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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233091/a-gradient-of-frequency-dependent-synaptic-properties-along-the-longitudinal-hippocampal-axis
#1
Vassilios Papaleonidopoulos, George Trompoukis, Andriana Koutsoumpa, Costas Papatheodoropoulos
BACKGROUND: The hippocampus is a functionally heterogeneous brain structure and specializations of the intrinsic neuronal network may crucially support the functional segregation along the longitudinal axis of the hippocampus. Short-term synaptic plasticity plays fundamental roles in information processing and may be importantly involved in diversifying the properties of local neuronal network along the hippocampus long axis. Therefore, we aimed to examine the properties of the cornu ammonis 1 (CA1) synapses along the entire dorsoventral axis of the rat hippocampus using field excitatory postsynaptic potentials from transverse rat hippocampal slices and a frequency stimulation paradigm...
December 12, 2017: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232477/behavior-driven-arc-expression-is-reduced-in-all-ventral-hippocampal-subfields-compared-to-ca1-ca3-and-dentate-gyrus-in-rat-dorsal-hippocampus
#2
M K Chawla, V L Sutherland, K Olson, B L McNaughton, C A Barnes
Anatomical connectivity and lesion studies reveal distinct functional heterogeneity along the dorsal-ventral axis of the hippocampus. The immediate early gene Arc is known to be involved in neural plasticity and memory and can be used as a marker for cell activity that occurs, for example, when hippocampal place cells fire. We report here, that Arc is expressed in a greater proportion of cells in dorsal CA1, CA3 and dentate gyrus (DG), following spatial behavioral experiences compared to ventral hippocampal subregions (dorsal CA1= 33%; ventral CA1= 13%; dorsal CA3 = 23%; ventral CA3 = 8%; and dorsal DG = 2...
December 12, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214513/hyper-response-to-novelty-increases-c-fos-expression-in-the-hippocampus-and-prefrontal-cortex-in-a-rat-model-of-schizophrenia
#3
Tomas Monfil, Rubén Antonio Vázquez Roque, Israel Camacho-Abrego, Hiram Tendilla-Beltran, Tommaso Ianniti, Ivan Meneses-Morales, Patricia Aguilar-Alonso, Gonzalo Flores, Julio Cesar Morales-Medina
Schizophrenia is a debilitating disorder that may have a neurodevelopmental origin. For this reason, animal models based on neonatal insults or manipulations have been extensively used to demonstrate schizophrenia-related behaviors. Among those, the neonatal ventral hippocampus lesion (nVHL) is largely used as a model of schizophrenia-related behavior as it mimics behavioral and neurochemical abnormalities often seen in schizophrenic patients including hyperlocomotion in a novel environment. To investigate the neuroanatomical basis of coding novelty in the nVHL rat, we assessed the behavioral locomotor activity paradigm in a novel environment and measured expression of c-Fos, a marker of neural activation, in brain regions involved in the process of coding novelty or locomotion...
December 6, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191751/hippocampus-ghrelin-receptor-signaling-promotes-socially-mediated-learned-food-preference
#4
Ted M Hsu, Emily E Noble, David J Reiner, Clarissa M Liu, Andrea N Suarez, Vaibhav R Konanur, Matthew R Hayes, Scott E Kanoski
Social cues are potent regulators of feeding behavior, yet the neurobiological mechanisms through which social cues influence food intake are poorly understood. Here we investigate the hypothesis that the appetite-promoting gut-derived hormone, ghrelin, signals in the hippocampus to promote learned social aspects of feeding behavior. We utilized a procedure known as 'social transmission of food preference' (STFP) in which rats ('Observers') experience a social interaction with another rat ('Demonstrators') that recently consumed flavored/scented chow...
November 27, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175155/neuroanatomical-distribution-of-dek-protein-in-corticolimbic-circuits-associated-with-learning-and-memory-in-adult-male-and-female-mice
#5
Valentina Ghisays, Elizabeth T Nguyen, Joshua Streicher, Nicholas A Pease, Maureen Fitzgerald, Christina M Estrada, Ana Franco-Villanueva, Lisa Privette Vinnedge, Matia B Solomon
DEK, a chromatin-remodeling gene expressed in most human tissues, is known for its role in cancer biology and autoimmune diseases. DEK depletion in vitro reduces cellular proliferation, induces DNA damage subsequently leading to apoptosis, and down-regulates canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling, a molecular pathway essential for learning and memory. Despite a recognized role in cancer (non-neuronal) cells, DEK expression and function is not well characterized in the central nervous system. We conducted a gene ontology analysis (ToppGene), using a cancer database to identify genes associated with DEK deficiency, which pinpointed several genes associated with cognitive-related diseases (i...
