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Stratified medicine in cancer

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224411/personalized-medicine-for-prevention-can-risk-stratified-screening-decrease-colorectal-cancer-mortality-at-an-acceptable-cost
#1
Sujha Subramanian, Georgiy Bobashev, Robert J Morris, Sonja Hoover
PURPOSE: Tailored health care interventions are expected to transform clinical practice. The objective of this study was to develop an innovative model to assess the effectiveness, cost, and harms of risk stratified colorectal cancer screening. METHODS: We updated a previously validated microsimulation model consisting of three interlinked components: risk assessment, natural history, and screening/treatment modules. We used data from representative national surveys and the literature to create a synthetic population that mimics the family history and genetic profile of the US population...
February 21, 2017: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218801/do-cancer-survivors-change-their-prescription-drug-use-for-financial-reasons-findings-from-a-nationally-representative-sample-in-the-united-states
#2
Zhiyuan Zheng, Xuesong Han, Gery P Guy, Amy J Davidoff, Chunyu Li, Matthew P Banegas, Donatus U Ekwueme, K Robin Yabroff, Ahmedin Jemal
BACKGROUND: There is limited evidence from nationally representative samples about changes in prescription drug use for financial reasons among cancer survivors in the United States. METHODS: The 2011 to 2014 National Health Interview Survey was used to identify adults who reported ever having been told they had cancer (cancer survivors; n = 8931) and individuals without a cancer history (n = 126,287). Measures of changes in prescription drug use for financial reasons included: 1) skipping medication doses, 2) taking less medicine, 3) delaying filling a prescription, 4) asking a doctor for lower cost medication, 5) buying prescription drugs from another country, and 6) using alternative therapies...
February 20, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213330/drug-discovery-strategies-in-the-field-of-tumor-energy-metabolism-limitations-by-metabolic-flexibility-and-metabolic-resistance-to-chemotherapy
#3
REVIEW
N D Amoedo, E Obre, R Rossignol
The search for new drugs capable of blocking the metabolic vulnerabilities of human tumors has now entered the clinical evaluation stage, but several projects already failed in phase I or phase II. In particular, very promising in vitro studies could not be translated in vivo at preclinical stage and beyond. This was the case for most glycolysis inhibitors that demonstrated systemic toxicity. A more recent example is the inhibition of glutamine catabolism in lung adenocarcinoma that failed in vivo despite a strong addiction of several cancer cell lines to glutamine in vitro...
February 14, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198009/endoscopic-ultrasound-guided-fine-needle-aspirate-derived-preclinical-pancreatic-cancer-models-reveal-panitumumab-sensitivity-in-kras-wild-type-tumours
#4
William Berry, Elizabeth Algar, Beena Kumar, Christopher Desmond, Michael Swan, Brendan J Jenkins, Daniel Croagh
Pancreatic cancer (PC) is largely refractory to existing therapies used in unselected patient trials, thus emphasizing the pressing need for new approaches for patient selection in personalized medicine. KRAS mutations occur in 90% of PC patients and confer resistance to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors (e.g. panitumumab), suggesting that KRAS wild-type PC patients may benefit from targeted panitumumab therapy. Here we use tumour tissue procured by endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspirate (EUS-FNA) to compare the in vivo sensitivity in patient derived xenografts (PDXs) of KRAS wild-type and mutant PC tumours to panitumumab, and to profile the molecular signature of these tumours in patients with metastatic or localized disease...
