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stroke, epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, myasthenia

Astrid Eliasen, Kim Peder Dalhoff, Henrik Horwitz
INTRODUCTION: Neurological diseases have a profound impact on quality of life. We investigated the risk of suicide attempt in ten neurological diseases. METHODS: Case-control study. Cases were identified from the Danish Poison Information Centre database in the period 2006-2013. The prevalence of ten neurological diagnoses was compared with the prevalence in a randomly sampled age- and gender-matched control group. RESULTS: We identified 8974 cases of suicidal attempt and 89,740 controls...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Neurology
Sung-Hee Yoo, Sung Reul Kim, Hyang Sook So, Hyang-In Cho Chung, Duck Hee Chae, Myeong-Kyu Kim, Byeong C Kim, Man-Seok Park, Seung-Han Lee, Tai-Seung Nam, Helena Correia, David Cella
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to develop a Korean version of the Stigma Scale for Chronic Illness 8-items (SSCI-8) and then assess its reliability and construct validity among patients with neurological conditions. METHOD: Patients diagnosed with stroke, Parkinson's disease, epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, myasthenia gravis, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis were recruited. Reliability was assessed for internal consistency with Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was used to extract potential factors of Korean SSCI-8...
April 2017: International Journal of Behavioral Medicine
Tomasz Przewoźny, Anna Gójska-Grymajło, Tomasz Szmuda, Karolina Markiet
Neurological diseases present with diverse and often complex symptomatology. Focal neurological signs such as paresis, aphasia or visual field deficits together with often serious general state of a neurological patient usually push auditory symptoms into the background. Here, we present a review of literature on central and peripheral auditory disturbances that can appear in the course of most common neurological diseases. We present: cerebral stroke, cochleovestibular nerve compression syndrome, cerebral palsy, multiple sclerosis, epilepsy, myasthenia gravis and brain tumors...
2015: Otolaryngologia Polska
A Raggi, V Covelli, M Leonardi, P Meucci, C Scaratti, S Schiavolin, M Willems, D Sattin
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to explore the most relevant determinants of severe disability in a heterogeneous sample of patients with neurological conditions. OBJECTIVES: We used data from previous studies on patients with myasthenia gravis (MG), migraine, Parkinson's disease (PD), multiple sclerosis, traumatic brain injury (TBI), stroke and epilepsy (349 patients, aged 18-74 years; mean 48.0, SD 11.7). We calculated count-based extension indexes to address severe disability, and hierarchical logistic regression to assess the association between severe disability, sociodemographic and health status information...
2015: NeuroRehabilitation
A Raggi, M Leonardi, V Covelli, D Sattin, C Scaratti, S Schiavolin, M Willems, P Meucci
INTRODUCTION: Neurological conditions are associated with high levels of disability. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to describe, using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), the most relevant aspects of disability in patients with neurological conditions. We collated data from previous studies on myasthenia gravis, migraine, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, traumatic brain injury, stroke, epilepsy, vegetative state and minimally conscious state, and identified as relevant those ICF categories reported by at least 50% of patients in each condition...
2015: NeuroRehabilitation
Maryann C Deak, Douglas B Kirsch
Sleep-related breathing disorder or sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) encompasses central sleep apnea (CSA), obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), and sleep-related hypoventilation or hypoxemic syndromes. SDB is common in neurologic conditions that affect the central and/or peripheral nervous systems. Patients with neurologic conditions are at risk for SDB due to a combination of factors such as muscular weakness, damage to areas of the brain that control respiration, use of sedating medications, and weight gain from limited physical activity...
September 2014: Clinics in Chest Medicine
H Steven Block, José Biller
Pregnancy creates alterations in maternal physiology which predispose to unique neurologic disorders. Pre-eclampsia, eclampsia, certain types of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome, posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome, and thunderclap headache all appear to share a common origin from vascular endothelial dysfunction, with overlapping clinical presentations. Multiple sclerosis often improves during pregnancy. Compression mononeuropathies may occur in the extremities...
2014: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
D Kevat, L Mackillop
Neurological diseases are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in pregnancy. The management of multiple sclerosis, epilepsy, myasthenia gravis, certain neuropathies and headache in pregnancy is described; the potentially life-threatening conditions of stroke and eclampsia are also discussed. Management of most neurological conditions is similar to outside of pregnancy, but special consideration should be given to delivery plans and the safety of medications antenatally and during breastfeeding. Pre-pregnancy counselling, regular review and effective communication among a multi-disciplinary team are key to optimising management and outcomes...
2013: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh
Fredrik Romi, Geir Helgeland, Nils Erik Gilhus
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are zinc-dependent enzymes involved in remodeling extracellular matrix and cell-matrix interactions. A pathogenic role of MMPs in neurological disorders is likely. This paper focuses on serological clinical aspects only. In multiple sclerosis, higher serum MMP-3 is seen during relapses. Lower serum MMP-8 and -9 levels correlate with fewer contrast-enhanced T(2)-weighted MRI lesions, and serum MMP-9 can be used in monitoring treatment. In myasthenia gravis, serum MMP-2, -3, and -9 levels are elevated in both generalized and ocular diseases...
2012: European Neurology
Steven P Luckman, Nils Erik Gilhus, Fredrik Romi
MMP-3 is capable of degrading a variety of proteins, including agrin, which plays a critical role in neuromuscular signaling by controlling acetylcholine receptor clustering. High MMP-3 levels in a proportion of myasthenia gravis (MG) patients have been reported. A pathogenic role of MMP-3 in other neurological disorders has been suggested but not proven. We have therefore examined the levels of MMP-3 in 124 MG patients and compared them to 59 multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, 74 epilepsy patients, 33 acute stroke patients, and 90 healthy controls...