November 23, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171922/less-means-more-the-magnitude-of-synaptic-plasticity-along-the-hippocampal-dorso-ventral-axis-is-inversely-related-to-the-expression-levels-of-plasticity-related-neurotransmitter-receptors
#6
Valentyna Dubovyk, Denise Manahan-Vaughan
The dorsoventral axis of the hippocampus exhibits functional differentiations with regard to (spatial Vs emotional learning) and information retention (rapid encoding Vs long-term storage), as well as its sensitivity to neuromodulation and information received from extrahippocampal structures. The mechanisms that underlie these differentiations remain unclear. Here, we explored neurotransmitter receptor expression along the dorsoventral hippocampal axis and compared hippocampal synaptic plasticity in the CA1 region of the dorsal (DH), intermediate (IH) and ventral hippocampi (VH)...
November 24, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149481/neuroprotective-effects-of-melatonin-on-amphetamine-induced-dopaminergic-fiber-degeneration-in-the-hippocampus-of-postnatal-rats
#7
Tanawan Leeboonngam, Ratchadaporn Pramong, Kwankanit Sae-Ung, Piyarat Govitrapong, Pansiri Phansuwan-Pujito
Chronic amphetamine (AMPH) abuse leads to damage of the hippocampus, the brain area associated with learning and memory process. Previous results have shown that AMPH-induced dopamine neurotransmitter release, reactive oxygen species formation and degenerative protein aggregation lead to neuronal death. Melatonin, a powerful antioxidant, plays a role as a neuroprotective agent. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the protective effect of melatonin on AMPH-induced hippocampal damage in the postnatal rat acts through the dopaminergic pathway...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134962/role-of-glutamatergic-projections-from-the-ventral-ca1-to-infralimbic-cortex-in-context-induced-reinstatement-of-heroin-seeking
#8
Na Wang, Feifei Ge, Cailian Cui, Yijing Li, Xiaowei Sun, Linlin Sun, Xinjuan Wang, Shuli Liu, Haolin Zhang, Yan Liu, Meng Jia, Mingda Yang
The prelimbic cortex (PL) and infralimbic cortex (IL) play a role in context-induced reinstatement of heroin seeking in an animal model of drug relapse. Both the PL and IL receive direct glutamatergic projections from the ventral CA1 (vCA1), which is also involved in context-induced reinstatement of cocaine and heroin seeking. Here we studied the role of vCA1-PL and vCA1-IL projections in context-induced reinstatement of heroin seeking by using electrophysiological, neuropharmacological, chemogenetic and molecular methods...
November 14, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133436/ventral-midline-thalamus-is-necessary-for-hippocampal-place-field-stability-and-cell-firing-modulation
#9
T Cholvin, V Hok, L Giorgi, F A Chaillan, B Poucet
The reuniens (Re) and Rhomboid (Rh) nuclei of the ventral midline thalamus are reciprocally connected with the hippocampus (Hip) and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Growing evidence suggests that these nuclei might play a crucial role in cognitive processes requiring Hip-mPFC interactions, including spatial navigation. Here, we tested the effect of ReRh lesions on the firing properties and spatial activity of dorsal hippocampal CA1 place cells as male rats explored a familiar or a novel environment. We found no change in the spatial characteristics of CA1 place cells in the familiar environment following ReRh lesions...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977524/regional-specific-modulation-of-stress-induced-neuronal-activation-associated-with-the-psd95-nos-interaction-inhibitor-zl006-in-the-wistar-kyoto-rat
#10
Eoin Sherwin, Aifric Lennon, Andrew Harkin
Background: To determine brain areas involved in the antidepressant-related behavioral effects of the selective neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitor 1-(2-Trifluoro-methyl-phenyl) imidazole (TRIM) and experimental test compound 4-((3,5-dichloro-2-hydroxybenzyl)amino)-2-hydroxybenzoic acid (ZL006), an inhibitor of the PSD of 95 kDa/neuronal nitric oxide synthase interaction in the N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor signalling pathway, regional specific expression of the neuronal activation marker c-FOS was assessed following exposure to the forced swimming test in the Wistar Kyoto rat...
