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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785790/the-role-of-mirna-regulation-in-fetal-cardiomyocytes-cardiac-maturation-and-the-risk-of-heart-disease-in-adults
#1
Mitchell C Lock, Ross L Tellam, Kimberley J Botting, Kimberley C W Wang, Joseph B Selvanayagam, Doug A Brooks, Mike Seed, Janna L Morrison
Myocardial infarction is a primary contributor towards the global burden of cardiovascular disease. Rather than repairing the existing damage of myocardial infarction, current treatments only address the symptoms of the disease and reducing the risk of a secondary infarction. Cardiac regenerative capacity is dependent on cardiomyocyte proliferation, which concludes soon after birth in humans and precocial species such as sheep. Human fetal cardiac tissue has some ability to repair following tissue damage, whereas a fully matured human heart has minimal capacity for cellular regeneration...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776422/beating-the-odds-programming-proliferation-in-the-mammalian-heart
#2
Rajan Jain, Andrey Poleshko, Jonathan A Epstein
The heart is one of the least regenerative organs in the human body; adult cardiac myocytes divide at extremely low frequency. Therefore, meaningful induction of cardiac regeneration requires in-depth understanding of myocyte cell-cycle control. Recent insights into how myocytes can be coaxed into duplicating in vivo might inform emerging therapeutics.
May 18, 2018: Genome Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773058/non-cardiomyocytes-in-heart-regeneration
#3
Jie Feng, Yandong Li, Yu Nie
Heart failure represents a challenging clinical and public health problem and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Mechanistically, loss of cardiomyocytes leads to decompensated ventricular remodeling, which eventually progressed to cardiac failure. Regenerative medicine aimed to supplement functional cardiomyocytes is supposedly a promising approach for the effective treatment of heart failure. Over the past decades, investigations on heart regeneration have revealed the regulating networks of cardiomyocyte proliferation...
May 17, 2018: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767235/inhibition-of-microrna%C3%A2-16-protects-mesenchymal-stem-cells-against-apoptosis
#4
Jiang Rui, Shaohong Fang, Yongchen Wang, Bo Lv, Bo Yu, Shufeng Li
Bone marrow‑derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM‑MSCs) have been used in experimental research and clinical trials for heart function restoration and cardiomyocyte regeneration. However, due to a hostile microenvironment created by ischemia, hypoxia and pro‑inflammatory factors, the survival rate of implanted BM‑MSCs remains low. Therefore, strategies that can promote BM‑MSC survival and prevent apoptosis are required. Previous studies have reported that microRNA‑16 (miR‑16) can inhibit cell proliferation by targeting several proteins and signal pathway, not only by inducing apoptosis...
May 11, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761627/muscle-fiber-type-diversity-revealed-by-anti-myosin-heavy-chain-antibodies
#5
REVIEW
Stefano Schiaffino
Different forms of myosin heavy chains (MyHCs), coded by a large family of sarcomeric MYH genes, are expressed in striated muscles. The generation of specific anti-MyHC antibodies has provided a powerful tool to define the fiber types present in skeletal muscles, their functional properties, their response to conditions that affect muscle plasticity and their changes in muscle disorders. Cardiomyocyte heterogeneity has been revealed by the serendipitous observation that different MyHCs are present in atrial and ventricular myocardium and in heart conduction tissue...
May 14, 2018: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761407/editorial-special-issue-on-heart-valve-mechanobiology-new-insights-into-mechanical-regulation-of-valve-disease-and-regeneration
#6
EDITORIAL
Craig A Simmons, Hanjoong Jo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 14, 2018: Cardiovascular Engineering and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760727/expanded-cd133-cells-from-human-umbilical-cord-blood-improved-heart-function-in-rats-after-severe-myocardial-infarction
#7
Alejandro Correa, Gabriel Salles Ottoboni, Alexandra Cristina Senegaglia, Luiz Guilherme Achcar Capriglione, Nelson Itiro Miyague, Lidiane Maria Boldrini Leite, Valderez Ravaglio Jamur, Carmen Lúcia Kuniyoshi Rebelatto, Márcia Olandoski, Paulo Roberto Slud Brofman
Pharmacological approaches are partially effective in limiting infarct size. Cell therapies using a cell population enriched with endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) CD133+ have opened new perspectives for the treatment of ischemic areas after infarction. This preclinical study evaluated the effect of intramyocardial transplantation of purified or expanded human umbilical cord blood-derived CD133+ cells on the recovery of rats following acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Histology studies, electrocardiogram, and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) were used to evaluate heart recovery...
