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Circulating cancer cells

Kristine Moltu, Karen Henjum, Nikolaus G Oberprieler, Bjørn A Bjørnbeth, Kjetil Taskén
Patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) have been shown to have elevated levels of circulating prostaglandin E2(PGE2) which promotes cancer progression and suppresses T-cell immune responses. In this study we evaluated whether signaling responses in T lymphocytes obtained from peripheral blood of CRC patients were affected by the sustained exposure to increased levels of PGE2. The phosphorylation status of an extended panel of proteins involved in downstream signaling cascades in T cells was profiled at a single cell level both in naïve and antigen-experienced cells after triggering T cell-, prostaglandin- and interleukin-2 receptors...
October 18, 2016: Human Immunology
Erika Heninger, Timothy E G Krueger, Stephanie M Thiede, Jamie M Sperger, Brianna L Byers, Madison R Kircher, David Kosoff, Bing Yang, David F Jarrard, Douglas G McNeel, Joshua M Lang
Immune tolerance to self-antigens can limit robust anti-tumor immune responses in the use of tumor vaccines. Expression of novel tumor associated antigens can improve immune recognition and lysis of tumor cells. The cancer-testis antigen (CTA) family of proteins has been hypothesized to be an ideal class of antigens due to tumor-restricted expression, a subset of which have been found to induce antibody responses in patients with prostate disease. We demonstrate that CTA expression is highly inducible in five different Prostate Cancer (PC) cell lines using a hypomethylating agent 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5AZA) and/or a histone deacetylase inhibitor LBH589...
October 17, 2016: Oncotarget
Ranjan Basak, Naveen Kumar Nair, Indraneel Mittra
There is extensive literature to show that nucleic acids can be taken up by cells under experimental conditions and that foetal DNA can be detected in maternal tissues. The uptaken DNA can integrate into host cell genomes and can be transcribed and translated into proteins. They can also cause chromosomal damage and karyotype alterations. Cell-free nucleic acids (cfNAs)-based non-invasive DNA diagnostic techniques are being extensively researched in the field of cancer with the potential to advance new prognostic parameters and direct treatment decisions...
October 12, 2016: Mutation Research
Cuijuan Yu, Hai Wang, Aaron Muscarella, Amit Goldstein, Huan-Chang Zeng, Yangjin Bae, Brendan H I Lee, Xiang H-F Zhang
Intra-iliac artery (IIA) injection is an efficient approach to introduce metastatic lesions of various cancer cells in animals. Compared to the widely used intra-cardiac and intra-tibial injections, IIA injection brings several advantages. First, it can deliver a large quantity of cancer cells specifically to hind limb bones, thereby providing spatiotemporally synchronized early-stage colonization events and allowing robust quantification and swift detection of disseminated tumor cells. Second, it injects cancer cells into the circulation without damaging the local tissues, thereby avoiding inflammatory and wound-healing processes that confound the bone colonization process...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Quan Zhou, Zhao Li, Juan Zhou, Bishnu P Joshi, Gaoming Li, Xiyu Duan, Rork Kuick, Scott R Owens, Thomas D Wang
EGFR is a promising cell surface target for in vivo imaging that is highly overexpressed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), a common cancer worldwide. Peptides penetrate easily into tumors for deep imaging, and clear rapidly from the circulation to minimize background. We aim to demonstrate use of an EGFR specific peptide to detect HCC xenograft tumors in mice with photoacoustic imaging. Nude mice implanted with human HCC cells that overexpress EGFR were injected intravenously with Cy5.5-labeled EGFR and scrambled control peptides respectively...
June 2016: Photoacoustics
Changqing Yin, Changliang Luo, Wei Hu, Xu Ding, Chunhui Yuan, Fubing Wang
As part of "liquid biopsy," lots of literature indicated the potential diagnostic value of circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) in the management of prostate cancer (PCa). However, the literature on the accuracy of cfDNA detection in PCa has been inconsistent. Hence, we performed this meta-analysis to assess the diagnostic value of cfDNA in PCa. A total of 19 articles were included in this analysis according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. We then investigated two main subgroups in this meta-analysis, including qualitative analysis of abnormal level of cfDNA and qualitative analysis of single-gene methylation alterations...
2016: Disease Markers
Nicola Stefano Fracchiolla, Claudio Annaloro, Francesca Guidotti, Bruno Fattizzo, Agostino Cortelezzi
Dioxin exposure and its effect on hematopoiesis and cancer have been largely investigated in both human and non-human settings. Here we systematically reviewed literature to address the question of what we know about TCDD biology and exposure. Most effects are due to TCDD interaction with a receptor of xenobiotics called AHR, which is ubiquitously represented and also works on hematopoietic myeloid and lymphoid stem cells, inducing proliferation and stem cell release from bone marrow to peripheral circulation...
