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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914267/intein-mediated-site-specific-synthesis-of-tumor-targeting-protein-delivery-system-turning-peg-dilemma-into-prodrug-like-feature
#1
Yingzhi Chen, Meng Zhang, Hongyue Jin, Yisi Tang, Huiyuan Wang, Qin Xu, Yaping Li, Feng Li, Yongzhuo Huang
Poor tumor-targeted and cytoplasmic delivery is a bottleneck for protein toxin-based cancer therapy. Ideally, a protein toxin drug should remain stealthy in circulation for prolonged half-life and reduced side toxicity, but turn activated at tumor. PEGylation is a solution to achieve the first goal, but creates a hurdle for the second because PEG rejects interaction between the drugs and tumor cells therein. Such PEG dilemma is an unsolved problem in protein delivery. Herein proposed is a concept of turning PEG dilemma into prodrug-like feature...
November 27, 2016: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909467/invasive-squamous-cell-carcinoma-of-the-scalp-and-calvarium-a-multidisciplinary-approach
#2
Jennifer Stark, Silvio Podda, Karen Szymanski
Objective: The correlation between immunosuppression-associated skin cancer and lymphoma has been well established. This includes squamous cell carcinoma and chronic lymphocytic leukemia. When a lesion requires excision, reconstruction can be challenging based on the depth and size of the tumor. We present a patient with chronic lymphocytic leukemia and invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the scalp that extended through the calvarium to the dura mater. His tumors were badly neglected for a long period of time and presented at an advanced stage...
2016: Eplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908272/exosome-encapsulated-micrornas-as-potential-circulating-biomarkers-in-colon-cancer
#3
Mina Hosseini, Sara Khatamianfar, Seyed Mahdi Hassanian, Reza Nedaeinia, Mojtaba Shafiee, Mina Maftouh, Majid Ghayour-Mobarhan, Soudabeh Shahid Sales, Amir Avan
Exosome-encapsulated microRNAs are being suggested as a new class novel biomarker and diagnostic and predictive markers in colorectal cancer. These particles are released from many cell types into the extracellular space upon fusion of multivesicular bodies (MVB) with the plasma membrane. They contain a wide variety of information, including proteins, lipids, RNAs, non-transcribed RNAs, microRNAs, which can be circulated in various body fluids (e.g., blood, salvia, ascites, urine). Exosomes can be taken up by neighboring or distant cells and thereby modulate the functional of recipient cells and play a key role in disease progression or facilitate metastasis in cancers...
December 1, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906860/liquid-biopsy-for-early-detection-of-lung-cancer
#4
Paul Hofman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The possibility of complete recovery for a lung cancer patient depends on very early diagnosis, as it allows total surgical resection. Screening for this cancer in a high-risk population can be performed using a radiological approach, but this holds a certain number of limitations. Liquid biopsy could become an alternative and complementary screening approach to chest imaging for early diagnosis of lung cancer. RECENT FINDINGS: Several circulating biomarkers indicative of lung cancer can be investigated in blood, such as circulating tumor cells, circulating free nucleic acids (RNA and DNA) and proteins...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904760/serum-glycoprotein-derived-n-and-o-linked-glycans-as-cancer-biomarkers
#5
REVIEW
Ying Lan, Cui Hao, Xuan Zeng, Yanli He, Pengjiao Zeng, Zhihua Guo, Lijuan Zhang
Early detection of cancer is the key to improving survival. Since most clinically used serum cancer biomarkers are either glycoproteins or glycan structures that can be recognized by specific monoclonal antibodies, developing glycan structure-based biomarkers from human serum/plasma glycoproteins through mass spectrometry (MS) analysis are active research field during the past decades. Numerous studies have shown that changes in serum/plasma glycan structures occur during cancer initiation, progression, and treatment...
