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Pharmaceutical education

L Teoh, K Stewart, R J Marino, M J McCullough
BACKGROUND: There is limited literature regarding dental prescribing preferences for medicines other than antibiotics. This study aimed to describe the prescribing trends of dispensed prescription medicines by dentists in Australia from 2013 and 2016 and assess adherence to current guidelines. METHODS: Data was accessed from the Department of Health of all dental prescriptions dispensed under the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) from 2013 to 2016 and prescribing patterns were analysed...
April 19, 2018: Australian Dental Journal
Anita Kotwani, P C Joshi, Urmila Jhamb, Kathleen Holloway
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to explore the prescribing practices, knowledge, and attitudes of primary care doctors and community pharmacists, regarding antibiotic use in acute upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) and diarrhea in children to better understand causes of misuse and identify provider suggestions to change such behavior. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two focus group discussions (FGDs) each were conducted with primary care government doctors (GDs), private general practitioners (GPs), pediatricians, and community pharmacists in Delhi...
November 2017: Indian Journal of Pharmacology
Beata Jankowska-Polańska, Karolina Zamęta, Izabella Uchmanowicz, Anna Szymańska-Chabowska, Donald Morisky, Grzegorz Mazur
Objective: To investigate the relationship between frailty syndrome (FS) and adherence to pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment for hypertension. Methods: The study included 100 patients diagnosed with hypertension and treated with one or more hypotensive drugs. Results: Frail patients obtained low scores (4.1 ± 2.0) for adherence to pharmaceutical treatment of hypertension, while non-frail patients obtained moderate scores (6...
February 2018: Journal of Geriatric Cardiology: JGC
Marike Visser, Seth C Oster
Lack of species-specific pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic data is a challenge for pharmaceutical and dose selection. If available, dose extrapolation can be accomplished via basic equations. If unavailable, several methods have been described. Linear scaling uses an established milligrams per kilograms dose based on weight. This does not allow for differences in species drug metabolism, sometimes resulting in toxicity. Allometric scaling correlates body weight and metabolic rate but fails for drugs with significant hepatic metabolism and cannot be extrapolated to avians or reptiles...
May 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice
Louise Carton, Nicolas Cabé, Olivier Ménard, Sylvie Deheul, Anne-Sylvie Caous, David Devos, Olivier Cottencin, Régis Bordet
For students, the pressing demands for memorization, top-level performance, and peer competition create an environment favorable for pharmaceutical cognitive doping behavior. We aimed to describe recent practices and the benefit/risk ratio of such behavior and to discuss the issues at stake. The prevalence of pharmaceutical cognitive doping among students has been reported from 1.3% to 33% across studies, with variations depending on country and definition of pharmaceutical cognitive doping. The therapeutic classes most frequently cited as being diverted for doping purposes are psychostimulants and nootropics (methylphenidate, modafinil, piracetam), corticosteroids, sedative drugs and beta-blockers...
March 6, 2018: Thérapie
Pimwara Tanvejsilp, Mark Loeb, Jonathan Dushoff, Feng Xie
BACKGROUND: Thailand's hospitals may adopt different supervision approaches to improve tuberculosis (TB) treatment adherence. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare out-of-pocket (OOP) expenditures, indirect costs, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among TB patients who received pharmaceutical care (pharmacist-led patient education and telephone consultation), home visit, and self-administered therapy (SAT) in Thailand. METHODS: We conducted a prospective study to collect OOP expenditures, indirect costs, and HRQoL from a subsample of 104 adult pulmonary TB patients who started treatment between January and May 2014 in three hospitals...
September 13, 2017: PharmacoEconomics Open
Thaciana Dos S Alcântara, Thelma Onozato, Fernando de C Araújo Neto, Aline S Dosea, Luiza C Cunha, Dyego C S A de Araújo, Déborah Pimentel, Divaldo P Lyra Junior
BACKGROUND: During the process of implementation of clinical pharmacy services, internal and external factors may favor or hinder the incorporation of care into the hospital routine. This study aimed to understand the perceptions of a group of hospital pharmacists and other professionals of the implementation of clinical pharmacy at a high complexity public hospital in Brazil. METHODS: A focus group with 16 pharmacists and interviews with tree key stakeholders including managers in the pharmaceutical, medical, and nursing profession were conducted to understand their perceptions of the implementation clinical pharmacy services in a high complexity public hospital in Brazil...
April 4, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
Foo Wah Foong
 Literary English is different from science English (SE) and pharmaceutical science English (PSE). Therefore, a totally new approach was adopted for students to learn PSE at Kyoto Pharmaceutical University (KPU). In 2012, a 4-year program for teaching PSE was proposed, and a stepwise-stepup tertiary science English education (SSTSEE) system was introduced at KPU. The system provides a novel form of PSE teaching that stretches from year 1 to 4, where the PSE level progresses to higher levels of learning with each passing academic year...
2018: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
Katsuaki Suzuki
 This paper examines the reform experience of the 10th Annual Meeting of the Japanese Society for Pharmaceutical Palliative Care and Sciences from Instructional Systems perspectives, to check whether it was effective, efficient, and appealing for participants. "Instructional Systems" has been a research area in educational technology for the past 50 years, and has also been applied to training and human resource development in healthcare domains. If an annual meeting is to be designed for participants' learning, then perspectives of Instructional Systems can be applied to interpret the effort of the reform...
2018: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
Kensuke Arai, Masahiro Mitsubori
 Within school classrooms, Active Learning has been receiving unprecedented attention. Indeed, Active Learning's popularity does not stop in the classroom. As more and more people argue that the Japanese government needs to renew guidelines for education, Active Learning has surfaced as a method capable of providing the necessary knowledge and training for people in all areas of society, helping them reach their full potential. It has become accepted that Active Learning is more effective over the passive listening of lectures, where there is little to no interaction...