October 17, 2016: Toxicology
Lori E Lowes, David Goodale, Ying Xia, Carl Postenka, Matthew M Piaseczny, Freeman Paczkowski, Alison L Allan
Metastasis is the cause of most prostate cancer (PCa) deaths and has been associated with circulating tumor cells (CTCs). The presence of ≥5 CTCs/7.5mL of blood is a poor prognosis indicator in metastatic PCa when assessed by the CellSearch® system, the "gold standard" clinical platform. However, ~35% of metastatic PCa patients assessed by CellSearch® have undetectable CTCs. We hypothesize that this is due to epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and subsequent loss of necessary CTC detection markers, with important implications for PCa metastasis...
October 15, 2016: Oncotarget
Chao Fang, Chuanwen Fan, Cun Wang, Qiaorong Huang, Wentong Meng, Yongyang Yu, Lie Yang, Zhihai Peng, Jiankun Hu, Yuan Li, Xianming Mo, Zongguang Zhou
INTRODUCTION: Liver is the most common site of distant metastasis in colorectal cancer (CRC). Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment selection decides overall prognosis of patients. However, current diagnostic measures were basically imaging but not functional. Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) known as hold the key to understand the biology of metastatic mechanism provide a novel and auxiliary diagnostic strategy for CRC with liver metastasis (CRC-LM). RESULTS: The expression of CD133+ and CD133+CD54+CD44+ cellular subpopulations were higher in the peripheral blood of CRC-LM patients when compared with those without metastasis (P<0...
October 15, 2016: Oncotarget
Nick Beije, Wendy Onstenk, Jaco Kraan, Anieta M Sieuwerts, Paul Hamberg, Luc Y Dirix, Anja Brouwer, Felix E de Jongh, Agnes Jager, Caroline M Seynaeve, Ngoc M Van, John A Foekens, John W M Martens, Stefan Sleijfer
BACKGROUND: Preclinical and clinical studies have reported that human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) overexpression yields resistance to endocrine therapies. Here the prevalence and prognostic impact of HER2-positive circulating tumor cells (CTCs) were investigated retrospectively in metastatic breast cancer (MBC) patients with a HER2-negative primary tumor receiving endocrine therapy. Additionally, the prevalence and prognostic significance of HER2-positive CTCs were explored in a chemotherapy cohort, as well as the prognostic impact of the estrogen receptor (ER) CTC status in both cohorts...
October 17, 2016: Neoplasia: An International Journal for Oncology Research
Caiyan Zhao, Leihou Shao, Jianqing Lu, Chenying Zhao, Yujie Wei, Junxing Liu, Mingjun Li, Yan Wu
Stimuli-responsive nanocarriers with the ability to respond to tumorous heterogeneity have been extensively developed for drug delivery. However, the premature release during blood circulation and insufficient intracellular drug release are still a significant issue. Herein, three disulfide bonds are introduced into the amphiphilic poly(ethylene glycol)-polycaprolactone copolymer blocks to form triple-sensitive cleavable polymeric nanocarrier (tri-PESC NPs) to improve its sensitivity to narrow glutathione (GSH) concentration...
October 20, 2016: Macromolecular Bioscience
Jin Sun Lee, Mark Jesus M Magbanua, John W Park
Recent technological advancements in rare cell analysis have facilitated the detection of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in the blood of patients diagnosed with breast and other types of cancers. Numerous clinical studies involving the enumeration of CTCs in breast cancer patients have unequivocally demonstrated the prognostic value of these cells. Evidence from recent molecular studies indicates that CTCs may be potential surrogate markers for systemic disease. As such, real-time assessment of therapeutic biomarkers in breast CTCs, such as the estrogen receptor (ER) and the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), may have a tremendous impact in guiding-targeted cancer therapy...
October 19, 2016: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
Eugenio Zoni, Gabri van der Pluijm
The skeleton represents a common site of metastases for osteotropic cancers such as prostate and breast tumors and novel therapeutic targets and new markers for the monitoring of bone lesions are urgently needed. The formation of bone metastases is a complex process that starts at the level of the confined tumor and that is characterized by a dynamic crosstalk between the primary cancer and the future metastatic site, the bone. Factors released by the primary tumor contribute to prepare a fertile "soil", where a "pre-metastatic niche" is established prior to future colonization by cancer cells...
September 2016: Journal of Bone Oncology
Jessalyn M Ubellacker, Sandra S McAllister
Systemic factors including cytokines, cell-free nucleic acids, microvesicles, and platelets are appreciated as important regulators of adenocarcinoma progression. Research findings using pre-clinical mouse models have revealed that many such systemically acting factors are either secreted by or responsive to peripheral tumors and impact bone and bone marrow (collectively referred to as the bone microenvironment) to initiate processes that ultimately govern disease progression, even in the absence of detectable bone metastases...