2016: American Journal of Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903834/saliva-diagnostics-current-views-and-directions
#6
Karolina Elżbieta Kaczor-Urbanowicz, Carmen Martin Carreras-Presas, Katri Aro, Michael Tu, Franklin Garcia-Godoy, David Tw Wong
In this review, we provide an update on the current and future applications of saliva for diagnostic purposes. There are many advantages of using saliva as a biofluid. Its collection is fast, easy, inexpensive, and non-invasive. In addition, saliva, as a "mirror of the body," can reflect the physiological and pathological state of the body. Therefore, it serves as a diagnostic and monitoring tool in many fields of science such as medicine, dentistry, and pharmacotherapy. Introduced in 2008, the term "Salivaomics" aimed to highlight the rapid development of knowledge about various "omics" constituents of saliva, including: proteome, transcriptome, micro-RNA, metabolome, and microbiome...
November 29, 2016: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903276/accurate-prediction-of-response-to-endocrine-therapy-in-breast-cancer-patients-current-and-future-biomarkers
#7
REVIEW
Cigdem Selli, J Michael Dixon, Andrew H Sims
Approximately 70% of patients have breast cancers that are oestrogen receptor alpha positive (ER+) and are therefore candidates for endocrine treatment. Many of these patients relapse in the years during or following completion of adjuvant endocrine therapy. Thus, many ER+ cancers have primary resistance or develop resistance to endocrine therapy during treatment. Recent improvements in our understanding of how tumours evolve during treatment with endocrine agents have identified both changes in gene expression and mutational profiles, in the primary cancer as well as in circulating tumour cells...
December 1, 2016: Breast Cancer Research: BCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903155/obesity-and-cancer-mechanisms-tumor-microenvironment-and-inflammation
#8
Neil M Iyengar, Ayca Gucalp, Andrew J Dannenberg, Clifford A Hudis
Purpose There is growing evidence that inflammation is a central and reversible mechanism through which obesity promotes cancer risk and progression. Methods We review recent findings regarding obesity-associated alterations in the microenvironment and the local and systemic mechanisms through which these changes support tumor growth. Results Locally, hyperadiposity is associated with altered adipose tissue function, adipocyte death, and chronic low-grade inflammation. Most individuals who are obese harbor inflamed adipose tissue, which resembles chronically injured tissue, with immune cell infiltration and remodeling...
December 10, 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902486/ed-b-fibronectin-expression-is-a-marker-of-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-in-translational-oncology
#9
Iacopo Petrini, Serena Barachini, Vittoria Carnicelli, Sara Galimberti, Letizia Modeo, Roberto Boni, Martina Sollini, Paola Anna Erba
Fibronectin is a component of the extracellular matrix that links collagen fibers to integrins on the cell's surface. The splicing isoforms, containing the ED-B domain, are not expressed in adult tissues but only in tumor stroma or during embryonic development. Fibroblasts and endothelial cells express ED-B fibronectin during angiogenesis. Also cancer cells can synthetize ED-B fibronectin, but its function in tumor growth needs to be further elucidated.We evaluated the expression of ED-B fibronectin in prostate cancer cell lines: PC3 and DU145...
November 25, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901069/molecular-profiling-of-circulating-tumour-cells-identifies-notch1-as-a-principal-regulator-in-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#10
Javier Mariscal, Marta Alonso-Nocelo, Laura Muinelo-Romay, Jorge Barbazan, Maria Vieito, Alicia Abalo, Antonio Gomez-Tato, Casares de Cal Maria de Los Angeles, Tomas Garcia-Caballero, Carmela Rodriguez, Elena Brozos, Francisco Baron, Rafael Lopez-Lopez, Miguel Abal
Knowledge on the molecular mechanisms underlying metastasis colonization in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) remains incomplete. A complete overview integrating driver mutations, primary tumour heterogeneity and overt metastasis lacks the dynamic contribution of disseminating metastatic cells due to the inaccessibility to the molecular profiling of Circulating Tumour Cells (CTCs). By combining immunoisolation and whole genome amplification, we performed a global gene expression analysis of EpCAM positive CTCs from advanced NSCLC patients...
