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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936744/cardiac-telocyte-derived-exosomes-and-their-possible-implications-in-cardiovascular-pathophysiology
#1
Mirca Marini, Lidia Ibba-Manneschi, Mirko Manetti
Among cardiac interstitial cells, the recently described telocytes (TCs) display the unique ability to build a supportive three-dimensional network formed by their very long and thin prolongations named telopodes. Cardiac TCs are increasingly regarded as pivotal regulators in intercellular signaling with multiple cell types, such as cardiomyocytes, stem/progenitor cells, microvessels, nerve endings, fibroblasts and immune cells, thus converting the cardiac stromal compartment into an integrated system that may drive either heart development or maintenance of cardiac homeostasis in post-natal life...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936743/therapeutic-potential-of-hematopoietic-stem-cell-derived-exosomes-in-cardiovascular-disease
#2
Jana Radosinska, Monika Bartekova
As other stem cells, hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are able to produce extracellular vesicles (EVs) including exosomes and microvesicles. This chapter summarizes the knowledge about the production of EVs by the HSCs, their role in the intercellular communication, and will discuss the cargo of these EVs as well as protective effects of HSCs-derived exosomes and microvesicles in cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Available data showed that cardioprotective action of injected HSCs could not be explained by direct transdifferentiationof injected cells into the cardiomyocytes, this effect is suggested to be mediated via paracrine communication (by EVs) between donor and recipient cells...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936174/the-effect-of-velvet-antler-proteins-on-cardiac-microvascular-endothelial-cells-challenged-with-ischemia-hypoxia
#3
Xiang Xiao, Shuqiang Xu, Lin Li, Min Mao, Jinping Wang, Yanjun Li, Ziwei Wang, Fei Ye, Li Huang
Velvet antler (VA) is a precious traditional Chinese medicine that is capable of repeated regeneration. Based on the Chinese medicine theory of coordination the heart and kidneys, VA has been employed to treat heart diseases, including ischemic heart disease, heart failure, and arrhythmia. We examined the effects of VA proteins on primary cardiac microvascular endothelial cells (CMECs) that were subjected to ischemia-hypoxia (IH) to investigate their effects on and mechanism of action in the treatment of ischemic heart disease...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923792/p2y2-nucleotide-receptor-prompts-human-cardiac-progenitor-cell-activation-by-modulating-hippo-signaling
#4
Farid G Khalafalla, Steven R Greene, Hashim Khan, Kelli Ilves, Megan M Monsanto, Roberto Alvarez, Monica Chavarria, Jonathan H Nguyen, Benjamin Norman, Walter P Dembitsky, Mark A Sussman
Rationale: Autologous stem cell therapy using human c-Kit(+) cardiac progenitor cells (hCPCs) is a promising therapeutic approach for treatment of heart failure (HF). However, hCPCs derived from aged HF patients with genetic predispositions and/or comorbidities of chronic diseases exhibit poor proliferative and migratory capabilities, which impairs overall reparative potential for injured myocardium. Therefore, empowering functionally compromised hCPCs with pro-regenerative molecules ex vivo is crucial for improving the therapeutic outcome in HF patients...
September 18, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923324/regenerating-heart-using-a-novel-compound-and-human-wharton-jelly-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#5
Shahram Rabbani, Masoud Soleimani, Mohammad Imani, Mohammad Sahebjam, Ali Ghiaseddin, Seyed Mahdi Nassiri, Jalil Majd Ardakani, Maryam Tajik Rostami, Arash Jalali, Bahmanshir Mousanassab, Mahsa Kheradmandi, Seyed Hossein Ahmadi Tafti
BACKGROUND: Myocardial infarction is a major problem in health system and most conventional therapy is not led to restoration of the health. Stem cell therapy is a method to regenerate the heart but today appropriate cell source and scaffold selection as extracellular matrix to achieve the best effect is disputing. AIM OF THE STUDY: In this study a combination of human Wharton jelly mesenchymal stem cells (HWJMSCs) with a novel compound consisting polyethylene glycol (PEG), hyaluronic acid and chitosan is presented to heart regeneration...