September 2016: Journal of Bone Oncology
Sarah Hrebien, Ben O'Leary, Matthew Beaney, Gaia Schiavon, Charlotte Fribbens, Amarjit Bhambra, Richard Johnson, Isaac Garcia-Murillas, Nicholas Turner
Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) analysis has the potential to allow non-invasive analysis of tumor mutations in advanced cancer. In this study we assessed the reproducibility of digital PCR (dPCR) assays of circulating tumor DNA in a cohort of patients with advanced breast cancer and assessed delayed plasma processing using cell free DNA preservative tubes. We recruited a cohort of 96 paired samples from 71 women with advanced breast cancer who had paired blood samples processed either immediately or delayed in preservative tubes with processing 48-72 hours after collection...
2016: PloS One
Rikki A Cannioto, Lara E Sucheston-Campbell, Shalaka Hampras, Ellen L Goode, Keith Knutson, Roberta Ness, Francesmary Modugno, Paul K Wallace, J Brian Szender, Paul Mayor, Chi-Chen Hong, Janine M Joseph, Grace Friel, Warren Davis, Mary Nesline, Kevin H Eng, Robert P Edwards, Bridget Kruszka, Kristina Schmitt, Kunle Odunsi, Kirsten B Moysich
OBJECTIVE: There is a mounting body of evidence demonstrating higher percentages of regulatory T (Treg) cells in the peripheral blood of patients with cancer in comparison to healthy controls, but there is a paucity of epidemiological literature characterizing circulating Treg cells among patients with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). To investigate the role of peripheral Treg cells in ovarian neoplasms, we conducted a case-control study to characterize circulating concentrations of Treg cells among patients with EOC, women with benign ovarian conditions, and healthy controls without a history of cancer...
October 18, 2016: International Journal of Gynecological Cancer
Yanqin Niu, Yike Wu, Jinyong Huang, Qing Li, Kang Kang, Junle Qu, Furong Li, Deming Gou
Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) is the most frequently used method for measuring expression levels of microRNAs (miRNAs), which is based on normalization to endogenous references. Although circulating miRNAs have been regarded as potential non-invasive biomarker of disease, no study has been performed so far on reference miRNAs for normalization in colorectal cancer. In this study we tried to identify optimal reference miRNAs for qPCR analysis across colorectal cancer patients and healthy individuals. 485 blood-derived miRNAs were profiled in serum sample pools of both colorectal cancer and healthy control...
October 19, 2016: Scientific Reports
Vanaja Konduri, Dali Li, Matthew M Halpert, Dan Liang, Zhengdong Liang, Yunyu Chen, William E Fisher, Silke Paust, Jonathan M Levitt, Qizhi Cathy Yao, William K Decker
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is the third leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States, exhibiting a five-year overall survival (OS) of only 7% despite aggressive standard of care. Recent advances in immunotherapy suggest potential application of immune-based treatment approaches to PDAC. To explore this concept further, we treated orthotopically established K-ras(G12D)/p53(-/-) PDAC tumors with gemcitabine and a cell-based vaccine previously shown to generate durable cell-mediated (TH1) immunity...
2016: Oncoimmunology
Ana I Robles, Karina Standahl Olsen, Dana W T Tsui, Vassilis Georgoulias, Jenette Creaney, Katalin Dobra, Mogens Vyberg, Nagahiro Minato, Robert A Anders, Anne-Lise Børresen-Dale, Jianwei Zhou, Pål Sætrom, Boye Schnack Nielsen, Michaela B Kirschner, Hans E Krokan, Vassiliki Papadimitrakopoulou, Ioannis Tsamardinos, Oluf D Røe
The goal of biomarker research is to identify clinically valid markers. Despite decades of research there has been disappointingly few molecules or techniques that are in use today. The "1st International NTNU Symposium on Current and Future Clinical Biomarkers of Cancer: Innovation and Implementation", was held June 16th and 17th 2016, at the Knowledge Center of the St. Olavs Hospital in Trondheim, Norway, under the auspices of the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the HUNT biobank and research center...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Translational Medicine
T Ni, X Sun, B Shan, J Wang, Y Liu, S-L Gu, Y-D Wang
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the role of circulating tumour cells (CTCs) in patients with endometrial cancer (EC). STUDY DESIGN: This study included 40 patients with a pre-operative diagnosis of high-risk EC between April 2015 and May 2016. Patients were further divided into high-risk (grade 3, non-endometrioid, myometrial invasion ≥1/2 and stage III-IV) and high-intermediate-risk (grade 2-3, endometrioid, myometrial invasion <1/2 and stage I-II) groups according to postoperative pathological results...
October 10, 2016: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
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