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Shigeru Shimamura, Takashi Kaneko, Genki Ozawa, Mamiko Nishino Matsumoto, Takeru Koshiishi, Yoshihiro Takaki, Chiaki Kato, Ken Takai, Takao Yoshida, Katsunori Fujikura, James P Barry, Tadashi Maruyama
Intracellular thioautotrophic symbionts of deep-sea vesicomyid clams lack some DNA repair genes and are thought to be undergoing reductive genome evolution (RGE). In this study, we addressed two questions, 1) how these symbionts lost their DNA repair genes and 2) how such losses affect RGE. For the first question, we examined genes associated with nucleotide excision repair (NER; uvrA, uvrB, uvrC, uvrD, uvrD paralog [uvrDp] and mfd) in 12 symbionts of vesicomyid clams belonging to two clades (5 clade I and 7 clade II symbionts)...
2017: PloS One
Christopher P Selby
In 1989, transcription-repair coupling (TRC) was first described in Escherichia coli, as the transcription-dependent, preferential nucleotide excision repair (NER) of UV photoproducts located in the template DNA strand. This finding led to pioneering biochemical studies of TRC in the laboratory of Professor Aziz Sancar, where, at the time, major contributions were being made toward understanding the roles of the UvrA, UvrB and UvrC proteins in NER. When the repair studies were extended to TRC, template but not coding strand lesions were found to block RNA polymerase (RNAP) in vitro, and unexpectedly, the blocked RNAP inhibited NER...
January 2017: Photochemistry and Photobiology
Anthonige Vidya Perera, James Brian Mendenhall, Charmain Tan Courcelle, Justin Courcelle
DNA interstrand cross-links are complex lesions that covalently link both strands of the duplex DNA. Lesion removal is proposed to be initiated via the UvrABC nucleotide excision repair complex; however, less is known about the subsequent steps of this complex repair pathway. In this study, we characterized the contribution of nucleotide excision repair mutants to survival in the presence of psoralen-induced damage. Unexpectedly, we observed that the nucleotide excision repair mutants exhibit differential sensitivity to psoralen-induced damage, with uvrC mutants being less sensitive than either uvrA or uvrB We show that Cho, an alternative endonuclease, acts with UvrAB and is responsible for the reduced hypersensitivity of uvrC mutants...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Bacteriology
Jun Fan, Mathieu Leroux-Coyau, Nigel J Savery, Terence R Strick
Escherichia coli Mfd translocase enables transcription-coupled repair by displacing RNA polymerase (RNAP) stalled on a DNA lesion and then coordinating assembly of the UvrAB(C) components at the damage site. Recent studies have shown that after binding to and dislodging stalled RNAP, Mfd remains on the DNA in the form of a stable, slowly translocating complex with evicted RNAP attached. Here we find, using a series of single-molecule assays, that recruitment of UvrA and UvrAB to Mfd-RNAP arrests the translocating complex and causes its dissolution...
August 11, 2016: Nature
Qiuhua Bao, Yuqin Song, Haiyan Xu, Jie Yu, Wenyi Zhang, Bilige Menghe, Heping Zhang, Zhihong Sun
Lactobacillus casei is a lactic acid bacterium used in manufacturing of many fermented food products. To investigate the genetic diversity and population biology of this food-related bacterium, 224 Lb. casei isolates and 5 reference isolates were examined by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Among them, 224 Lb. casei isolates were isolated from homemade fermented foods, including naturally fermented dairy products, acidic gruel, and Sichuan pickles from 38 different regions in China and Mongolia. The MLST scheme was developed based on the analysis of 10 selected housekeeping genes (carB, clpX, dnaA, groEL, murE, pyrG, pheS, recA, rpoC, and uvrC)...
July 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
Tong Dan, Wenjun Liu, Yuqin Song, Haiyan Xu, Bilige Menghe, Heping Zhang, Zhihong Sun
BACKGROUND: Lactobacillus fermentum is economically important in the production and preservation of fermented foods. A repeatable and discriminative typing method was devised to characterize L. fermentum at the molecular level. The multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme developed was based on analysis of the internal sequence of 11 housekeeping gene fragments (clpX, dnaA, dnaK, groEL, murC, murE, pepX, pyrG, recA, rpoB, and uvrC). RESULTS: MLST analysis of 203 isolates of L...