2018: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757271/the-isolation-and-culture-of-primary-epicardial-cells-derived-from-human-adult-and-fetal-heart-specimens
#8
Esther Dronkers, Asja T Moerkamp, Tessa van Herwaarden, Marie-José Goumans, Anke M Smits
The epicardium, an epithelial cell layer covering the myocardium, has an essential role during cardiac development, as well as in the repair response of the heart after ischemic injury. When activated, epicardial cells undergo a process known as epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) to provide cells to the regenerating myocardium. Furthermore, the epicardium contributes via secretion of essential paracrine factors. To fully appreciate the regenerative potential of the epicardium, a human cell model is required...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750131/tissue-engineering-toward-organ-specific-regeneration-and-disease-modeling
#9
Christian Mandrycky, Kiet Phong, Ying Zheng
Tissue engineering has been recognized as a translational approach to replace damaged tissue or whole organs. Engineering tissue, however, faces an outstanding knowledge gap in the challenge to fully recapitulate complex organ-specific features. Major components, such as cells, matrix, and architecture, must each be carefully controlled to engineer tissue-specific structure and function that mimics what is found in vivo. Here we review different methods to engineer tissue, and discuss critical challenges in recapitulating the unique features and functional units in four major organs-the kidney, liver, heart, and lung, which are also the top four candidates for organ transplantation in the USA...
September 2017: MRS Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748369/calcium-signaling-and-reactive-oxygen-species-in-mitochondria
#10
REVIEW
Edoardo Bertero, Christoph Maack
In heart failure, alterations of Na+ and Ca2+ handling, energetic deficit, and oxidative stress in cardiac myocytes are important pathophysiological hallmarks. Mitochondria are central to these processes because they are the main source for ATP, but also reactive oxygen species (ROS), and their function is critically controlled by Ca2+ During physiological variations of workload, mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake is required to match energy supply to demand but also to keep the antioxidative capacity in a reduced state to prevent excessive emission of ROS...
May 11, 2018: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743563/cell-therapy-trials-for-heart-regeneration-lessons-learned-and-future-directions
#11
REVIEW
Philippe Menasché
The effects of cell therapy on heart regeneration in patients with chronic cardiomyopathy have been assessed in several clinical trials. These trials can be categorized as those using noncardiac stem cells, including mesenchymal stem cells, and those using cardiac-committed cells, including KIT+ cardiac stem cells, cardiosphere-derived cells, and cardiovascular progenitor cells derived from embryonic stem cells. Although the safety of cell therapies has been consistently reported, their efficacy remains more elusive...
May 9, 2018: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743347/computational-modeling-guides-tissue-engineered-heart-valve-design-for-long-term-in-vivo-performance-in-a-translational-sheep-model
#12
Maximilian Y Emmert, Boris A Schmitt, Sandra Loerakker, Bart Sanders, Hendrik Spriestersbach, Emanuela S Fioretta, Leon Bruder, Kerstin Brakmann, Sarah E Motta, Valentina Lintas, Petra E Dijkman, Laura Frese, Felix Berger, Frank P T Baaijens, Simon P Hoerstrup
Valvular heart disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Current heart valve prostheses have considerable clinical limitations due to their artificial, nonliving nature without regenerative capacity. To overcome these limitations, heart valve tissue engineering (TE) aiming to develop living, native-like heart valves with self-repair, remodeling, and regeneration capacity has been suggested as next-generation technology. A major roadblock to clinically relevant, safe, and robust TE solutions has been the high complexity and variability inherent to bioengineering approaches that rely on cell-driven tissue remodeling...
May 9, 2018: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740591/postnatal-and-adult-aortic-heart-valves-have-distinctive-transcriptional-profiles-associated-with-valve-tissue-growth-and-maintenance-respectively
#13
Emily Nordquist, Stephanie LaHaye, Casey Nagel, Joy Lincoln
Heart valves are organized connective tissues of high mechanical demand. They open and close over 100,000 times a day to preserve unidirectional blood flow by maintaining structure-function relationships throughout life. In affected individuals, structural failure compromises function and often leads to regurgitant blood flow and progressive heart failure. This is most common in degenerative valve disease due to age-related wear and tear, or congenital malformations. At present, the only effective treatment of valve disease is surgical repair or replacement and this is often impermanent and requires anti-coagulation therapy throughout life...
2018: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740050/matrix-metalloproteinases-mmps-mediate-leukocyte-recruitment-during-the-inflammatory-phase-of-zebrafish-heart-regeneration
#14
Shisan Xu, Sarah E Webb, Terrence Chi Kong Lau, Shuk Han Cheng
In zebrafish, the role of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in the inflammatory phase of heart regeneration following cryoinjury remains poorly understood. Here, we demonstrated an increase in MMP enzymatic activity and elevated expression of mmp9 and mmp13 in the injured area (IA) of hearts from as early as 1 day post-cryoinjury (dpc). Treatment with the broad-spectrum MMP inhibitor, GM6001, during the first week after cryoinjury resulted in impaired heart regeneration, as indicated by the larger scar and reduced numbers of proliferating cardiomyocytes...
