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Jinhua Wang, Hajime Hirose, Guanhua Du, Kelly Chong, Eiji Kiyohara, Isaac P Witz, Dave S B Hoon
P-REX1 (PIP3-dependent Rac exchange factor-1) is a guanine nucleotide exchange factor that activates Rac by catalyzing exchange of GDP for GTP bound to Rac. Aberrant up-regulation of P-REX1 expression has a role in metastasis however, copy number (CN) and function of P-REX1 in cutaneous melanoma are unclear. To explore the role of P-REX1 in melanoma, SNP 6.0 and Exon 1.0 ST microarrays were assessed. There was a higher CN (2.82-fold change) of P-REX1 in melanoma cells than in melanocytes, and P-REX1 expression was significantly correlated with P-REX1 CN...
August 10, 2017: Cancer Letters
Jen-Hwey Chiu, Fang-Pey Chen, Yi-Fang Tsai, Man-Ting Lin, Ling-Ming Tseng, Yi-Ming Shyr
BACKGROUND: Our previous study demonstrated that an up-regulation of the Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) signaling pathway is involved the mechanism causing the recurrence of triple negative breast cancer. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of commonly used Chinese medicinal herbs on MDA-MB-231 and HUVEC cells and how they interact with BDNF. METHODS: Human TNBC MDA-MB-231 cells and human endothelial HUVEC cells were used to explore the effect of commonly used Chinese herbal medicines on cancer cells alone, on endothelial cells alone and on cancer cell/endothelial cell interactions; this was done via functional studies, including migration and invasion assays...
August 12, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Yu-Lai Duan, Zhi-Jian Hu, Bo-Qun Yang, Fei-Fei Ding, Wei Wang, Yong Huang, Ying Yang
The reactions of pyrrolidine derived salalen-type {ONNO} ligands (S)-L(1-3)-H2 with 1 equiv. M(O(i)Pr)4(HO(i)Pr) (M = Zr or Hf) in diethyl ether yielded complexes [L(1-3)M(O(i)Pr)2] (L = L(1), M = Zr (1); L = L(2), M = Zr (2), Hf (3); L = L(3), M = Zr (4), Hf (5)). All of these complexes were well characterized by NMR spectroscopy, elemental analyses and single-crystal X-ray analysis in the case of complexes 1 and 3-5. X-ray structural determination revealed that these complexes were analogous mononuclear species and had a similar structure in which the metal centers were six-coordinated to two oxygen atoms and two nitrogen atoms of one ligand and two oxygen atoms of two isopropoxy groups...
August 11, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Elvira Mennillo, Augustine Arukwe, Gianfranca Monni, Valentina Meucci, Luigi Intorre, Carlo Pretti
The increased use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) has resulted in their ubiquitous presence in the environment. The toxicological properties of these two widely prescribed NSAIDs, namely - racemic ketoprofen (rac-KP) and its enantiomer S(+)-ketoprofen (dexketoprofen, DKP) were evaluated. Firstly, by acute and chronic toxicity tests using three representative model organisms (Vibrio fischeri, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and Ceriodaphnia dubia). Secondly, by evaluating the responses of biotransformation systems and multidrug resistance associated proteins (MRP1/MRP2) using the PLHC-1 fish hepatic cell-line...
August 10, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Mohammad Sadraeian, Francisco E G Guimarães, Ana P U Araújo, David K Worthylake, Louis Jr LeCour, Seth H Pincus
Immunotoxins (ITs), which consist of antibodies conjugated to toxins, have been proposed as a treatment for cancer and chronic infections. To develop and improve the ITs, different toxins such as ricin, have been used, aiming for higher efficacy against target cells. The toxin pulchellin, isolated from the Abrus pulchellus plant, has similar structure and function as ricin. Here we have compared two plant toxins, recombinant A chains from ricin (RAC) and pulchellin (PAC) toxins, for their ability to kill HIV Env-expressing cells...
August 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
Takashi Misawa, Mitsuyoshi Imamura, Yuto Ozawa, Kazuchika Haishima, Masaaki Kurihara, Yutaka Kikuchi, Yosuke Demizu
Lysine-based amphipathic nonapeptides, including homochiral peptides [Ac-(l-Lys-l-Lys-Xaa)3-NH2 (Xaa=Gly, Ala, Aib, Ac5c, or Ac6c) and Ac-(d-Lys-d-Lys-Aib)3-NH2], a heterochiral peptide [Ac-(l-Lys-d-Lys-Aib)3-NH2], and a racemic mixture of diastereomeric peptides [Ac-(rac-Lys-rac-Lys-Aib)3-NH2] were designed and synthesized to investigate the relationship between their preferred secondary structures and their antimicrobial activity. Peptide 5, [Ac-(l-Lys-l-Lys-Ac6c)3-NH2] formed a stable α-helical structure and exhibited strong activity against Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa)...