April 2017: Archives of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920469/the-canonical-way-to-make-a-heart-%C3%AE-catenin-and-plakoglobin-in-heart-development-and-remodeling
#6
Oksana O Piven, Cecilia L Winata
The main mediator of the canonical Wnt pathway, β-catenin, is a major effector of embryonic development, postnatal tissue homeostasis, and adult tissue regeneration. The requirement for β-catenin in cardiogenesis and embryogenesis has been well established. However, many questions regarding the molecular mechanisms by which β-catenin and canonical Wnt signaling regulate these developmental processes remain unanswered. An interesting question that emerged from our studies concerns how β-catenin signaling is modulated through interaction with other factors...
January 1, 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917832/hypoxia-and-heart-regeneration-a-new-paradoxical-approach-for-cardioprotection
#7
Luc Rochette, Gabriel Malka, Yves Cottin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 13, 2017: Archives of Cardiovascular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903760/feasibility-of-detecting-myocardial-infarction-in-the-sheep-fetus-using-late-gadolinium-enhancement-cmr-imaging
#8
An Qi Duan, Mitchell C Lock, Sunthara Rajan Perumal, Jack R Darby, Jia Yin Soo, Joseph B Selvanayagam, Christopher K Macgowan, Mike Seed, Janna L Morrison
BACKGROUND: Late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging has enabled the accurate assessment of myocardial infarction (MI). However, LGE CMR has not been performed successfully in the fetus, where it could be useful for animal studies of interventions to promote cardiac regeneration. We believe that LGE imaging could allow us to document the presence, extent and effect of MI in utero and would thereby expand our capacity for conducting fetal sheep MI research...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900504/platelet-targeted-delivery-of-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells-to-the-ischemic-heart-restores-cardiac-function-after-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#9
Melanie Ziegler, Xiaowei Wang, Bock Lim, Ephraem Leitner, Franco Klingberg, Victoria Ching, Yu Yao, Dexing Huang, Xiao-Ming Gao, Helen Kiriazis, Xiao-Jun Du, Jody J Haigh, Alex Bobik, Christoph E Hagemeyer, Ingo Ahrens, Karlheinz Peter
One of the major hurdles in intravenous regenerative cell therapy is the low homing efficiency to the area where these cells are needed. To increase cell homing toward areas of myocardial damage, we developed a bispecific tandem single-chain antibody (Tand-scFvSca-1+GPIIb/IIIa) that binds with high affinity to activated platelets via the activated glycoprotein (GP)IIb/IIIa receptor, and to a subset of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) which express the stem cell antigen-1 (Sca-1) receptor. Methods: The Tand-scFvSca-1+GPIIb/IIIa was engineered, characterized and tested in a mouse model of ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury applying left coronary artery occlusion for 60 min...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895403/injectable-carbon-nanotube-functionalized-reverse-thermal-gel-promotes-cardiomyocytes-survival-and-maturation
#10
Brisa Peña, Susanna Bosi, Brian A Aguado, Daniele Borin, Nikki L Farnsworth, Evgenia Dobrinskikh, Teisha J Rowland, Valentina Martinelli, Mark Jeong, Matthew R G Taylor, Carlin S Long, Robin Shandas, Orfeo Sbaizero, Maurizio Prato, Kristi S Anseth, Daewon Park, Luisa Mestroni
The ability of the adult heart to regenerate cardiomyocytes (CMs) lost after injury is limited, generating interest in developing efficient cell-based transplantation therapies. Rigid carbon nanotubes (CNTs) scaffolds have been used to improve CMs viability, proliferation, and maturation, but they require undesirable invasive surgeries for implantation. To overcome this limitation, we developed an injectable reverse thermal gel (RTG) functionalized with CNTs (RTG-CNT) that transitions from a solution at room temperature to a three-dimensional (3D) gel-based matrix shortly after reaching body temperature...