February 15, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197806/recruiting-families-at-risk-for-hereditary-breast-and-ovarian-cancer-from-a-statewide-cancer-registry-a-methodological-study
#5
Maria C Katapodi, Deb Duquette, James J Yang, Kari Mendelsohn-Victor, Beth Anderson, Christos Nikolaidis, Emily Mancewicz, Laurel L Northouse, Sonia Duffy, David Ronis, Kara J Milliron, Nicole Probst-Herbst, Sofia D Merajver, Nancy K Janz, Glenn Copeland, Scott Roberts
PURPOSE: Cancer genetic services (counseling/testing) are recommended for women diagnosed with breast cancer younger than 45 years old (young breast cancer survivors-YBCS) and at-risk relatives. We present recruitment of YBCS, identification and recruitment of at-risk relatives, and YBCS willingness to contact their cancer-free, female relatives. METHODS: A random sample of 3,000 YBCS, stratified by race (Black vs. White/Other), was identified through a population-based cancer registry and recruited in a randomized trial designed to increase use of cancer genetic services...
February 14, 2017: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188189/vascular-invasion-and-metastasis-is-predictive-of-outcome-in-barcelona-clinic-liver-cancer-stage-c-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#6
Ali A Mokdad, Amit G Singal, Jorge A Marrero, Hao Zhu, Adam C Yopp
Background: Patients with Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) stage C hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) have variable long-term outcomes. Better delineation of prognosis is important for clinical trial enrollment and clinical practice in an era of precision medicine. We hypothesized that stratification of patients with BCLC stage C HCC by presence of vascular invasion and/or metastasis improves prognostic discrimination. Methods: Using a prospectively maintained database, we identified 234 patients diagnosed with BCLC stage C HCC between 2005 and 2015...
February 2017: Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network: JNCCN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164656/glutathione-s-transferase-m1-polymorphism-and-breast-cancer-risk-a-meta-analysis-in-the-chinese-population
#7
Chen-Xin Xue, Xiang-Ming He, De-Hong Zou
BACKGROUND: Published data on the association between present/null polymorphism of glutathione S-transferase M1 (GSTM1) and breast cancer risk are inconclusive. To derive a more precise estimation of the relationship, a meta-analysis in the Chinese population was performed. METHODS: PubMed, Springer Link, Ovid, Chinese Wanfang Data Knowledge Service Platform, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and Chinese Biology Medicine (CBM) were searched. Crude odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to assess the strength of association between the GSTM1 present/ null polymorphism and breast cancer risk...
November 1, 2016: Clinical Laboratory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164573/association-studies-of-cyp1a1-exon7-polymorphism-and-gstm1-interaction-with-esophageal-cancer-risk-a-meta-analysis-in-the-chinese-population
#8
Xin-Ping Chen, Da-Feng Xu, Wei-Hua Xu, Zhi-Chao Ma, Jia Yao, Sheng-Miao Fu
BACKGROUND: Although many epidemiological studies have investigated the CYP1A1 exon7 polymorphism and -GSTM1 interaction with esophageal cancer (EC), definite conclusions cannot be drawn. This study was conducted to explore this association in the Chinese population using meta-analysis. METHODS: Relevant studies were identified from PubMed, Springer Link, Ovid, Chinese Wanfang Data Knowledge Service Platform, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Chinese Biology Medicine databases published through August 2015...
September 1, 2016: Clinical Laboratory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159136/sexual-and-reproductive-health-in-spanish-university-students-a-comparison-between-medical-and-law-students
#9
Pluvio J Coronado, Carlos Delgado-Miguel, Adriana Rey-Cañas, Miguel A Herráiz
OBJECTIVE: To describe behaviors and knowledge related to sexual and reproductive health of Spanish university students and their association with the subject area studied (biomedical or not). METHODS: A descriptive cross-sectional observational study conducted with 2074 students aged 18-24years from the University Complutense of Madrid in the Faculties of Medicine and Law. Simple random stratified sampling without replacement was performed. A self-administered, anonymous and voluntary questionnaire was distributed...
