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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443598/evaluation-of-natural-product-compositions-for-appetite-suppression
#1
Mesfin Yimam, Ping Jiao, Mei Hong, Lidia Brownell, Young-Chul Lee, Eu-Jin Hyun, Hyun-Jin Kim, Tae-Woo Kim, Jeong-Bum Nam, Mi-Ran Kim, Qi Jia
A change in homeostasis between food intake and energy expenditure is the hallmark of obesity. Many plant-based weight-management products are available in dietary supplement markets with no direct efficacy comparison. In this in vivo acute feed intake study in rats, the appetite suppression efficacy of well-known natural ingredients in the weight-loss market were evaluated. We tested pure caffeine, potato skin extract, Cissus quadrangularis extract, Garcinia cambogia extract, Crocus sativus extract, raspberry ketone isolated from Rubus idaeus, one commercial product (Appetrex), and one novel composition (UP601)...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Dietary Supplements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438631/plasma-endocannabinoid-levels-in-lean-overweight-and-obese-humans-relationships-with-intestinal-permeability-markers-inflammation-and-incretin-secretion
#2
Tanya J Little, Nada Cvijanovic, Nicholas V DiPatrizio, Donovan A Argueta, Christopher K Rayner, Christine Feinle-Bisset, Richard L Young
INTRODUCTION/AIMS: Intestinal production of endocannabinoid and oleoylethanolamide (OEA) is impaired in high-fat diet/obese rodents, leading to reduced satiety. Such diets also alter the intestinal microbiome in association with enhanced intestinal permeability and inflammation, however little is known of these effects in humans. This study aimed to: (i) evaluate effects of lipid on plasma anandamide (AEA), 2-arachidonyl-sn-glycerol (2-AG) and OEA in humans, and (ii) examine relationships with intestinal permeability, inflammation markers and incretin hormone secretion...
February 13, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436293/parental-and-self-weight-perceptions-in-u-s-children-and-adolescents-nhanes-2005-2014
#3
Jiying Ling, Manfred Stommel
This study aimed to describe the parental and child self-weight perceptions and their associated sociodemographic factors. The 2005-2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) sample of 16,869 children aged 2 to 17 years was used. For overweight/obese children aged 2 to 15 years, 61.2% of parents underestimated their child's weight. For overweight/obese children aged 8 to 17 years, 55.2% underestimated their own weight. For children aged 8 to 15 years, 77.8% parents and children agreed on the weight classification...
February 1, 2018: Western Journal of Nursing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435747/clinical-versus-patient-reported-measures-of-depression-in-bariatric-surgery
#4
Sudarshan Srivatsan, Vinay Guduguntla, Kelly Z Young, Aliasghar Arastu, Cameron R Strong, Ruth Cassidy, Amir A Ghaferi
BACKGROUND: Bariatric surgery patients with mental illness may experience worse surgical outcomes compared to those without. Depression is the most prevalent mental health diagnosis amongst Americans with obesity. Accurate diagnosis and treatment is of paramount importance to mitigate perioperative risk. Unfortunately, there is no standard method to screen patients for depression prior to surgery. Our goal was to understand the relationship between traditional clinical screening tools and a novel patient-reported depression screening survey, Patient Health Questionnaire 8 (PHQ-8), in the setting of the bariatric surgery preoperative assessment...
February 12, 2018: Surgical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435609/combined-endoscopic-approach-in-the-management-of-suprasellar-craniopharyngioma
#5
Chandrashekhar E Deopujari, Vikram S Karmarkar, Nishit Shah, Ravindran Vashu, Rahul Patil, Chandan Mohanty, Salman Shaikh
INTRODUCTION: Craniopharyngiomas are dysontogenic tumors with benign histology but aggressive behavior. The surgical challenges posed by the tumor are well recognized. Neuroendoscopy has recently contributed to its surgical management. This study focuses on our experience in managing craniopharyngiomas in recent years, highlighting the role of combined endoscopic trans-ventricular and endonasal approach. CASE SERIES: Ninety-two patients have been treated for craniopharyngioma from 2000 to 2016 by the senior author...
