dysfunction in reward-related aspects of feeding, and consequent overeating in humans, is a major contributor to obesity. Intrauterine undernutrition and overnutrition are among the predisposing factors, but the exact mechanism of how overeating develops is still unclear. Consummatory behavior is regulated by the medial shell (mSh) of the accumbens nucleus (Nac) through direct connections with the rostral part of the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA). Our aim was to investigate whether an altered Nac-LHA circuit may underlie hyperphagic behavior...
June 15, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907703/objective-sleep-characteristics-and-cardiometabolic-health-in-young-adolescents
#12
Elizabeth M Cespedes Feliciano, Mirja Quante, Sheryl L Rifas-Shiman, Susan Redline, Emily Oken, Elsie M Taveras
: media-1vid110.1542/5778442247001PEDS-VA_2017-4085 Video Abstract BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Shorter sleep duration is associated with childhood obesity. Few studies measure sleep quantity and quality objectively or examine cardiometabolic biomarkers other than obesity. METHODS: This cross-sectional study of 829 adolescents derived sleep duration, efficiency and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity from >5 days of wrist actigraphy recording for >10 hours/day. The main outcome was a metabolic risk score (mean of 5 sex-specific z-scores for waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol scaled inversely, and log-transformed triglycerides and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance), for which higher scores indicate greater metabolic risk...
June 15, 2018: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906227/blood-pressure-predicts-endothelial-function-and-the-effects-of-ethinyl-estradiol-exposure-in-young-women
#13
Tessa E Adler, Charlotte W Usselman, Akira Takamata, Nina S Stachenfeld
Hypertension, obesity, and endothelial function predict cardiovascular disease in women and these factors are interrelated. We hypothesized that hypertension and obesity are associated with endothelial dysfunction in young women, and that short-term ethinyl estradiol exposure mitigates this dysfunction. We examined flow-mediated dilation responses before and during 7 days of oral ethinyl estradiol (30 µg/day) in 19 women (25 {plus minus} 5, 18-35 yrs). We divided our sample into two groups based on two criteria: blood pressure and obesity...
June 15, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903687/adolescents-experiences-of-obesity-surgery-a-qualitative-study
#14
Karin Nordin, Anna-Lena Brorsson, Kerstin Ekbom
BACKGROUND: The positive effects of behavioural treatment and weight management in adolescents with severe obesity are modest. Obesity surgery can be an option for adolescents, but is not the first-hand choice of treatment. The knowledge about adolescents' own experiences of having undergone surgery and their thoughts and feelings of the follow-up period are limited. OBJECTIVES: To describe adolescents' decision to go through obesity surgery as teenager and their experiences of the follow-up period...
April 26, 2018: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902681/motives-for-drinking-alcohol-and-eating-palatable-foods-an-evaluation-of-shared-mechanisms-and-associations-with-drinking-and-binge-eating
#15
Tera L Fazzino, Amani Raheel, Natalie Peppercorn, Kelsie Forbush, Taylor Kirby, Kenneth J Sher, Christie Befort
BACKGROUND: Young adulthood is a high-risk period for heavy drinking and binge eating, both of which can impact weight and lead to obesity. Examining motives for drinking alcohol and eating palatable foods may facilitate a more integrated understanding of these behaviors during the college years. The current study tested whether shared or distinct (i.e., behavior-specific) motivational mechanisms may explain the occurrence of reward-driven drinking and eating in young adults. METHODS: A sample of college freshmen (N = 103) stratified by sex, race/ethnicity, and heavy drinking status were selected to participate...
May 2, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902162/youth-risk-behavior-surveillance-united-states-2017
#16
Laura Kann, Tim McManus, William A Harris, Shari L Shanklin, Katherine H Flint, Barbara Queen, Richard Lowry, David Chyen, Lisa Whittle, Jemekia Thornton, Connie Lim, Denise Bradford, Yoshimi Yamakawa, Michelle Leon, Nancy Brener, Kathleen A Ethier
PROBLEM: Health-risk behaviors contribute to the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among youth and adults in the United States. In addition, significant health disparities exist among demographic subgroups of youth defined by sex, race/ethnicity, and grade in school and between sexual minority and nonsexual minority youth. Population-based data on the most important health-related behaviors at the national, state, and local levels can be used to help monitor the effectiveness of public health interventions designed to protect and promote the health of youth at the national, state, and local levels...