March 2017: Sexual & Reproductive Healthcare: Official Journal of the Swedish Association of Midwives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152848/do-perceived-barriers-to-lung-cancer-screening-differ-between-attending-physicians-and-residents
#10
Laura Jones, Katie Marsh, M Patricia Rivera, Paul Molina, Dan Reuland, J Michael Bowling, Katherine Birchard, Susan Maygarden, Louise Henderson
: 192 Background: In February 2015, legislation went into effect requiring Medicare to cover lung cancer (LC) screening with low dose computed tomography (LDCT) for high risk patients. Despite this, much debate and uncertainty exist among physicians about LC screening best practices. We aim to compare perceived barriers to LC screening between resident and attending physicians in Family and Internal Medicine, two departments selected for their high likelihood of seeing patients eligible for LC screening...
March 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152743/what-is-needed-to-implement-institute-of-medicine-iom-2013-supportive-oncology-recommendations-in-community-settings
#11
Rosa Berardi, Christine B Weldon
: 49 Background: The IOM 2013 report recommends supportive oncology services from diagnosis through survivorship and end of life. We examined what community institutions need to implement IOM recommendations. METHODS: Survey of 35 institutions in a urban area (13 cancer centers; 14 cancer support centers, 8 hospices). Institutions ranked the top 5 supportive oncology project ideas, that their organization was most interested in participating in, from a list of 27...
March 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130475/breast-cancer-screening-in-the-precision-medicine-era-risk-based-screening-in-a-population-based-trial
#12
REVIEW
Yiwey Shieh, Martin Eklund, Lisa Madlensky, Sarah D Sawyer, Carlie K Thompson, Allison Stover Fiscalini, Elad Ziv, Laura J Van't Veer, Laura J Esserman, Jeffrey A Tice
Ongoing controversy over the optimal approach to breast cancer screening has led to discordant professional society recommendations, particularly in women age 40 to 49 years. One potential solution is risk-based screening, where decisions around the starting age, stopping age, frequency, and modality of screening are based on individual risk to maximize the early detection of aggressive cancers and minimize the harms of screening through optimal resource utilization. We present a novel approach to risk-based screening that integrates clinical risk factors, breast density, a polygenic risk score representing the cumulative effects of genetic variants, and sequencing for moderate- and high-penetrance germline mutations...
January 2017: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075351/circulating-nucleosomes-and-nucleosome-modifications-as-biomarkers-in-cancer
#13
REVIEW
Peter McAnena, James A L Brown, Michael J Kerin
Traditionally the stratification of many cancers involves combining tumour and clinicopathological features (e.g., patient age; tumour size, grade, receptor status and location) to inform treatment options and predict recurrence risk and survival. However, current biomarkers often require invasive excision of the tumour for profiling, do not allow monitoring of the response to treatment and stratify patients into broad heterogeneous groups leading to inconsistent treatment responses. Here we explore and describe the benefits of using circulating biomarkers (nucleosomes and/or modifications to nucleosomes) as a non-invasive method for detecting cancer and monitoring response to treatment...
January 8, 2017: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034454/comprehensive-genomic-sequencing-and-the-molecular-profiles-of-clinically-advanced-breast-cancer
#14
Jeffrey S Ross, Laurie M Gay
Targeting specific mutations that have arisen within a tumour is a promising means of increasing the efficacy of treatments, and breast cancer is no exception to this new paradigm of personalised medicine. Traditional DNA sequencing methods used to characterise clinical cancer specimens and impact treatment decisions are highly sensitive, but are often limited in their scope to known mutational hot spots. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies can also test for these well-known hot spots, as well as identifying insertions and deletions, copy number changes such as ERBB2 (HER2) gene amplification, and a wide array of fusion or rearrangement events...
February 2017: Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998972/looking-beyond-drivers-and-passengers-in-cancer-genome-sequencing-data
#15
S De, S Ganesan
Cancer arises as a result of acquired changes in the DNA sequence of the genome of somatic cells. A subset of the genetic changes, dubbed driver mutations, propels tumor growth, and the remaining changes are passengers, apparently inconsequential for neoplastic transformation. Massive genome sequencing of thousands of tumors from all major cancer types has enabled cataloging of the so-called driver and passenger mutations, and facilitated molecular classification of cancer, guiding precision medicine approach for the patients...