February 12, 2018: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434073/placental-growth-factor-plgf-is-linked-to-inflammation-and-metabolic-disorders-in-mice-with-diet-induced-obesity
#6
Mincheol Kang, Jain Jeong, Jinhee Lee, Song Park, Yonghun Sung, Minjee Choi, Wookbong Kwon, Soyoung Jang, Kwang Shik Choi, Yeon Sik Choo, Duhak Yoon, Myoung Ok Kim, Zae Young Ryoo
Placental growth factor (PlGF), a member of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) sub-family, plays a major role in angiogenesis and vasculogenesis. Previous study demonstrated that PlGF-overexpressing transgenic (Tg) mice had gestational loss. In addition, PlGF secretion was up-regulated in isolated T lymphocytes (T-cell) upon CD3/CD28 stimulation, suggesting that PlGF could be a regulator of T-cell differentiation and development. T-cells are well known to play a critical role in obesity-induced inflammation...
February 9, 2018: Endocrine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433954/bmi-and-central-obesity-with-falls-among-community-dwelling-older-adults
#7
Beom-Young Cho, Dong-Chul Seo, Hsien-Chang Lin, David K Lohrmann, Andrea K Chomistek
INTRODUCTION: This study examined the associations of BMI category and central obesity status, with falls among community-dwelling older adults in the U.S. METHODS: Data were drawn from the 2012 and 2014 U.S. Health and Retirement Study, a nationally representative longitudinal panel study funded by the National Institute of Aging. The study participants were U.S. community-dwelling older adults aged ≥65 years (N=3,383). Multiple logistic regression and Poisson regression analyses examined the associations of BMI category and central obesity (waist circumference >102 cm in men and >88 cm in women) with experiencing a fall and fall injury, after adjusting for all other covariates...
February 9, 2018: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433498/what-does-an-enabling-environment-for-infant-and-young-child-nutrition-look-like-at-implementation-level-perspectives-from-a-multi-stakeholder-process-in-the-breede-valley-sub-district-western-cape-south-africa
#8
L M Du Plessis, M H McLachlan, S E Drimie
BACKGROUND: Breede Valley is a sub-district of the Cape Winelands district, Western Cape Province, South Africa. The administrative capital of the district is situated in the semi-rural town Worcester. Findings of a baseline survey in Worcester revealed poor infant feeding practices and childhood under- and overnutrition, with particular concern over high levels of stunting and low dietary diversity. Maternal overweight and obesity was high. These characteristics made the site suitable to study multi-sectoral arrangements for infant and young child nutrition (IYCN)...
February 13, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433341/planting-seeds-to-grow-healthy-children-strategic-community-partnerships
#9
Jessica Alicea-Planas, Kelly Sullivan, Hang Tran, Anna Cruz
More than one third of U.S adults are considered obese, and childhood obesity has more than doubled in the past 30 years. Food security can influence obesity, in particular, within inner cities where access to healthy food is often limited. The use of a mobile food truck program (with refrigeration) was implemented in two large inner cities in Connecticut as part of an initiative aimed at helping low-income families with young children gain access to healthy food and nutrition education. Collaborating with community child care centers was used...