October 1, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969315/alternative-technique-or-mitigating-strategy-for-sevoflurane-induced-neurodegeneration-a-randomized-controlled-dose-escalation-study-of-dexmedetomidine-in-neonatal-rats
#11
J-R Lee, E P Lin, R D Hofacer, B Upton, S Y Lee, L Ewing, B Joseph, A W Loepke
Background: Brain injury in newborn animals from prolonged anaesthetic exposure has raised concerns for millions of children undergoing anaesthesia every yr. Alternative anaesthetic techniques or mitigating strategies are urgently needed to ameliorate potentially harmful effects. We tested dexmedetomidine, both as a single agent alternative technique and as a mitigating adjuvant for sevoflurane anaesthesia. Methods: Neonatal rats were randomized to three injections of dexmedetomidine (5, 25, 50, or 100 µg kg -1 every 2 h), or 6 h of 2...
September 1, 2017: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956334/a-role-for-phosphodiesterase-11a-pde11a-in-the-formation-of-social-memories-and-the-stabilization-of-mood
#12
Michy P Kelly
The most recently discovered 3',5'-cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase family is the Phosphodiesterase 11 (PDE11) family, which is encoded by a single gene PDE11A. PDE11A is a dual-specific PDE, breaking down both cAMP and cGMP. There are four PDE11A splice variants (PDE11A1-4) with distinct tissue expression profiles and unique N-terminal regulatory regions, suggesting that each isoform could be individually targeted with a small molecule or biologic. PDE11A4 is the PDE11A isoform expressed in brain and is found in the hippocampal formation of humans and rodents...
2017: Advances in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951619/enhanced-ventral-hippocampal%C3%A2-synaptic-transmission-and-impaired-synaptic-plasticity-in-a-rodent-model-of-alcohol-addiction-vulnerability
#13
Antoine G Almonte, Sarah E Ewin, Madelyn I Mauterer, James W Morgan, Eugenia S Carter, Jeffrey L Weiner
It has long been appreciated that adolescence represents a uniquely vulnerable period when chronic exposure to stressors can precipitate the onset of a broad spectrum of psychiatric disorders and addiction in adulthood. However, the neurobiological substrates and the full repertoire of adaptations within these substrates making adolescence a particularly susceptible developmental stage are not well understood. Prior work has demonstrated that a rodent model of adolescent social isolation (aSI) produces robust and persistent increases in phenotypes relevant to anxiety/stressor disorders and alcohol addiction, including anxiogenesis, deficits in fear extinction, and increased ethanol consumption...
September 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940732/association-of-contextual-cues-with-morphine-reward-increases-neural-and-synaptic-plasticity-in-the-ventral-hippocampus-of-rats
#14
Mina Sadighi Alvandi, Maria Bourmpoula, Judith R Homberg, Yaghoub Fathollahi
Drug addiction is associated with aberrant memory and permanent functional changes in neural circuits. It is known that exposure to drugs like morphine is associated with positive emotional states and reward-related memory. However, the underlying mechanisms in terms of neural plasticity in the ventral hippocampus, a region involved in associative memory and emotional behaviors, are not fully understood. Therefore, we measured adult neurogenesis, dendritic spine density and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and TrkB mRNA expression as parameters for synaptic plasticity in the ventral hippocampus...