2018: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
Hiroyuki Yasui
 The revised model/core curriculum for pharmaceutical education in Japan was introduced in 2015. The need to provide ethics education, which includes research integrity for pharmacists and those conducting pharmaceutical research, was clearly described in the document: "G: pharmaceutical research (2) rule of law and ethics essential for research activity." Additionally, this newly introduced model/core curriculum was officially requested within each pharmaceutical university. As recently as 2014, a severe situation was exposed in the field of life sciences and clinical research: many reports emerged about scientific misconduct in Japan...
2018: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
Natalia Krzyżaniak, Iga Pawłowska, Beata Bajorek
Background Currently, there is no literature describing what a quality level of practice entails in Polish neonatal intensive care units (NICUs), nor are there any means of currently measuring the quality of pharmaceutical care provided to NICU patients. Objective To identify a set of essential pharmacist roles and pharmacy-relevant key performance indicators (KPI's) suitable for Polish neonatal intensive units (NICUs). Setting Polish hospital pharmacies and NICUs. Method Using a modified Delphi technique, potential KPI's structured along Donabedian's domains as well as pharmacy services were presented to an expert panel of stakeholders...
March 31, 2018: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
Juan Manuel Carmona-Torres, Ana Isabel Cobo-Cuenca, Beatriz Recio-Andrade, José Alberto Laredo-Aguilera, María Manuela Martins, María Aurora Rodríguez-Borrego
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To analyse the prevalence, risk factors and evolution over time of polypharmacy and self-medication in the older people in Spain from 2006-2014. BACKGROUND: Polypharmacy is a public health problem for older people worldwide that cause different negative effects on their health, increasing health costs and pharmaceutical spending. However, previous studies do not include nationally representative samples and none of them provide updated data...
March 31, 2018: Journal of Clinical Nursing
Katica Tripković, Andjelija Nešković, Janko Janković, Marina Odalović
Background In spite of many benefits for individuals and community, self-medication has a number of potential risks. Objective To identify predictors of self-medication with over-the-counter and prescription (Rx) medicines without doctor's prescription. Setting Serbian population of 15 years of age and over. Method This was crosssectional, epidemiological study. Data have been drawn from Serbian National Health Survey 2013 database. Predictors of self-medication were determined among sociodemographic, health related and health services related factors, using multivariate logistic regression models...
March 30, 2018: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
Josell Ramirez-Paz, Bonny M Ortiz-Andrade, Kai Griebenow, Liz Díaz-Vázquez
Determining the catalytic activity of an enzyme can be the perfect method for its identification, for example during purification procedures or for isolation purposes. Herein, we used a pharmaceutically relevant protein to bring the concept of enzymatic activity to the classroom. We designed a hands-on interactive activity in which a medically relevant enzyme, asparaginase, was distinguished from a nonenzymatic protein based on its specific enzymatic activity. The experiment was carried out in the classroom, designed to impact different educational levels from elementary to high school...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Chemical Education
Geoffrey M Currie
There is an emerging need for greater understanding of pharmacology principles amongst technical staff. Indeed, the responsibility of dose preparation and administration, under any level of supervision, demands foundation understanding of pharmacology. This is true for radiopharmaceuticals, contrast media and pharmaceutical interventions / adjunctive medications. Regulation around the same might suggest a need to embed pharmacology theory in undergraduate education programs and there is a need to disseminate that same foundation understanding to practicing clinicians...
March 29, 2018: Journal of Nuclear Medicine Technology
Shaymaa Abdalwahed Abdulameer
Background: Inadequate inhaled aerosol device demonstration and technique by health care professionals can lead to poor disease control. The aims of this study were to develop and validate Knowledge of Aerosol Tool (KAT) among registered and unregistered pharmacists and to assess the pharmaceutical care practice among registered pharmacists. Methods: The KAT and pharmaceutical care practice questionnaires were developed and modified from previous reports, then an observational cross-sectional study with a convenience sample size of 340 was carried out among registered and unregistered pharmacists...
2018: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Sherine Ismail, Mohamed Osman, Rayf Abulezz, Hani Alhamdan, K H Mujtaba Quadri
Pharmacists possess pivotal competencies and expertise in developing clinical pathways (CPs). We present a tertiary care facility experience of pharmacists vis-a-vis interprofessional collaboration for designing and implementing CPs. We participated in the development of CPs as leading members of a collaborative team of healthcare professionals. We reviewed literature, aligning it with hospital formulary and institutional standards, and participated in weekly team meetings for six months. Several tools and services were adapted to guide prescribing and standardization of care through time-bound order sets...
March 16, 2018: Pharmacy (Basel, Switzerland)
Michael J Annear
OBJECTIVES: Best-evidence dementia knowledge has the potential to improve care practices in aged care settings, although limited research has explored understanding among the Japanese workforce. This study examines the knowledge of dementia and educational needs among aged care professionals across Japan. METHODS: An online survey methodology was used to assess the dementia experiences and knowledge among a national, random sample of 117 Japanese aged care professionals...
March 14, 2018: Australasian Journal on Ageing
Natalie Colaneri, Mark Sheldon, Andrew Adesman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Given the pervasiveness of psychotropic medication in the youth population and an increasingly competitive culture regarding educational performance, children, teenagers, and/or their parents may increasingly seek psychotropic substances in an effort to enhance a student's cognitive abilities and/or academic performance. Physicians must become aware of this very important and clinically relevant issue and work to ensure that medications remain in the hands of patients seeking wellness and not enhancement...
March 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
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