December 20, 2016: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27975130/does-alcohol-consumption-modify-the-risk-of-endometrial-cancer-a-dose-response-meta-analysis-of-prospective-studies
#16
Quan Zhou, Peng Guo, Hui Li, Xiao-Dan Chen
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have provided controversial evidence of an association between alcohol intake and endometrial cancer (EC) risk. The World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research classifies alcohol as having a "limited-no conclusion" grade of evidence in the Endometrial Cancer 2013 Report (the latest version). OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this meta-analysis is to systematically analyze the effect of alcohol intake on EC risk. METHODS: We conducted a dose-response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies identified from the PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library and China Biological Medicine databases...
December 14, 2016: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27943255/self-reported-physical-activity-levels-of-older-cancer-survivors-results-from-the-2014-national-health-interview-survey
#17
Yelena Tarasenko, Chen Chen, Nancy Schoenberg
OBJECTIVES: To examine adherence to the American College of Sports Medicine and American Cancer Society guidelines on leisure-time aerobic and muscle-strengthening physical activity (PA) of older cancer survivors. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study based on the 2014 National Health Interview Survey. SETTING: United States. PARTICIPANTS: Young-old (65-74) (n = 627), old-old (≥75) (n = 656), and middle-aged (45-64) (n = 786) cancer survivors and adults without cancer (n = 18,369), stratified according to the same age groups...
December 9, 2016: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936622/dna-adducts-from-anticancer-drugs-as-candidate-predictive-markers-for-precision-medicine
#18
Alessia Stornetta, Maike Zimmermann, George D Cimino, Paul T Henderson, Shana J Sturla
Biomarker-driven drug selection plays a central role in cancer drug discovery and development, and in diagnostic strategies to improve the use of traditional chemotherapeutic drugs. DNA-modifying anticancer drugs are still used as first line medication, but drawbacks such as resistance and side effects remain an issue. Monitoring the formation and level of DNA modifications induced by anticancer drugs is a potential strategy for stratifying patients and predicting drug efficacy. In this perspective, preclinical and clinical data concerning the relationship between drug-induced DNA adducts and biological response for platinum drugs and combination therapies, nitrogen mustards and half-mustards, hypoxia-activated drugs, reductase-activated drugs, and minor groove binding agents are presented and discussed...
January 3, 2017: Chemical Research in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933213/molecular-pathology-of-cancer-how-to-communicate-with-disease
#19
REVIEW
Peter Birner, Gerald Prager, Berthold Streubel
: Recent technical advances have brought insights into the biology of cancer in human, establishing it as a disease driven by genetic mutations. Beside inherited family tumour syndromes caused by germline mutations, somatic genetic alterations occur early in tumourigenesis, which accumulate during the progression of the disease and its treatment. Based on these observations, medical oncology has started to enter an era of stratified medicine, where treatment selection is becoming tailored to drugable molecular pathways...
2016: ESMO Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925421/reducing-the-incidence-of-hospital-associated-venous-thromboembolism-within-a-network-of-academic-hospitals-findings-from-five-university-of-california-medical-centers
#20
REVIEW
Ian H Jenkins, Richard H White, Alpesh N Amin, Nasim Afsarmanesh, Andrew D Auerbach, Raman Khanna, Gregory A Maynard
BACKGROUND: Almost 700 patients suffered from hospital-associated venous thromboembolism (HA-VTE) across 5 University of California hospitals in calendar year 2011. OBJECTIVE: Optimize venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis (VTEP) in adult medical/surgical inpatients and reduce HA-VTE by at least 20% within 3 years. DESIGN: Prospective, unblinded, open-intervention study with historical controls. SETTING: Five independent but cooperating academic hospitals...
December 2016: Journal of Hospital Medicine: An Official Publication of the Society of Hospital Medicine
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