September 20, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895052/the-effects-of-periostin-in-a-rat-model-of-isoproterenol-mediated-cardiotoxicity
#11
Mahmut Sözmen, Alparslan K Devrim, Yonca B Kabak, Tuba Devrim, Mert Sudagidan
Periostin is an extracellular matrix protein from fasciclin family, and it plays an important role in the cell adhesion, migration, and growth of the organism. Periostin prevents apoptosis while stimulating cardiomyocytes. The present study was designed to investigate cardioprotective effects of the recombinant murine periostin peptide administration in a rat model of isoproterenol (ISO)-induced myocardial injury. The experiment was performed on 84 adult male Sprague Dawley rats in 4 groups (n = 21): control group (1), periostin-treated group (2), ISO-treated group (3), and ISO + periostin-treated group (4)...
September 11, 2017: Cardiovascular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886268/implanted-hair-follicle-associated-pluripotent-hap-stem-cells-encapsulated-in-polyvinylidene-fluoride-membrane-cylinders-promote-effective-recovery-of-peripheral-nerve-injury
#12
Aiko Yamazaki, Kohya Obara, Natsuko Tohgi, Kyoumi Shirai, Sumiyuki Mii, Yuko Hamada, Nobuko Arakawa, Ryoichi Aki, Robert M Hoffman, Yasuyuki Amoh
Hair follicle-associated-pluripotent (HAP) stem cells are located in the bulge area of the hair follicle, express the stem-cell marker, nestin, and have been shown to differentiate to nerve cells, glial cells, keratinocytes, smooth muscle cells, cardiac muscle cells, and melanocytes. Transplanted HAP stem cells promote the recovery of peripheral nerve and spinal cord injuries and have the potential for heart regeneration as well. In the present study, we implanted mouse HAP stem-cell spheres encapsulated in polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF)-membrane cylinders into the severed sciatic nerve of immunocompetent and immunocompromised (nude) mice...
September 8, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875984/multiscale-technologies-for-treatment-of-ischemic-cardiomyopathy
#13
REVIEW
Morteza Mahmoudi, Mikyung Yu, Vahid Serpooshan, Joseph C Wu, Robert Langer, Richard T Lee, Jeffrey M Karp, Omid C Farokhzad
The adult mammalian heart possesses only limited capacity for innate regeneration and the response to severe injury is dominated by the formation of scar tissue. Current therapy to replace damaged cardiac tissue is limited to cardiac transplantation and thus many patients suffer progressive decay in the heart's pumping capacity to the point of heart failure. Nanostructured systems have the potential to revolutionize both preventive and therapeutic approaches for treating cardiovascular disease. Here, we outline recent advancements in nanotechnology that could be exploited to overcome the major obstacles in the prevention of and therapy for heart disease...
September 6, 2017: Nature Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873339/non-invasive-strategies-for-stimulating-endogenous-repair-and-regenerative-mechanisms-in-the-damaged-heart
#14
REVIEW
Fiona C Lewis, Siri Deva Kumar, Georgina M Ellison-Hughes
The adult myocardium, including human, harbours a population of resident multi-potent cardiac stem cells (CSCs), which when stimulated under the right conditions can give rise to new cardiomyocytes and vasculature. Elucidation of the cellular and molecular mechanisms that govern CSC biology and their role in myocardial regeneration will allow the design and development of optimal therapeutic interventions. It is now evident that different growth factors and cytokines govern CSC survival, proliferation, migration and differentiation, as well as playing a role in activating cardiac repair mechanisms such as improving angiogenesis, cardiomyocyte survival and limiting fibrosis...