July 29, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Yuta Mochizuki, Katsuhiko Ikeyatsu, Yuichiro Mutoh, Shoichi Hosoya, Shinichi Saito
Mechanically planar chiral [2]rotaxanes were synthesized by the introduction of bulky pyrrole moieties into the axle component of an achiral [2]rotaxane. The enantiomers were separated by chiral HPLC. The shuttling of the ring component between the two compartments at high temperature induced the stereoinversion of the mechanically planar chiral [2]rotaxane. The rate of the stereoinversion was studied quantitatively, and the kinetic parameters were determined.
August 7, 2017: Organic Letters
Chutikan Nakonkhet, Tanin Nanok, Worawat Wattanathana, Pitak Chuawong, Pimpa Hormnirun
Two series of aluminium complexes bearing salicylbenzothiazole ligands, namely four-coordinate aluminium complexes (1a-7a) and five-coordinate aluminium complexes (1b-7b), were synthesized and characterized by NMR spectroscopy, elemental analysis and X-ray diffraction crystallography (for 5a and 1b). Their application in the ring-opening polymerisation of rac-lactide and ε-caprolactone was studied with the aim of drawing comparisons to closely related aluminium salicylbenzoxazole complexes investigated previously...
August 7, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Marta Fiedot, Irena Maliszewska, Olga Rac-Rumijowska, Patrycja Suchorska-Woźniak, Agnieszka Lewińska, Helena Teterycz
Surgical meshes were modified with zinc oxide (ZnO) using a chemical bath deposition method (CBD) at 50 °C, 70 °C, or 90 °C, in order to biologically activate them. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), mass changes, and X-ray diffraction measurements revealed that at low temperatures Zn(OH)₂ was formed, and that this was converted into ZnO with a temperature increase. The antimicrobial activity without light stimulation of the ZnO modified Mersilene™ meshes was related to the species of microorganism, the incubation time, and the conditions of the experiment...
March 28, 2017: Materials
Wenchao Liu, Wanlin Cao, Jianwei Zhang, Ruwei Wang, Lele Ren
Recycled aggregate concrete (RAC) is an environmentally friendly building material. This paper investigates the mechanical behavior of recycled aggregate concrete filled steel tube (RACFST) columns exposed to fire. Two groups of 12 columns were designed and tested, under axial compression, before and after fire, to evaluate the degradation of bearing capacity due to fire exposure. Six specimens were subjected to axial compression tests at room temperature and the other six specimens were subjected to axial compression tests after a fire exposure...
March 9, 2017: Materials
Ying Zhang, Irmgard Sinning, Sabine Rospert
Chaperones, which assist protein folding are essential components of every living cell. The yeast ribosome-associated complex (RAC) is a chaperone that is highly conserved in eukaryotic cells. The RAC consists of the J protein Zuo1 and the unconventional Hsp70 homolog Ssz1. The RAC heterodimer stimulates the ATPase activity of the ribosome-bound Hsp70 homolog Ssb, which interacts with nascent polypeptide chains to facilitate de novo protein folding. In addition, the RAC-Ssb system is required to maintain the fidelity of protein translation...
August 3, 2017: Nature Structural & Molecular Biology
Yan Lin, Wenbin Kuang, Bitao Wu, Changli Xie, Cuiyin Liu, Zhiguang Tu
Interleukin-12 (IL-12) serves an important role in immune responses and antitumor activity. The study of the association between autophagy and cancer cells remains controversial. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of IL‑12 on autophagy in the human breast cancer cell lines MDA‑MB‑231 and MCF‑7, and the possible molecular mechanism. Breast cancer cells were treated with different concentrations of recombinant IL‑12. The expression of the autophagy-associated protein microtubule‑associated protein light chain 3 (LC3) was determined using western blot analysis, fluorescein isothiocyanate‑labeled LC3 was detected using fluorescence microscopy and autophagosomes were examined using transmission electron microscopy...
July 31, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
Fern Sinclair, Johann A Hlina, Jordann A L Wells, Michael P Shaver, Polly L Arnold
The C3-symmetric uranium(iv) and cerium(iv) complexes Me3SiOM(OAr(P))3, M = U (1), Ce (2), OAr(P) = OC6H2-6-(t)Bu-4-Me-2-PPh2, have been prepared and the difference between these 4f and 5f congeners as initiators for the ring opening polymerisation (ROP) of l-lactide is compared. The poorly controlled reactivity of the homoleptic analogue U(OAr(P))4 (3) demonstrates the importance of the M-OSiMe3 initiating group. The incorporation of a nickel atom in 1 to form the U-Ni heterobimetallic complex Me3SiOU(OAr(P))3Ni (4) may be the first example of the use of the inverse trans influence to switch the reactivity of a complex...