May 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735591/the-alchemist-s-nightmare-might-mesenchymal-stem-cells-that-are-recruited-to-repair-the-injured-heart-be-transformed-into-fibroblasts-rather-than-cardiomyocytes
#15
REVIEW
Milton Packer
The injection of mesenchymal stem cells into the injured myocardium to induce cardiac regeneration has yielded disappointing results, conceivably because cells with cardioreparative potential must be supplied for long periods of time to produce a salutary effect. Accordingly, investigators have devised ways of directing such cells to the heart on an ongoing basis: by enhancing the action of endogenous peptides that function as cardiac homing signals (eg, stromal cell-derived factor-1). Stromal cell-derived factor-1 is released during acute cardiac injury and heart failure, but it has a short half-life because of degradation by dipeptidyl peptidase-4...
May 8, 2018: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732402/the-local-microenvironment-limits-the-regenerative-potential-of-the-mouse-neonatal-heart
#16
Mario Notari, Antoni Ventura-Rubio, Sylvia J Bedford-Guaus, Ignasi Jorba, Lola Mulero, Daniel Navajas, Mercè Martí, Ángel Raya
Neonatal mice have been shown to regenerate their hearts during a transient window of time of approximately 1 week after birth. However, experimental evidence for this phenomenon is not undisputed, because several laboratories have been unable to detect neonatal heart regeneration. We first confirmed that 1-day-old neonatal mice are indeed able to mount a robust regenerative response after heart amputation. We then found that this regenerative ability sharply declines within 48 hours, with hearts of 2-day-old mice responding to amputation with fibrosis, rather than regeneration...
May 2018: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731772/direct-cardiac-reprogramming-progress-and-promise
#17
REVIEW
James L Engel, Reza Ardehali
The human adult heart lacks a robust endogenous repair mechanism to fully restore cardiac function after insult; thus, the ability to regenerate and repair the injured myocardium remains a top priority in treating heart failure. The ability to efficiently generate a large number of functioning cardiomyocytes capable of functional integration within the injured heart has been difficult. However, the ability to directly convert fibroblasts into cardiomyocyte-like cells both in vitro and in vivo offers great promise in overcoming this problem...
2018: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719380/astragalus-polysaccharides-protect-cardiac-stem-and-progenitor-cells-by-the-inhibition-of-oxidative-stress-mediated-apoptosis-in-diabetic-hearts
#18
Wei Chen, Jing Ju, Yehong Yang, Hao Wang, Wenjie Chen, Xuelan Zhao, Hongying Ye, Yu Zhang
Introduction: Diabetic cardiomyopathy is characterized by an imbalance between myocyte death and regeneration mediated by the progressive loss of cardiac stem and progenitor cells (CSPCs) by apoptosis and necrosis due to the activation of oxidative stress with diabetes. In this study, we evaluated the beneficial effect of astragalus polysaccharides (APS) therapy on the protection of CSPCs through its antioxidative capacity in diabetic hearts. Materials and methods: Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice and heterozygous (SOD2+/-) knockout mice were employed and administered with APS...
2018: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29715592/fucoidan-vegf-based-surface-modification-of-decellularized-pulmonary-heart-valve-improves-the-antithrombotic-and-re-endothelialization-potential-of-bioprostheses
#19
N Marinval, M Morenc, M N Labour, A Samotus, A Mzyk, V Ollivier, M Maire, K Jesse, K Bassand, A Niemiec-Cyganek, O Haddad, M P Jacob, F Chaubet, N Charnaux, P Wilczek, H Hlawaty
Decellularized porcine heart valves offer promising potential as biocompatible prostheses. However, this procedure alter matrix fibres and glycans, leading to lower biomechanical resistance and increased their thrombotic potential. Therefore, their durability is limited due to calcification and weak regeneration in vivo. Surface modifications are highly requested to improve the scaffolds re-endothelialization required to restore functional and haemocompatible heart valve. Fucoidan, a natural sulphated polysaccharide, carries antithrombotic and anti-inflammatory properties and is known to enhance endothelial adhesion and proliferation when associated with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)...
March 16, 2018: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713455/cardiac-regeneration-in-xenopus-tropicalis-and-xenopus-laevis-discrepancies-and-problems
#20
Souqi Liao, Wenyan Dong, Hui Zhao, Ruijin Huang, Xufeng Qi, Dongqing Cai
Two studies have recently focused on adult heart regeneration in Xenopus . While we reported on cardiac myogenic regeneration in Xenopus tropicalis after injury, Marshall and colleagues found no regeneration in an injured heart in Xenopus laevis. Here, we would like to join the discussion initiated by Marshall et al. who debated the methods and species differences in both studies. We agree with their view that the species difference in cardiac regenerative capacity could lead to different results in both of these studies...
2018: Cell & Bioscience
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