February 1, 2018: Health Promotion Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432662/associations-of-overweight-obesity-and-socioeconomic-status-with-hypertension-prevalence-across-racial-and-ethnic-groups
#10
Deborah Rohm Young, Heidi Fischer, David Arterburn, Daniel Bessesen, Lee Cromwell, Matthew F Daley, Jay Desai, Assiamira Ferrara, Stephanie L Fitzpatrick, Michael A Horberg, Corinna Koebnick, Claudia L Nau, Caryn Oshiro, Beth Waitzfelder, Ayae Yamamoto
Racial/ethnic disparities in the prevalence of diagnosed hypertension are persistent but may be partially explained by racial/ethnic differences in weight category and neighborhood socioeconomic status. The authors compared hypertension prevalence rates among 4 060 585 adults with overweight or obesity across 10 healthcare systems by weight category and neighborhood education level in geographically and racially diverse individuals. Data were obtained from electronic health records. Hypertension was defined as at least two outpatient visits or one inpatient hospitalization with a coded diagnosis...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Clinical Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432375/positive-predictive-value-of-noninvasive-stress-testing-is-poor-in-the-real-world
#11
Geetanjali Dang, Muhammad Shahreyar, Ahmet Afşin Oktay, Samian Sulaiman, Husein Husein, Ana Inashvili, Nadia Elhangouche, Preethi Subramanian, Mohammad Waqas Bashir, Aradhna Pathak, Shu B Chan, Shahriar Dadkhah
Abnormal noninvasive stress test (NIST) findings do not always correlate with angiographically significant (luminal obstruction ≥50%) coronary artery disease. Positive predictive value (PPV) of NIST in the real clinical practice is not well known. The goal of this retrospective study was to determine the PPV of NIST and assess the factors affecting PPV in a US community hospital. This study included all consecutive patients (n = 355) who underwent invasive coronary angiography after a positive NIST within ~1-year duration at our institution...
March 2018: Critical Pathways in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427626/invited-submission-to-the-diamond-jubilee-special-issue-of-biochemical-pharmacolleptin-induces-sirt1-expression-through-activation-of-nf-e2-related-factor-2-implications-for-obesity-associated-colon-carcinogenesis
#12
Na-Young Song, Yeon-Hwa Lee, Hye-Kyung Na, Jeong-Heum Baek, Young-Joon Surh
Leptin, a representative adipokine secreted from the white adipose tissue, is considered as a potential linker between obesity and cancer. SIRT1 is a NAD+-dependent histone/protein deacetylase speculated to function as an oncogene. In the present study, we found that leptin signaling-defective ob/ob and db/db mice had lower colonic expression of SIRT1 compared with leptin signaling-intact C57BL/6J mice, implying that leptin signaling is crucial for SIRT1 expression in vivo. Moreover, leptin induced up-regulation of SIRT1 in human colon cancer (HCT-116) cells...
February 7, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427016/media-and-young-minds-comparing-state-screen-media-use-regulations-for-children-under-24-months-of-age-in-early-care-and-education-to-a-national-standard
#13
Sarah Gonzalez-Nahm, Elyse R Grossman, Natasha Frost, Carly Babcock, Sara E Benjamin-Neelon
Introduction Excessive screen media use has been associated with a number of negative health outcomes in young children, including increased risk for obesity and comparatively lagging cognitive development. The purpose of this study was to assess state licensing regulations restricting screen media use for children under 24 months old in early care and education (ECE) and to compare regulations to a national standard. Methods We reviewed screen media use regulations for all US states for child care centers ("centers") and family child care homes ("homes") and compared these regulations to a national standard discouraging screen media use in children under 24 months of age...
February 9, 2018: Maternal and Child Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426925/ageing-potentiates-diet-induced-glucose-intolerance-%C3%AE-cell-failure-and-tissue-inflammation-through-tlr4
#14
Wei He, Ting Yuan, Dolma Choezom, Hannah Hunkler, Karthika Annamalai, Blaz Lupse, Kathrin Maedler
Ageing and obesity are two major risk factors for the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D). A chronic, low-grade, sterile inflammation contributes to insulin resistance and β-cell failure. Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) is a major pro-inflammatory pathway; its ligands as well as downstream signals are increased systemically in patients with T2D and at-risk individuals. In the present study we investigated the combined effects of high fat/high sucrose diet (HFD) feeding, ageing and TLR4-deficiency on tissue inflammation, insulin resistance and β-cell failure...
February 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426061/microbiome-based-mechanisms-hypothesized-to-initiate-obesity-associated-rheumatoid-arthritis
#15
REVIEW
Y Luo, W C Blackledge
Worldwide, the growing obesity pandemic contributes to a range of chronic diseases. Recent epidemiological studies have suggested an association between obesity and the development of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), particularly among young women, whereby pro-inflammatory effects of adipokines provide one explanatory hypothesis. Yet, recent clinical and laboratory-based studies provide emerging evidence indicating microbiome involvement in RA initiation and development, including anti-citrullinated antibody formation and Th17 cell activation...