2011: Autoimmune Diseases
Fredrik Romi, Geir Helgeland, Nils Erik Gilhus
Heat-shock proteins (HSPs) are antigen-presenting protein-aggregation-preventing chaperones, induced by cellular stress in eukaryotic cells. In this review, we focus on recent HSP advances in neurological disorders. In myasthenia gravis, patients responding to immunosuppressive therapy have reduced serum HSP-71 antibodies. Generalized and ocular myasthenia gravis patients have elevated serum HSP-70 antibodies, indicating common pathogenic mechanisms. In Guillain-Barré syndrome, HSP-70 antibodies are elevated in serum and cerebrospinal fluid, and serum levels are higher than in myasthenia gravis and multiple sclerosis...
2011: European Neurology
Michelle H Cameron, Eve L Klein
UNLABELLED: NARRATIVE REVIEW: In general, nervous system disorders present with changes in sensation, strength, and cognitive function that must be recognized early for the timely referral often needed for optimal outcome. This article summarizes screening for nervous system disorders in patients who present to the hand therapist and the typical findings associated with common neurologic disorders. Recommendations for referral by the hand therapist of patients with a screening examination consistent with a nervous system disorder are also presented...
April 2010: Journal of Hand Therapy: Official Journal of the American Society of Hand Therapists
Maria J Molnar, Peter Bencsik
The recent development of genetic databases and biobanks in a number of countries reflects scientist's beliefs in the future health benefits to be derived from genetic research. The NEPSYBANK is a national program of the Hungarian Clinical Neurogenetic Society with comprehensive participation of the Neurology and Psychiatry Departments of Medical Universities and the National Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology. The NEPSYBANK forms a part of the national biobank project ( The goal is to establish nationwide collaboration and common biobanking standards on quality, access, and protection of integrity in the field of neurology and psychiatry...
December 2006: Cellular Immunology
L A Kalashnikova, L A Dobrynina, E N Aleksandrova, A A Novikov
Neurological disturbances frequently emerge in antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). One hundred and twenty four patients (100 women, 24 men, mean age 37.5 +/- 11.3 years) with primary APS (PAPS), including 76 patients with Sneddon's syndrome and positive antibodies to phospholipids (aPL), have been studied. A structure of neurological disturbances was as follows: ischemic lesions of cerebral blood flow (LCBF) which comprised stroke and transient LCBF (91%); thrombosis of brain venous sinuses (3%); epileptic seizures (24%); headache (65%); chorea (15%); visual neuropathy (9%); peripheral neuropathy (6%); multiple-sclerosis-like syndrome (10%); myasthenia syndrome (1%); syndrome of parkinsonism of non-vascular genesis (1%) and psychotic disorders (2%)...
2005: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
F Block
A woman in child-bearing age could principally contract a neurological disease during a pregnancy. The diseases are differentiated between those that existed before, such as migraines, epilepsy, multiple sclerosis or myasthenia gravis and diseases that have an increased incidence during pregnancy, for example stroke, thrombosis of a sinus, subarachnoid hemorrhage, restless legs syndrome or thoracic outlet syndromes and pregnancy specific diseases. The diagnostics and therapy of these diseases are limited by the pregnancy; contraindications must be observed...
May 17, 2005: MMW Fortschritte der Medizin
Hassan A Shehata, Henry Okosun
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Neurological disorders are common in women of childbearing age and can lead to maternal death, as evident from previous reports of the Confidential Enquiry into Maternal Deaths in England and Wales. In the last report (1997-1999) alone, there were 34 deaths indirectly caused by neurological disorders. RECENT FINDINGS: With the new developments in drugs, investigations and research, clinicians are now more able than ever before to diagnose and treat some disorders...
April 2004: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
M C Dalakas
High-dose intravenous immune globulin (IVIg) has emerged as an important therapy for various neurologic diseases. Different interpretations of clinical trial results; the expected benefit of IVIg compared with that of alternate therapies; and issues about IVIg's safety, cost, and mechanisms of action have raised concern and uncertainty among practitioners. To clarify these areas, this paper examines the clinical, serologic, and immunologic data on more than 110 patients with various autoimmune neurologic diseases who received IVIg during the past 6 years at the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke...
May 1, 1997: Annals of Internal Medicine
A Noronha
This article focuses on epilepsies, autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis and myasthenia, serious problems associated with stroke and pseudotumor cerebri, and some common problems such as headaches and the carpal tunnel syndrome, examining the effects of pregnancy and the puerperium on these disorders and the influence of these disorders on pregnancy.
October 1985: Clinics in Perinatology
C B Colaço, G K Scadding, S Lockhart
Antiphospholipid (PL) antibodies have been detected in sera from patients with chronic neurological diseases associated with disorders of immunity. In an isotype specific radioimmunoassay for anti-cardiolipin (CL) antibodies, we found IgM anti-CL (greater than 2 s.d. above mean of controls) in 17/25 (68%) patients with myasthenia gravis (MG), 8/25 (32%) with the Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS), 5/17 (29%) with multiple sclerosis and 3/11 (27%) cases of migraine. IgG anti-CL was only found in low titres in sera from 10 patients with MG and three with LEMS...
May 1987: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
M W Fox, R W Harms, D H Davis
Many neurologic disorders, such as eclampsia, pseudotumor cerebri, stroke, obstetric nerve palsies, subarachnoid hemorrhage, pituitary tumors, and choriocarcinoma, can develop in the pregnant patient. Maternal mortality from eclampsia, which ranges from 0 to 14%, can be due to intracerebral hemorrhage, pulmonary edema, disseminated intravascular coagulation, abruptio placentae, or failure of the liver or kidneys. Associated fetal mortality ranges from 10 to 28% and is directly related to decreased placental perfusion...
December 1990: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
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