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hiv optic neuropathy

Nailyn Rasool, James A Stefater, Dean Eliott, Dean M Cestari
Purpose: The incidence of syphilitic infections continues to rise and represents a major public health concern, particularly in patients co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The infection has a multitude of clinical presentations and is often referred to as the 'great imitator.' We present a rare case of an isolated presumed syphilitic optic nerve gumma and characterize it using newer imaging modalities. Observations: A 36-year-old HIV-positive man, compliant with treatment, presented with a five day history of decreased vision in the left eye...
June 2017: American Journal of Ophthalmology Case Reports
Tiffany Hirschel, Heimo Steffen, Victor Pecoul, Alexandra Calmy
BACKGROUND: Typical symptoms of an acute human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections like fever and rash are not specific and can be caused by a multitude of other pathogens, such as Zika or rickettsiosis. Up to 30% of primary HIV infection do not present with the typical flu-like symptoms and thus represent a diagnostic challenge. In this report, we describe a rare case of optic neuropathy as the initial presentation of primary HIV infection, which resulted in irreversible blindness...
December 1, 2017: BMC Research Notes
Jiang Zhu, Yuan Jiang, Yewen Shi, Bo Zheng, Zhiguo Xu, Wei Jia
Syphilitic chorioretinitis should be included in differential diagnosis of any form of ocular inflammation. A significantly higher proportion of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients with ocular syphilis as compared to HIV-negative cases have been reported in published studies. However, the clinical signs and symptoms are more insidious in HIV-negative patients who are easily misdiagnosed. We report a series of cases of ocular syphilis and describe the clinical manifestations and treatment outcomes of syphilitic chorioretinitis in HIV-negative patients in China...
October 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
Rie Tohge, Yuya Shinoto, Makio Takahashi
The incidence of co-infection with Treponema pallidum and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is increasing in developing and developed countries. The neurological complications of both infections occasionally occur simultaneously during a clinical course. We herein report the case of an HIV carrier with syphilitic meningomyelitis and subclinical optic neuropathy. The patient presumably had latent syphilis and slowly developed longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis (LETM). A cerebrospinal fluid examination confirmed the diagnosis of active neurosyphilis based on an elevated T...
2017: Internal Medicine
Supanut Apinyawasisuk, Anuchit Poonyathalang, Pisit Preechawat, Kavin Vanikieti
We report 7 cases of syphilitic optic neuropathy during a 2-year period. All patients were newly diagnosed with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Six cases (86%) initially presented with swollen optic disc either unilaterally or bilaterally. Blind spot enlargement was the most common type of visual field defect. Final visual acuity of at least 20/25 was achieved together with visual field improvement and resolution of swollen optic disc. Optic nerve involvement can be the first manifestation of syphilis and HIV co-infection...
April 2016: Neuro-ophthalmology
Salil Mehta, Mrinalini Das, Chinmay Laxmeshwar, Sylvie Jonckheere, Sein Sein Thi, Petros Isaakidis
BACKGROUND: Patients on linezolid-containing drug-resistant TB (DR-TB) regimen often develop adverse-events, particularly peripheral and optic neuropathy. Programmatic data and experiences of linezolid-associated optic neuropathy from high DR-TB burden settings are lacking. The study aimed to determine the frequency of and risk-factors associated with linezolid-associated optic neuropathy and document the experiences related to treatment/care of DR-TB patients on linezolid-containing regimens...
2016: PloS One
Agostino Riva, Alessandro Invernizzi, Chiara Resnati, Valeria Micheli, Dario Cattaneo, Cristina Gervasoni
Ocular toxicity may not only be caused by medication overdoses and drug-drug interactions, but also by chronic administration of medications at recommended doses. We describe a case of an HIV-infected patient who experienced significant and sustained bilateral visual loss 2 months after starting treatment with elvitegravir/cobicistat/tenofovir/emtricitabine. Given the absence of any evidence of tenofovir- or emtricitabine-induced optical neuropathy after several years of clinical use, the antiretroviral therapy was promptly changed to tenofovir/emtricitabine plus atazanavir/ritonavir, which led to a progressive improvement in visual acuity...