February 9, 2018: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425583/prevalence-of-sleep-disordered-breathing-in-japanese-medical-students-based-on-type-3-out-of-center-sleep-test
#16
Tsuguo Nishijima, Tetsuya Kizawa, Keisuke Hosokawa, Fumiyo Endo, Yoshihiko Kasai, Yoshihiro Yamashiro, Shigeu Sakurai
BACKGROUND: Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB), especially obstructive sleep apnea disorder (OSA), is thought to mainly affect men over the age of 40. Following findings that Asian people are more likely to experience severe OSA, regardless of obesity, we investigated the prevalence of SDB and OSA in a larger sample and in more younger age groups than those described in previous reports. METHODS: Between 2011 and 2016, 487 medical students (358 males, mean age 24...
January 2018: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425479/differential-risk-of-hypertension-among-lean-and-nonlean-rural-subjects-in-relation-to-decadal-changes-in-anthropometry
#17
Sayali S Deshpande-Joshi, Shobha Rao
OBJECTIVE: Assessing risk of hypertension in relation to decadal changes in anthropometry among cohort of young rural Indian men. METHODS: Subjects (n = 140) were measured in 2005 and 2015 for blood pressure, body mass index (BMI), body fat (BF), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and additionally for visceral fat (VF) at follow-up. RESULTS: Decadal changes showed significant (p < 0.001) increase in mean anthropometric measures and in prevalence of overall obesity (BMI ≥25 kg/m2) from 3...
February 9, 2018: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424957/hnf1a-variant-energy-reduced-diets-and-insulin-resistance-improvement-during-weight-loss-the-pounds-lost-and-direct-trials
#18
Tao Huang, Tiange Wang, Yoriko Heianza, Dianjianyi Sun, Kerry Ivey, Ronen Durst, Dan Schwarzfuchs, Meir J Stampfer, George A Bray, Frank M Sacks, Iris Shai, Lu Qi
BACKGROUND: The majority of patients with maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) has mutations in the hepatocyte nuclear factor 1α (HNF1A) gene. A common variant rs7957197 at HNF1A locus for type 2 diabetes was identified. Dietary macronutrients regulate the HNF1A gene expression. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine whether weight loss diets varying in macronutrients modulate the genetic effect of HNF1A rs7957197 on weight loss and improvement of insulin resistance...
February 9, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424267/metabolism-and-exercise-during-youth-the-year-that-was-2017
#19
Keith Tolfrey, Julia Kirstey Zakrzewski-Fruer, Alice Emily Thackray
Two publications were selected because they are excellent representations of studies examining different ends of the exercise-sedentary behavior continuum in young people. The first study is an acute response study with 13 mixed-sex, mid to late adolescents presenting complete data from 4 different randomized experimental crossover conditions for analyses. Continuous glucose monitoring showed that interrupting prolonged continuous sitting with body-weight resistance exercises reduced the postprandial glucose concentration compared with a time-matched uninterrupted period of sitting...
February 9, 2018: Pediatric Exercise Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422298/amino-acid-profiles-of-young-adults-differ-by-sex-body-mass-index-and-insulin-resistance
#20
M Guevara-Cruz, J M Vargas-Morales, A L Méndez-García, A M López-Barradas, O Granados-Portillo, G Ordaz-Nava, A K Rocha-Viggiano, C A Gutierrez-Leyte, E Medina-Cerda, J L Rosado, J C Morales, N Torres, A R Tovar, L G Noriega
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: An increase in plasma branched-chain amino acids is associated with a higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. However, little is known about the basal plasma amino acid concentrations in young adults. Our aim was to determine the plasma amino acid profiles of young adults and to evaluate how these profiles were modified by sex, body mass index (BMI) and insulin resistance (IR). METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed a transversal study with 608 Mexican young adults aged 19...
January 10, 2018: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
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