2015: BMC Microbiology
Samuel Million-Weaver, Ariana N Samadpour, Daniela A Moreno-Habel, Patrick Nugent, Mitchell J Brittnacher, Eli Weiss, Hillary S Hayden, Samuel I Miller, Ivan Liachko, Houra Merrikh
We previously reported that lagging-strand genes accumulate mutations faster than those encoded on the leading strand in Bacillus subtilis. Although we proposed that orientation-specific encounters between replication and transcription underlie this phenomenon, the mechanism leading to the increased mutagenesis of lagging-strand genes remained unknown. Here, we report that the transcription-dependent and orientation-specific differences in mutation rates of genes require the B. subtilis Y-family polymerase, PolY1 (yqjH)...
March 10, 2015: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Wenyi Zhang, Wenjun Liu, Yuqing Song, Haiyan Xu, Bilige Menghe, Heping Zhang, Zhihong Sun
Leuconostoc mesenteroides strains play an important role in food fermentation. In this study, 136 strains from different dairy products in China and Mongolia were examined by multilocus sequence typing of 9 housekeeping genes. In total, 82 polymorphic sites were detected among the 9 loci. The number of polymorphic nucleotide sites varied between 4 (dnaA) and 18 (uvrC), whereas the nucleotide diversity per site among the 9 genes varied from 0.00379 in dnaA to 0.01195 in uvrC, suggesting a relatively low level of sequence diversity...
April 2015: Journal of Dairy Science
Tong Dan, Wenjun Liu, Zhihong Sun, Qiang Lv, Haiyan Xu, Yuqin Song, Heping Zhang
BACKGROUND: Economically, Leuconostoc lactis is one of the most important species in the genus Leuconostoc. It plays an important role in the food industry including the production of dextrans and bacteriocins. Currently, traditional molecular typing approaches for characterisation of this species at the isolate level are either unavailable or are not sufficiently reliable for practical use. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) is a robust and reliable method for characterising bacterial and fungal species at the molecular level...
2014: BMC Microbiology
Bennett Van Houten, Neil Kad
Despite three decades of biochemical and structural analysis of the prokaryotic nucleotide excision repair (NER) system, many intriguing questions remain with regard to how the UvrA, UvrB, and UvrC proteins detect, verify and remove a wide range of DNA lesions. Single-molecule techniques have begun to allow more detailed understanding of the kinetics and action mechanism of this complex process. This article reviews how atomic force microscopy and fluorescence microscopy have captured new glimpses of how these proteins work together to mediate NER...
August 2014: DNA Repair
Alexandra Vaisman, John P McDonald, Donald Huston, Wojciech Kuban, Lili Liu, Bennett Van Houten, Roger Woodgate
Stringent steric exclusion mechanisms limit the misincorporation of ribonucleotides by high-fidelity DNA polymerases into genomic DNA. In contrast, low-fidelity Escherichia coli DNA polymerase V (pol V) has relatively poor sugar discrimination and frequently misincorporates ribonucleotides. Substitution of a steric gate tyrosine residue with alanine (umuC_Y11A) reduces sugar selectivity further and allows pol V to readily misincorporate ribonucleotides as easily as deoxynucleotides, whilst leaving its poor base-substitution fidelity essentially unchanged...
November 2013: PLoS Genetics
Rishikesh S Parulekar, Sagar H Barage, Chidambar B Jalkute, Maruti J Dhanavade, Prayagraj M Fandilolu, Kailas D Sonawane
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a Gram positive, acid-fast bacteria belonging to genus Mycobacterium, is the leading causative agent of most cases of tuberculosis. The pathogenicity of the bacteria is enhanced by its developed DNA repair mechanism which consists of machineries such as nucleotide excision repair. Nucleotide excision repair consists of excinuclease protein UvrABC endonuclease, multi-enzymatic complex which carries out repair of damaged DNA in sequential manner. UvrC protein is a part of this complex and thus helps to repair the damaged DNA of M...
August 2013: Protein Journal
Craig D Hughes, Hong Wang, Harshad Ghodke, Michelle Simons, Atif Towheed, Ye Peng, Bennett Van Houten, Neil M Kad
Nucleotide excision DNA repair is mechanistically conserved across all kingdoms of life. In prokaryotes, this multi-enzyme process requires six proteins: UvrA-D, DNA polymerase I and DNA ligase. To examine how UvrC locates the UvrB-DNA pre-incision complex at a site of damage, we have labeled UvrB and UvrC with different colored quantum dots and quantitatively observed their interactions with DNA tightropes under a variety of solution conditions using oblique angle fluorescence imaging. Alone, UvrC predominantly interacts statically with DNA at low salt...
