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hiv optic neuropathy

Salil Mehta, Mrinalini Das, Chinmay Laxmeshwar, Sylvie Jonckheere, Sein Sein Thi, Petros Isaakidis
BACKGROUND: Patients on linezolid-containing drug-resistant TB (DR-TB) regimen often develop adverse-events, particularly peripheral and optic neuropathy. Programmatic data and experiences of linezolid-associated optic neuropathy from high DR-TB burden settings are lacking. The study aimed to determine the frequency of and risk-factors associated with linezolid-associated optic neuropathy and document the experiences related to treatment/care of DR-TB patients on linezolid-containing regimens...
2016: PloS One
Agostino Riva, Alessandro Invernizzi, Chiara Resnati, Valeria Micheli, Dario Cattaneo, Cristina Gervasoni
Ocular toxicity may not only be caused by medication overdoses and drug-drug interactions, but also by the chronic administration of medications at recommended doses. We describe the case of an HIV-infected patient who experienced significant and sustained bilateral visual loss two months after starting treatment with elvitegravir/cobicistat/tenofovir/emtricitabine. Given the absence of any evidence of tenofovir- or emtricitabine-induced optical neuropathy after several years of clinical use, the antiretroviral therapy was promptly changed to tenofovir/emtricitabine plus atazanavir/ritonavir, which led to a progressive improvement in visual acuity...
June 22, 2016: Antiviral Therapy
Ting Dai, Xinjun Wu, Shaona Zhou, Qianqiu Wang, Daning Li
BACKGROUND: Syphilis with ocular involvement has reemerged as a critical health problem. The aim of the present study was to explore the clinical manifestations and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) status in ocular syphilis in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative patients. METHODS: The clinical records of patients with ocular syphilis presenting to the Shanghai Xuhui Central Hospital in the period from January 2011 to December 2012 were retrospectively reviewed...
2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
C Berrozpe-Villabona, E Santos-Bueso, P Bañeros-Rojas, S Aguilar Munoa, F Saenz-Francés, D Díaz-Valle, J M Martínez-de-la-Casa, J García-Feijoo
Ocular syphilis is a resurgent clinical condition due to unsafe sexual practices. It has been reported in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients, but in HIV positive patients, it is more likely to exhibit a more aggressive course and adopt atypical clinical patterns such as optic nerve involvement. Herein we report an atypical case of optic neuritis secondary to syphilis in an HIV negative patient. This case highlights the importance of considering syphilis in the differential diagnosis of ocular inflammation and of obtaining HIV serology, since both diseases share common risk factors...
February 2016: Journal Français D'ophtalmologie
Sundeep K Kasi, Robin A Vora, Taliva Martin, Emmett T Cunningham
PURPOSE: To describe an unusual presentation of bilateral HIV-associated multifocal retinal infiltrates with phlebitis and optic neuropathy in a pediatric patient from Zimbabwe, Africa. METHODS: Retrospective case report of a 15-year-old boy from Zimbabwe, Africa. RESULTS: The patient was found to have bilateral vitritis, multifocal retinitis with phlebitis, and optic neuropathy in the setting of previously unrecognized HIV infection. Vision improved and the clinical findings resolved after treatment with intravenous corticosteroids and highly active retroviral therapy (HAART)...
2015: Retinal Cases & Brief Reports
Bo-Yu Lin, Mou-Chieh Kao
Among the five enzyme complexes in the oxidative phosphorylation system, NADH-coenzyme Q oxidoreductase (also called complex I) is the largest, most intricate, and least understood. This enzyme complex spans the inner mitochondrial membrane and catalyzes the first step of electron transfer by the oxidation of NADH, and thereby provides two electrons for the reduction of quinone to quinol. Complex I deficiency is associated with many severe mitochondrial diseases, including Leber hereditary optic neuropathy and Leigh syndrome...
September 2015: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Angelina Espino Barros Palau, Michael L Morgan, Rod Foroozan, Andrew G Lee
OBJECTIVE: To illustrate three different ophthalmic presentations of cryptococcal meningitis (CM). INTRODUCTION: CM is the most common manifestation of extra-pulmonary cryptococcosis. Intracranial hypertension occurs in up to 75% of patients with CM and is associated with increased mortality. CM can present to the ophthalmologist as vision loss, papilledema, abducens palsy, and/or other cranial neuropathies. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: We report three cases, two C...