November 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912687/alterations-in-properties-of-glutamatergic-transmission-in-the-temporal-cortex-and-hippocampus-following-pilocarpine-induced-acute-seizures-in-wistar-rats
#15
Dmitry V Amakhin, Sergey L Malkin, Julia L Ergina, Kirill A Kryukov, Ekaterina A Veniaminova, Olga E Zubareva, Aleksey V Zaitsev
Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most common type of focal epilepsy in humans, and is often developed after an initial precipitating brain injury. This form of epilepsy is frequently resistant to pharmacological treatment; therefore, the prevention of TLE is the prospective approach to TLE therapy. The lithium-pilocarpine model in rats replicates some of the main features of TLE in human, including the pathogenic mechanisms of cell damage and epileptogenesis after a primary brain injury. In the present study, we investigated changes in the properties of glutamatergic transmission during the first 3 days after pilocarpine-induced acute seizures in Wistar rats (PILO-rats)...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898248/place-field-assembly-distribution-encodes-preferred-locations
#16
Omar Mamad, Lars Stumpp, Harold M McNamara, Charu Ramakrishnan, Karl Deisseroth, Richard B Reilly, Marian Tsanov
The hippocampus is the main locus of episodic memory formation and the neurons there encode the spatial map of the environment. Hippocampal place cells represent location, but their role in the learning of preferential location remains unclear. The hippocampus may encode locations independently from the stimuli and events that are associated with these locations. We have discovered a unique population code for the experience-dependent value of the context. The degree of reward-driven navigation preference highly correlates with the spatial distribution of the place fields recorded in the CA1 region of the hippocampus...
September 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832663/effects-of-the-hippocampus-on-the-motor-expression-of-augmented-breaths
#17
Itopa E Ajayi, Paul C Mills
Augmented breaths, also known as sighs, constitute the normal repertoire of breathing in freely behaving humans and animals. The breaths are believed to be generated by neurones in the preBötzinger complex but under modulatory influence from higher brain centres, particularly in the limbic system due to the strong correlations between the expression of emotional behaviours such as anxiety and the occurrence of augmented breaths. The current study examines the role of the hippocampus in the motor expression of augmented breaths, and also examines the characteristics of eupneic breaths surrounding a sigh before and after stimulating the hippocampus in urethane anaesthetised Sprague-Dawley rats...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757864/dorsoventral-and-proximodistal-hippocampal-processing-account-for-the-influences-of-sleep-and-context-on-memory-re-consolidation-a-connectionist-model
#18
Justin Lines, Kelsey Nation, Jean-Marc Fellous
The context in which learning occurs is sufficient to reconsolidate stored memories and neuronal reactivation may be crucial to memory consolidation during sleep. The mechanisms of context-dependent and sleep-dependent memory (re)consolidation are unknown but involve the hippocampus. We simulated memory (re)consolidation using a connectionist model of the hippocampus that explicitly accounted for its dorsoventral organization and for CA1 proximodistal processing. Replicating human and rodent (re)consolidation studies yielded the following results...
2017: Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733354/selective-silencing-of-hippocampal-parvalbumin-interneurons-induces-development-of-recurrent-spontaneous-limbic-seizures-in-mice
#19
Meinrad Drexel, Roman A Romanov, James Wood, Stefan Weger, Regine Heilbronn, Peer Wulff, Ramon O Tasan, Tibor Harkany, Günther Sperk
Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most frequent form of focal epilepsies and is generally associated with malfunctioning of the hippocampal formation. Recently, a preferential loss of parvalbumin (PV) neurons has been observed in the subiculum of TLE patients and in animal models of TLE. To demonstrate a possible causative role of defunct PV neurons in the generation of TLE, we permanently inhibited GABA release selectively from PV neurons of the ventral subiculum by injecting a viral vector expressing tetanus toxin light chain in male mice...
August 23, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705440/inhibition-of-trkb-at-the-nucleus-accumbens-using-ana-12-regulates-basal-and-stress-induced-orexin-a-expression-within-the-mesolimbic-system-and-affects-anxiety-sociability-and-motivation
#20
Idu Azogu, Helene Plamondon
Repeated stress exposure can lead to the development of anxiety and mood disorders. An emerging biological substrate of depression and associated pathology is the nucleus accumbens (NAc), which through interactions with limbic, cognitive and motor circuits can regulate a variety of stress responses. Within these circuits, orexin neurons are involved in arousal and stress adaptability, effects proposed mediated via brain-derived neurotrophic factor signaling. This study tested the hypotheses that 1) repeated exposure to heterotypic stress alters social ability and preference and passive avoidant behaviors, 2) TrkB receptors at the NAc shell regulates stress-induced behavioral responses and orexin expression within the mesocorticolimbic system...
July 11, 2017: Neuropharmacology
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