September 2, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863429/biotherapies-and-biomarkers-for-cardiovascular-diseases-a-15-year-journey-at-the-icrec-heart-failure-and-cardiac-regeneration-research-laboratory-in-barcelona-spain
#15
Santiago Roura, Carolina Gálvez-Montón, Josep Lupón, Antoni Bayes-Genis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 14, 2017: European Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859577/single-cell-sequencing-technologies-for-cardiac-stem-cell-studies
#16
Tiantian Liu, Hongjin Wu, Shixiu Wu, Charles Wang
Today with the rapid advancements in stem cell studies and the promising potential of using stem cells in clinical therapy, there is an increasing demand for in-depth comprehensive analysis on individual cell transcriptome and epigenome, as they play critical roles in a number of cell functions such as cell differentiation, growth and reprogramming. The development of single-cell sequencing technologies has helped in revealing some exciting new perspectives in stem cells and regenerative medicine research. Among the various potential applications, single-cell analysis for cardiac stem cells (CSCs) holds tremendous promises in understanding the mechanisms of heart development and regeneration, which might light up the path towards cell therapy for cardiovascular diseases...
August 31, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858485/discovery-of-small-molecules-targeting-the-synergy-of-cardiac-transcription-factors-gata4-and-nkx2-5
#17
Mika J Välimäki, Marja A Tölli, Sini M Kinnunen, Jani Aro, Raisa Serpi, Lotta Pohjolainen, Virpi Talman, Antti Poso, Heikki J Ruskoaho
Transcription factors are pivotal regulators of gene transcription, and many diseases are associated with the deregulation of transcriptional networks. In the heart, the transcription factors GATA4 and NKX2-5 are required for cardiogenesis. GATA4 and NKX2-5 interact physically, and the activation of GATA4, in cooperation with NKX2-5, is essential for stretch-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Here, we report the identification of four small molecule families that either inhibit or enhance the GATA4-NKX2-5 transcriptional synergy...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854178/genetic-insights-into-mammalian-heart-regeneration
#18
Ana Vujic, Vinícius Bassaneze, Richard T Lee
Genetic and functional analyses of 120 mouse strains have identified a heart regeneration candidate gene that modulates the contractile sarcomeric apparatus. This gene, Tnni3k, controls the frequency of the mononuclear, diploid cardiomyocyte population, which affects cardiomyocyte proliferative potential after injury.
August 30, 2017: Nature Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852100/mechanisms-of-stem-cell-based-cardiac-repair-gap-junctional-signaling-promotes-the-cardiac-lineage-specification-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#19
Heiko Lemcke, Ralf Gaebel, Anna Skorska, Natalia Voronina, Cornelia Aquilina Lux, Janine Petters, Sarah Sasse, Nicole Zarniko, Gustav Steinhoff, Robert David
Different subtypes of bone marrow-derived stem cells are characterized by varying functionality and activity after transplantation into the infarcted heart. Improvement of stem cell therapeutics requires deep knowledge about the mechanisms that mediate the benefits of stem cell treatment. Here, we demonstrated that co-transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) led to enhanced synergistic effects on cardiac remodeling. While HSCs were associated with blood vessel formation, MSCs were found to possess transdifferentiation capacity...
August 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851980/hypoxic-stress-decreases-c-myc-protein-stability-in-cardiac-progenitor-cells-inducing-quiescence-and-compromising-their-proliferative-and-vasculogenic-potential
#20
Michael A Bellio, Mariana T Pinto, Victoria Florea, Paola A Barrios, Christy N Taylor, Ariel B Brown, Courtney Lamondin, Joshua M Hare, Ivonne H Schulman, Claudia O Rodrigues
Cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) have been shown to promote cardiac regeneration and improve heart function. However, evidence suggests that their regenerative capacity may be limited in conditions of severe hypoxia. Elucidating the mechanisms involved in CPC protection against hypoxic stress is essential to maximize their cardioprotective and therapeutic potential. We investigated the effects of hypoxic stress on CPCs and found significant reduction in proliferation and impairment of vasculogenesis, which were associated with induction of quiescence, as indicated by accumulation of cells in the G0-phase of the cell cycle and growth recovery when cells were returned to normoxia...
August 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
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