October 2014: Canadian Journal of Ophthalmology. Journal Canadien D'ophtalmologie
J A Crespo-Burillo, D Gil-Perez, R Alarcia-Alejos, N Hernando-Quintana, S Garcia-Rubio, J Martin-Martinez
INTRODUCTION. There are many forms of neuro-ophthalmological involvement secondary to syphilis, and not all of them are well known. Our aim is to determine the clinical and therapeutic differences in these patients. CASE REPORTS. Our sample included eight patients diagnosed with an ocular and neuro-ophthalmological disorder due to syphilis over the years 2012 and 2013. Five of them presented uveitis, pan-eveitis being the most frequent, with three cases. Two cases presented papilloedema and another displayed retrobulbar optic neuropathy...
September 16, 2014: Revista de Neurologia
C Chiquet, H Khayi, C Puech, M Tonini, P Pavese, F Aptel, J-P Romanet
Syphilis is a sexually transmitted disease caused by Treponema pallidum. Previously known as the "great imitator", this disease can have numerous and complex manifestations. The ophthalmologist should suspect the diagnosis in patients with uveitis or optic neuropathy and high-risk sexual behavior and/or another sexually transmitted disease (such as HIV) or those presenting with posterior placoid chorioretinitis or necrotising retinitis. Ocular involvement in acquired syphilis is rare, tending to occur during the secondary and tertiary stages of the disease...
April 2014: Journal Français D'ophtalmologie
Michael W Stewart
During the first 15 years of the AIDS epidemic patients experienced a high incidence of blindness due to cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis and other severe ocular opportunistic infections. Highly active anti-retroviral therapy, introduced in 1996, dramatically decreased the incidence of CMV retinitis. Though CMV retinitis still causes 40% of vision loss in AIDS patients, other conditions such as immune reconstitution uveitis, cataracts, and a significant othercategory -which most investigators believe is directly due to HIV - comprise the majority of cases...
January 2, 2012: Infectious Disease Reports
Hui Yu Sun, Xiao Yan Peng, Dan Li, Fei Fei Mao, Qi Sheng You, Jost B Jonas
PURPOSE: To determine the prevalence of cytomegalovirus retinitis (CMVR) and other fundus lesions in subjects with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) before and after the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in China. METHODS: The retrospective study included subjects with AIDS who consecutively attended a third referral center in Beijing before and after HAART was introduced. Comprehensive systemic and ophthalmic examinations, including CD4+ T-cell count, ophthalmoscopy, and fundus photography, were carried out...
March 2014: European Journal of Ophthalmology
Hamzah Mustak, Graeme Rogers, Colin Cook
AIM: To determine whether HIV and the use of antiretroviral therapy is a risk factor for the development of ethambutol toxic optic neuropathy. To describe the clinical course of ethambutol toxic optic neuropathy in patients with HIV and to identify prognostic factors. METHODS: The case notes of 14 consecutive patients referred to the neuro-ophthalmology clinic were reviewed. Data regarding HIV status, antiretroviral therapy, visual function, ethambutol therapy dosage, and ethambutol therapy duration were collected and analysed...
2013: International Journal of Ophthalmology
Ignacio Rodríguez-Uña, Mercedes Serrador-García, Enrique Santos-Bueso, David Díaz-Valle, Julián García-Feijóo
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this report is to present a case of optic and vestibulocochlear neuropathy as a manifestation of concurrent HIV and syphilis coinfection. This is an interventional case report of a 37-year-old man who complained of blurry central vision in his left eye and hearing loss in his left ear over the past 2 weeks. FINDINGS: Visual acuity was 20/20 in both eyes, and the anterior segment was normal in both eyes without relative afferent pupillary defect...