June 22, 2016: Antiviral Therapy
Ting Dai, Xinjun Wu, Shaona Zhou, Qianqiu Wang, Daning Li
BACKGROUND: Syphilis with ocular involvement has reemerged as a critical health problem. The aim of the present study was to explore the clinical manifestations and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) status in ocular syphilis in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative patients. METHODS: The clinical records of patients with ocular syphilis presenting to the Shanghai Xuhui Central Hospital in the period from January 2011 to December 2012 were retrospectively reviewed...
June 6, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
C Berrozpe-Villabona, E Santos-Bueso, P Bañeros-Rojas, S Aguilar Munoa, F Saenz-Francés, D Díaz-Valle, J M Martínez-de-la-Casa, J García-Feijoo
Ocular syphilis is a resurgent clinical condition due to unsafe sexual practices. It has been reported in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients, but in HIV positive patients, it is more likely to exhibit a more aggressive course and adopt atypical clinical patterns such as optic nerve involvement. Herein we report an atypical case of optic neuritis secondary to syphilis in an HIV negative patient. This case highlights the importance of considering syphilis in the differential diagnosis of ocular inflammation and of obtaining HIV serology, since both diseases share common risk factors...
February 2016: Journal Français D'ophtalmologie
Sundeep K Kasi, Robin A Vora, Taliva Martin, Emmett T Cunningham
PURPOSE: To describe an unusual presentation of bilateral HIV-associated multifocal retinal infiltrates with phlebitis and optic neuropathy in a pediatric patient from Zimbabwe, Africa. METHODS: Retrospective case report of a 15-year-old boy from Zimbabwe, Africa. RESULTS: The patient was found to have bilateral vitritis, multifocal retinitis with phlebitis, and optic neuropathy in the setting of previously unrecognized HIV infection. Vision improved and the clinical findings resolved after treatment with intravenous corticosteroids and highly active retroviral therapy (HAART)...
2015: Retinal Cases & Brief Reports
Bo-Yu Lin, Mou-Chieh Kao
Among the five enzyme complexes in the oxidative phosphorylation system, NADH-coenzyme Q oxidoreductase (also called complex I) is the largest, most intricate, and least understood. This enzyme complex spans the inner mitochondrial membrane and catalyzes the first step of electron transfer by the oxidation of NADH, and thereby provides two electrons for the reduction of quinone to quinol. Complex I deficiency is associated with many severe mitochondrial diseases, including Leber hereditary optic neuropathy and Leigh syndrome...
September 2015: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Angelina Espino Barros Palau, Michael L Morgan, Rod Foroozan, Andrew G Lee
OBJECTIVE: To illustrate three different ophthalmic presentations of cryptococcal meningitis (CM). INTRODUCTION: CM is the most common manifestation of extra-pulmonary cryptococcosis. Intracranial hypertension occurs in up to 75% of patients with CM and is associated with increased mortality. CM can present to the ophthalmologist as vision loss, papilledema, abducens palsy, and/or other cranial neuropathies. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: We report three cases, two C...
October 2014: Canadian Journal of Ophthalmology. Journal Canadien D'ophtalmologie
J A Crespo-Burillo, D Gil-Perez, R Alarcia-Alejos, N Hernando-Quintana, S Garcia-Rubio, J Martin-Martinez
INTRODUCTION. There are many forms of neuro-ophthalmological involvement secondary to syphilis, and not all of them are well known. Our aim is to determine the clinical and therapeutic differences in these patients. CASE REPORTS. Our sample included eight patients diagnosed with an ocular and neuro-ophthalmological disorder due to syphilis over the years 2012 and 2013. Five of them presented uveitis, pan-eveitis being the most frequent, with three cases. Two cases presented papilloedema and another displayed retrobulbar optic neuropathy...