June 15, 2018: MMWR. Surveillance Summaries: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Surveillance Summaries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899880/neck-circumference-as-an-indicator-of-central-obesity-in-healthy-young-bosnian-adults-cross-sectional-study
#17
Asija Zaciragic, Mehmed Elezovic, Nermina Babic, Nesina Avdagic, Amela Dervisevic, Jasminko Huskic
Background: Neck circumference (NC) is an index of subcutaneous adipose tissue distribution in an area of the upper part of the body. The aim of this study was to assess whether NC can be used as an indicator of central obesity and to determine the prevalence of central obesity in apparently healthy Bosnian young adults. Methods: Participants for this cross-sectional study were recruited using the snowball method. NC was measured in horizontal straight position by placing the top edge of a plastic tape only below the laryngeal prominence and perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the neck, with the head positioned in the Frankfort horizontal plane...
2018: International Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899272/high-glucose-or-fructose-diet-cause-changes-of-the-gut-microbiota-and-metabolic-disorders-in-mice-without-body-weight-change
#18
Moon Ho Do, Eunjung Lee, Mi-Jin Oh, Yoonsook Kim, Ho-Young Park
High fat diet-induced changes in gut microbiota have been linked to intestinal permeability and metabolic endotoxemia, which is related to metabolic disorders. However, the influence of a high-glucose (HGD) or high-fructose (HFrD) diet on gut microbiota is largely unknown. We performed changes of gut microbiota in HGD- or HFrD-fed C57BL/6J mice by 16S rRNA analysis. Gut microbiota-derived endotoxin-induced metabolic disorders were evaluated by glucose and insulin tolerance test, gut permeability, Western blot and histological analysis...
June 13, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29897462/gut-microbiota-and-the-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-pcos-influence-of-sex-sex-hormones-and-obesity
#19
María Insenser, Mora Murri, Rosa Del Campo, M Ángeles Martínez-García, Elena Fernández-Durán, Héctor F Escobar-Morreale
Context: Gut microbiota plays a major role in health and disease in by influencing physiology and metabolism, nutrition and immune function. Objective: We aimed to evaluate the composition of gut microbiota in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), focusing on the influence of sex, sex hormones and obesity on the associations found. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Academic hospital. Participants: We recruited 16 non-hyperandrogenic control women, 15 women with PCOS, and 15 control men...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29893815/obesity-in-aging-exacerbates-neuroinflammation-dysregulating-synaptic-function-related-genes-and-altering-eicosanoid-synthesis-in-the-mouse-hippocampus-potential-role-in-impaired-synaptic-plasticity-and-cognitive-decline
#20
Marta Noa Valcarcel-Ares, Zsuzsanna Tucsek, Tamas Kiss, Cory B Giles, Stefano Tarantini, Andriy Yabluchanskiy, Priya Balasubramanian, Tripti Gautam, Veronica Galvan, Praveen Ballabh, Arlan Richardson, Willard M Freeman, Jonathan D Wren, Ferenc Deak, Zoltan Ungvari, Anna Csiszar
There is strong evidence that obesity has deleterious effects on cognitive function of older adults. Previous preclinical studies demonstrate that obesity in aging is associated with a heightened state of systemic inflammation, which exacerbates blood brain barrier disruption, promoting neuroinflammation and oxidative stress. To test the hypothesis that synergistic effects of obesity and aging on inflammatory processes exert deleterious effects on hippocampal function, young and aged C57BL/6 mice were rendered obese by chronic feeding of a high fat diet followed by assessment of learning and memory function, measurement of hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP), assessment of changes in hippocampal expression of genes relevant for synaptic function and determination of synaptic density...
June 8, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
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