2013: Journal of Ophthalmic Inflammation and Infection
David Gautier, Valérie Rabier, Ghislaine Jallet, Dan Milea
Optic nerve involvement may occur in various infectious diseases, but is rarely reported after infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). We report the atypical case of a 38-year-old patient in whom the presenting features of HIV infection were due to a bilateral optic neuropathy associated with macular subretinal fluid and cystoid macular edema, which responded well to antiretroviral therapy.
August 2012: International Ophthalmology
A Le Corre, A Robin, T Maalouf, K Angioi
HIV-related optic neuropathy is rare compared to optic neuropathies secondary to opportunistic infections in seropositive patients. We report the case of a 39-year-old HIV-positive woman referred for unilateral visual loss leading to the diagnosis of recurrent, unilateral, inflammatory optic neuropathy directly associated with HIV. Despite initial recovery after steroid treatment, she relapsed twice. Absence of any opportunist infections or toxic causes and presence of a very high viral load due to non-compliance with treatment led to the diagnosis of HIV-related optic neuropathy...
April 2012: Journal Français D'ophtalmologie
Soon-Phaik Chee, Aliza Jap
BACKGROUND: To determine treatment outcome and risk factors for visual loss in Cytomegalovirus (CMV) endotheliitis. METHODS: Retrospective case-note review of all CMV positive endotheliitis patients seen at the Singapore National Eye Center, for demographics, visual acuity (VA), extent of corneal edema, anterior chamber (AC) activity, ocular history, glaucomatous optic neuropathy (GON), and ganciclovir therapy. Outcome measures were VA, corneal edema, and AC activity...
March 2012: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
Katherine E Hodson, Richard J Bowman, Milka Mafwiri, Mark Wood, Vincent Mhoro, Sharon E Cox
AIMS: Bilateral optic neuropathy in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania was first reported as an epidemic in 1988. Now argued to be endemic in 2010, the aetiology remains unclear. The authors investigated the hypothesis that low folate and vitamin B₁₂ status are associated with optic neuropathy, and also sought to investigate whether mercury, commonly used drugs, dietary factors and indoor pollution may also be risk factors. METHODS: 57 cases and 102 controls were recruited from two tertiary referral centres in Dar-es-Salaam...
October 2011: British Journal of Ophthalmology
Marcelo Corti, Rubén Solari, Diana Cangelosi, Cecilia Domínguez, Claudio Yampolsky, Ricardo Negroni, Alicia Arechavala, Ricardo Schtirbu
BACKGROUND: Cryptococcosis is one of the most frequent and severe AIDS defining illnesses. AIMS: We present a patient with advanced HIV/AIDS disease and a diffuse meningoencephalitis due to Cryptococcus neoformans. The patient developed an acute and bilateral blindness associated with high cerebrospinal fluid pressure and optic neuropathy. METHODS: Post-mortem anatomopathologic study revealed a high number of Cryptococcus in the central nervous system, including the optic nerves and the optic chiasm...
October 2010: Revista Iberoamericana de Micología
Cindy Puech, Stéphane Gennai, Patricia Pavese, Isabelle Pelloux, Max Maurin, Jean-Paul Romanet, Christophe Chiquet
BACKGROUND: The ocular manifestations of syphilis are protean and can affect every structure of the eye. There has been a recent increase of syphilis infection in Europe. We report recent cases of ocular syphilis infection in a tertiary center. METHODS: During a 2.5-year period (2005-2007) we collected the medical records of eight male patients with ocular syphilis. The diagnosis was based on serological tests on blood samples and cerebrospinal fluid. All patients underwent a check-up to rule out another etiological diagnosis and to detect the presence of any other sexually transmitted infections...
November 2010: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
Kalpana Babu, Krishna R Murthy, Nirmala Rajagopalan, B Satish
We describe three patients with bilateral, presumed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-induced optic neuropathy. The above diagnosis was made by exclusion of infectious agents and neoplasms by detailed clinical and laboratory investigations. All patients had decreased visual acuity, pale optic discs and constriction of visual fields. Improvement was documented in all three patients for visual acuity and in one patient for visual fields following treatment with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Optic neuropathy in HIV-positive patients does not necessarily carry a poor prognosis even when a treatable cause is not found...
July 2009: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
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