August 2, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Isabelle Larrieu, James Tolchard, Corinne Sanchez, Edmond Yazo Kone, Alexandre Barras, Claire Stines-Chaumeil, Benoît Odaert, Marie-France Giraud
Small hydrophobic membrane proteins or proteins with hydrophobic domains are often difficult to produce in bacteria. The cell-free expression system was found to be a very good alternative for the expression of small hydrophobic subunits of the yeast ATP-synthase, such as subunits e, g, k, i, f and the membrane domain of subunit 4, proteins that are suspected to play a role in the stability of ATP-synthase dimers. All of these proteins could be produced in milligrams amounts using the cell-free "precipitate mode" and were successfully solubilized in the presence of lysolipid 1-myristoyl-2-hydroxy-sn-glycero-3-phospho-1'-rac-glycerol...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Hajer Souabni, Aymen Ezzine, Tania Bizouarn, Laura Baciou
Activation of phagocyte cells from an innate immune system is associated with a massive consumption of molecular oxygen to generate highly reactive oxygen species (ROS) as microbial weapons. This is achieved by a multiprotein complex, the so-called NADPH oxidase. The activity of phagocyte NADPH oxidase relies on an assembly of more than five proteins, among them the membrane heterodimer named flavocytochrome b 558 (Cytb 558), constituted by the tight association of the gp91(phox) (also named Nox2) and p22(phox) proteins...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Shaozhou Zhu, Ying Shi, Xinyu Zhang, Guojun Zheng
1-amino cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACCA) and its derivatives are essential pharmacophoric unit that widely used in drug research and development. Specifically, (1R, 2S)-N-Boc-vinyl-ACCA ethyl ester (vinyl-ACCA) is a key chiral intermediate in the synthesis of highly potent hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS3/4A protease inhibitors such as asunaprevir and simeprevir. Developing strategies for the asymmetric synthesis of vinyl-ACCA is thus extremely high demand. In this study, 378 bacterial strains were isolated from soil samples using N-Boc-vinyl-ACCA ethyl ester as the sole carbon source and were screened for esterase activity...
July 28, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Seth P Zimmerman, Sreeja B Asokan, Brian Kuhlman, James E Bear
Rho GTPase family members are known regulators of directed migration and therefore play key roles in processes including development, immune response and cancer metastasis. However, their individual contributions to these processes are complex. Here, we regulate the activity of two family members, Rac and Cdc42, by optogenetically recruiting specific GEF DH/PH domains to defined regions on the cell membrane. We find that the localized activation of both GTPases produce lamellipodia in cells plated on a fibronectin substrate...
July 28, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
Young-Jun Kim, Jae Min Shin, Su-Hyun Shin, Joo Heon Kim, Ki-Young Sohn, Heung-Jae Kim, Jong-Koo Kang, Sun Young Yoon, Jae Wha Kim
The pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has been implicated neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) formation which could generate autoantigen. Neutrophil contributes to initiate and maintain the inflammatory process in the joint. In this study, we show that 1-palmitoyl-2-linoleoyl-3-acetyl-rac-glycerol (PLAG) decreases neutrophil migration by regulating the activity of STAT3, a regulator of IL-6 and MIP-2 expression. PLAG caused a decrease in IL-6 production in the RAW264.7 macrophage cell line and in rheumatoid arthritis-fibroblast-like synoviocytes via the regulation of STAT3 signaling without affecting NF-κB signaling...
July 19, 2017: Oncotarget
T L Mao, K F Fan, C L Liu
Ovarian carcinoma is the most crucial and difficult target for available therapeutic treatments among gynecological malignancies, and great efforts are required to find an effective solution. Molecular studies showed that the chemokine stromal cell-derived factor (SDF)-1 (also known as CXCL12) and its receptor, CXCR4, are key determinants of tumor initiation, progression, and metastasis in ovarian carcinomas. Hence, it is generally believed that blocking the CXCR4/CXCL12 pathway could serve as a potential therapy for patients with ovarian cancer...
July 28, 2017: Gene Therapy
Young-Eun Ko, Sun Young Yoon, Sun-Yung Ly, Joo-Heon Kim, Ki-Young Sohn, Jae Wha Kim
1-palmitoyl-2-linoleoyl-3-acetyl-rac-glycerol (PLAG), a chemically synthesized monoacetyldiaglyceride, is one of the constituents in Sika deer antlers and has been known traditionally as having immunomodulatory effects. However, the mechanism by which PLAG controls neutrophil migration, which evokes liver injury in the hepatitis animal model, remains largely unknown. This study was designed to evaluate the immunomodulatory effects of PLAG on cytokine secretion and neutrophil migration in vivo and in vitro. The injection of mice with Concanavalin A (Con A) induced leukocyte infiltration in the liver and increased plasma cytokine levels...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
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