September 16, 2014: Revista de Neurologia
C Chiquet, H Khayi, C Puech, M Tonini, P Pavese, F Aptel, J-P Romanet
Syphilis is a sexually transmitted disease caused by Treponema pallidum. Previously known as the "great imitator", this disease can have numerous and complex manifestations. The ophthalmologist should suspect the diagnosis in patients with uveitis or optic neuropathy and high-risk sexual behavior and/or another sexually transmitted disease (such as HIV) or those presenting with posterior placoid chorioretinitis or necrotising retinitis. Ocular involvement in acquired syphilis is rare, tending to occur during the secondary and tertiary stages of the disease...
April 2014: Journal Français D'ophtalmologie
Michael W Stewart
During the first 15 years of the AIDS epidemic patients experienced a high incidence of blindness due to cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis and other severe ocular opportunistic infections. Highly active anti-retroviral therapy, introduced in 1996, dramatically decreased the incidence of CMV retinitis. Though CMV retinitis still causes 40% of vision loss in AIDS patients, other conditions such as immune reconstitution uveitis, cataracts, and a significant othercategory -which most investigators believe is directly due to HIV - comprise the majority of cases...
January 2, 2012: Infectious Disease Reports
Hui Yu Sun, Xiao Yan Peng, Dan Li, Fei Fei Mao, Qi Sheng You, Jost B Jonas
PURPOSE: To determine the prevalence of cytomegalovirus retinitis (CMVR) and other fundus lesions in subjects with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) before and after the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in China. METHODS: The retrospective study included subjects with AIDS who consecutively attended a third referral center in Beijing before and after HAART was introduced. Comprehensive systemic and ophthalmic examinations, including CD4+ T-cell count, ophthalmoscopy, and fundus photography, were carried out...
March 2014: European Journal of Ophthalmology
Hamzah Mustak, Graeme Rogers, Colin Cook
AIM: To determine whether HIV and the use of antiretroviral therapy is a risk factor for the development of ethambutol toxic optic neuropathy. To describe the clinical course of ethambutol toxic optic neuropathy in patients with HIV and to identify prognostic factors. METHODS: The case notes of 14 consecutive patients referred to the neuro-ophthalmology clinic were reviewed. Data regarding HIV status, antiretroviral therapy, visual function, ethambutol therapy dosage, and ethambutol therapy duration were collected and analysed...
2013: International Journal of Ophthalmology
Ignacio Rodríguez-Uña, Mercedes Serrador-García, Enrique Santos-Bueso, David Díaz-Valle, Julián García-Feijóo
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this report is to present a case of optic and vestibulocochlear neuropathy as a manifestation of concurrent HIV and syphilis coinfection. This is an interventional case report of a 37-year-old man who complained of blurry central vision in his left eye and hearing loss in his left ear over the past 2 weeks. FINDINGS: Visual acuity was 20/20 in both eyes, and the anterior segment was normal in both eyes without relative afferent pupillary defect...
2013: Journal of Ophthalmic Inflammation and Infection
David Gautier, Valérie Rabier, Ghislaine Jallet, Dan Milea
Optic nerve involvement may occur in various infectious diseases, but is rarely reported after infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). We report the atypical case of a 38-year-old patient in whom the presenting features of HIV infection were due to a bilateral optic neuropathy associated with macular subretinal fluid and cystoid macular edema, which responded well to antiretroviral therapy.
August 2012: International Ophthalmology
A Le Corre, A Robin, T Maalouf, K Angioi
HIV-related optic neuropathy is rare compared to optic neuropathies secondary to opportunistic infections in seropositive patients. We report the case of a 39-year-old HIV-positive woman referred for unilateral visual loss leading to the diagnosis of recurrent, unilateral, inflammatory optic neuropathy directly associated with HIV. Despite initial recovery after steroid treatment, she relapsed twice. Absence of any opportunist infections or toxic causes and presence of a very high viral load due to non-compliance with treatment led to the diagnosis of HIV-related optic neuropathy...
April 2012: Journal Français D'ophtalmologie
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