May 2013: Nucleic Acids Research
Pierre-Olivier Hardy, George Chaconas
To survive and avoid accumulation of mutations caused by DNA damage, the genomes of prokaryotes encode a variety of DNA repair pathways most well characterized in Escherichia coli. Some of these are required for the infectivity of various pathogens. In this study, the importance of 25 DNA repair/recombination genes for Borrelia burgdorferi survival to UV-induced DNA damage was assessed. In contrast to E. coli, where 15 of these genes have an effect on survival of UV irradiation, disruption of recombinational repair, transcription-coupled repair, methyl-directed mismatch correction, and repair of arrested replication fork pathways did not decrease survival of B...
May 2013: Journal of Bacteriology
Deise Fonseca Felício, Leonardo da Silva Vidal, Roberto Silva Irineu, Alvaro Costa Leitão, Wanda Almeida von Kruger, Constança de Paoli Britto, Angélica Cardoso, Janine Simas Cardoso, Claudia Lage
Cisplatin is currently used in tumor chemotherapy to induce the death of malignant cells through blockage of DNA replication. It is a commonly used chemotherapeutic agent binding mono- or bifunctionally to guanines in DNA. Escherichia coli K12 mutant strains deficient in nucleotide excision repair (NER) were submitted to increasing concentrations of cisplatin, and the results revealed that uvrA and uvrB mutants are sensitive to this agent, while uvrC and cho mutants remain as the wild type strain. The time required for both gene expression turn-off and return to normal weight DNA in wild-type E...
January 1, 2013: DNA Repair
Jochen Kuper, Caroline Kisker
Different DNA repair mechanisms have evolved to protect our genome from modifications caused by endogenous and exogenous agents, thus maintaining the integrity of the DNA. Helicases often play a central role in these repair pathways and have shown to be essential for diverse tasks within these mechanisms. In prokaryotic nucleotide excision repair (NER) for example the two helicases UvrB and UvrD assume vastly different functions. While UvrB is intimately involved in damage verification and acts as an anchor for the other prokaryotic NER proteins UvrA and UvrC, UvrD is required to resolve the post-incision complex leading to the release of UvrC and the incised ssDNA fragment...
2013: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Therdsak Prammananan, Saranya Phunpruch, Sarinya Jaitrong, Prasit Palittapongarnpim
Control of tuberculosis depends both on an effective, accurate, and rapid diagnosis and an effective treatment and management. Antituberculous drugs have been used for more than 50 years and are likely ineffective against multidrug-resistant strains, leading to an urgent need for new drugs. Comparative genome analysis has indicated that Mycobacterium tuberculosis uvrC, a component of nucleotide excision repair (NER) system, is an essential gene without any human homolog. This raises the possibility to use this gene as a new drug target...
March 2012: Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health
Raul Burgos, Gwendolyn E Wood, Lei Young, John I Glass, Patricia A Totten
Mycoplasma genitalium, a sexually transmitted human pathogen, encodes MgpB and MgpC adhesins that undergo phase and antigenic variation through recombination with archived 'MgPar' donor sequences. The mechanism and molecular factors required for this genetic variation are poorly understood. In this study, we estimate that sequence variation at the mgpB/C locus occurs in vitro at a frequency of > 1.25 × 10(-4) events per genome per generation using a quantitative anchored PCR assay. This rate was dramatically reduced in a recA deletion mutant and increased in a complemented strain overexpressing RecA...
August 2012: Molecular Microbiology
Claudia Moccia, Juliane Krebes, Stefan Kulick, Xavier Didelot, Christian Kraft, Christelle Bahlawane, Sebastian Suerbaum
BACKGROUND: Extensive genetic diversity and rapid allelic diversification are characteristics of the human gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori, and are believed to contribute to its ability to cause chronic infections. Both a high mutation rate and frequent imports of short fragments of exogenous DNA during mixed infections play important roles in generating this allelic diversity. In this study, we used a genetic approach to investigate the roles of nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway components in H...
2012: BMC Microbiology
Wenbi Wu, A Lorena Passarelli
The Autographa californica M nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) orf79 (ac79) gene is a conserved gene in baculoviruses and shares homology with genes in ascoviruses, iridoviruses, and several bacteria. Ac79 has a conserved motif and structural similarities to UvrC and intron-encoded endonucleases. Ac79 is produced at early times during infection and concentrates in the nucleus of infected cells at late times, suggesting a cellular compartment-specific function. To investigate its function, an ac79-knockout bacmid was generated through homologous recombination in Escherichia coli...
May 2012: Journal of Virology
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