November 30, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899993/predictive-value-of-microparticle-associated-tissue-factor-activity-for-permeability-glycoprotein-mediated-multidrug-resistance-in-cancer
#11
Antonio Angelini, Sebastiano Miscia, Maria Antonietta Centurione, Roberta Di Pietro, Lucia Centurione
Multidrug resistance (MDR) protein 1, which is also known as permeability glycoprotein (Pgp), and tissue factor (TF) are recurrently overexpressed on the surface of cancer cells, likely in response to stimuli such as chemotherapy. Microparticles (MPs) released from cancer cells into the bloodstream express tumour markers on their surface that may be useful as predictive biomarkers for evaluating disease progression. The present study measured the level of TF/factor VII (FVII)-dependent coagulation of MPs isolated from the plasma of cancer patients with various tumours, who were undergoing chemotherapy...
November 2016: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897359/profiling-functional-and-biochemical-phenotypes-of-circulating-tumor-cells-using-a-two-dimensional-sorting-device
#12
Mahla Poudineh, Mahmoud Labib, Sharif Ahmed, L N Matthew Nguyen, Leyla Kermanshah, Reza M Mohamadi, Edward H Sargent, Shana O Kelley
During cancer progression, tumors shed circulating tumor cells (CTCs) into the bloodstream. CTCs that originate from the same primary tumor can have heterogeneous phenotypes and, while some CTCs possess benign properties, others have high metastatic potential. Deconstructing the heterogeneity of CTCs is challenging and new methods are needed that can sort small numbers of cancer cells according to their phenotypic properties. Here we describe a new microfluidic approach that profiles, along two independent phenotypic axes, the behavior of heterogeneous cell subpopulations...
November 29, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896219/enhanced-therapeutic-efficacy-in-cancer-patients-by-short-term-fasting-the-autophagy-connection
#13
REVIEW
Gustav van Niekerk, Suzèl M Hattingh, Anna-Mart Engelbrecht
Preclinical studies suggest that fasting prior to chemotherapy may be an effective strategy to protect patients against the adverse effects of chemo-toxicity. Fasting may also sensitize cancer cells to chemotherapy. It is further suggested that fasting may similarly augment the efficacy of oncolytic viral therapy. The primary mechanism mediating these beneficial effects is thought to relate to the fact that fasting results in a decrease of circulating growth factors. In turn, such fasting cues would prompt normal cells to redirect energy toward cell maintenance and repair processes, rather than growth and proliferation...
2016: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895763/small-cell-lung-cancer-transformation-and-the-t790m-mutation-a-case-report-of-two-acquired-mechanisms-of-tki-resistance-detected-in-a-tumor-rebiopsy-and-plasma-sample-of-egfr-mutant-lung-adenocarcinoma
#14
Greta Alì, Rossella Bruno, Mirella Giordano, Irene Prediletto, Letizia Marconi, Simonetta Zupo, Franco Fedeli, Alessandro Ribechini, Antonio Chella, Gabriella Fontanini
The present study describes the case of a 45-year-old man diagnosed with metastatic lung adenocarcinoma, which harbored a deletion within exon 19 of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene. The patient was subsequently treated with gefitinib (250 mg/day orally from May 2013 to March 2014), but developed acquired resistance to the drug following 11 months of treatment. Tumor burden molecular analysis was performed on a tumor rebiopsy and plasma sample, and histological analysis was also performed on the tumor rebiopsy...
November 2016: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895501/a-fish-based-method-for-assessment-of-her-2-amplification-status-in-breast-cancer-circulating-tumor-cells-following-cellsearch-isolation
#15
Henrik Frithiof, Kristina Aaltonen, Lisa Rydén
INTRODUCTION: Amplification of the HER-2/neu (HER-2) proto-oncogene occurs in 10%-15% of primary breast cancer, leading to an activated HER-2 receptor, augmenting growth of cancer cells. Tumor classification is determined in primary tumor tissue and metastatic biopsies. However, malignant cells tend to alter their phenotype during disease progression. Circulating tumor cell (CTC) analysis may serve as an alternative to repeated biopsies. The Food and Drug Administration-approved CellSearch system allows determination of the HER-2 protein, but not of the HER-2 gene...
2016: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893656/is-it-feasible-to-detect-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-mutations-in-circulating-tumor-cells-in-nonsmall-cell-lung-cancer-a-meta-analysis
#16
Yafang Liu, Ze Xing, Ping Zhan, Hongbing Liu, Wei Ye, Tangfeng Lv, Yong Song
BACKGROUND: The value of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in detecting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations in patients with nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is controversial. We performed a meta-analysis to investigate the diagnostic significance of CTCs with tumor tissues as the standard control. METHODS: A systematic literature search, including papers published until November 26, 2015, was performed using PubMed, Medline, Embase, Web of Science, and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and the references of retrieved articles were screened...
November 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892470/vertical-magnetic-separation-of-circulating-tumor-cells-for-somatic-genomic-alteration-analysis-in-lung-cancer-patients
#17
Chang Eun Yoo, Jong-Myeon Park, Hui-Sung Moon, Je-Gun Joung, Dae-Soon Son, Hyo-Jeong Jeon, Yeon Jeong Kim, Kyung-Yeon Han, Jong-Mu Sun, Keunchil Park, Donghyun Park, Woong-Yang Park
Efficient isolation and genetic analysis of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) from cancer patients' blood is a critical step for clinical applications using CTCs. Here, we report a novel CTC-isolation method and subsequent genetic analysis. CTCs from the blood were complexed with magnetic beads coated with antibodies against the epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) and separated vertically on a density-gradient medium in a modified well-plate. The recovery rate of model CTCs was reasonable and the cell purity was enhanced dramatically when compared to those parameters obtained using a conventional magnetic isolation method...
November 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891685/the-dna-aptamer-binds-stemness-enriched-cancer-cells-in-pancreatic-cancer
#18
Yoon-Jin Kim, Hee Seung Lee, Dawoon E Jung, Jeong Mi Kim, Si Young Song
Pancreatic cancer remains one of the most common and lethal cancers. Most patients (80%) present with inoperable advanced pancreatic cancer at initial diagnosis, and their early diagnosis is a significant unmet challenge. Recent studies indicate that cancer, including pancreatic cancer, is initiated and propagated by cancer stem cells (CSCs). CSCs are responsible not only for the pathogenesis of cancer but also for the heterogeneity, malignant degree, anticancer therapy resistance, and recurrence of tumors...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Molecular Recognition: JMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889762/evaluation-of-isolation-methods-for-circulating-tumor-cells-ctcs
#19
Galatea Kallergi, Eleni Politaki, Saad Alkahtani, Christos Stournaras, Vassilis Georgoulias
BACKGROUND: Detection of CTCs is a poor prognostic factor for many cancer types; however, their very low frequency represents an obstacle for their detection. The objective of the current study was to compare the performance of commonly used methods for CTCs isolation. METHODS: The evaluated methods using spiking experiments of MCF7, SKBR3 and MDA MB-231 breast cancer cell lines were (i) ficoll density gradient separation (DGS), (ii) red blood cell lysis (Erythrolysis) isolation, (iii) positive immunomagnetic selection (EpCAM Dynal beads), (iv) two different negative immunomagnetic separation systems (Dynal vs Miltenyi CD45 beads) as well as (v) the Cell Search platform and (vi) the ISET system...
November 25, 2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888017/circulating-cxcr5-cd4-t-cells-assist-in-the-survival-and-growth-of-primary-diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphoma-cells-through-interleukin-10-pathway
#20
Zhanshan Cha, Guangfang Qian, Yan Zang, Haihui Gu, Yanyan Huang, Lishuang Zhu, Jinqi Li, Yang Liu, Xiaohua Tu, Haihan Song, Baohua Qian
Diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is a common and aggressive cancer caused by the malignant transformation of B cells. Although it has been established that the follicular helper T (Tfh) cells play a central role in B cell development, little information is available on their involvement in DLBCL pathogenesis. We studied the role of the peripheral Tfh equivalent, the CXCR5(+) CD4(+) T cells, in DLBCL. Data showed that compared to CXCR5(-) CD4(+) T cells, CXCR5(+) CD4(+) T cells were significantly more effective at promoting the proliferation as well as inhibiting the apoptosis of primary autologous DLBCL tumor cells...
November 23, 2016: Experimental Cell Research
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