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Cancer precision medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228370/a-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signature-predicts-low-grade-glioma-prognosis-a-precision-medicine-approach-based-on-patient-derived-stem-cells
#1
Tamara Ius, Yari Ciani, Maria Elisabetta Ruaro, Miriam Isola, Marisa Sorrentino, Michela Bulfoni, Veronica Candotti, Cecilia Correcig, Evgenia Bourkoula, Ivana Manini, Enrico Pegolo, Damiano Mangoni, Stefania Marzinotto, Slobodanka Radovic, Barbara Toffoletto, Federica Caponnetto, Andrea Zanello, Laura Mariuzzi, Carla Di Loreto, Antonio Paolo Beltrami, Silvano Piazza, Miran Skrap, Daniela Cesselli
Background: While recent genome wide association studies have suggested novel low-grade glioma (LGG) stratification models based on a molecular classification, we explored the potential clinical utility of patient-derived cells. Specifically, we assayed glioma-associated stem cells (GASC) that are patient-derived stem cells representative of the glioma microenvironment. Methods: By next generation sequencing, we analyzed the transcriptional profile of GASC derived from patients that underwent anaplastic transformation either within 48 months (GASC-BAD) or ≥7 years (GASC-GOOD) after surgery...
December 7, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226734/emerging-first-line-treatment-options-for-bladder-cancer-a-review-of-phase-ii-and-iii-therapies-in-the-pipeline
#2
Omer Jamy, Guru Sonpavde
The treatment of urothelial carcinoma (UC) had remained unchanged for several years until the recent FDA approval of immune checkpoint inhibitors (CPIs) in the salvage setting. Novel dual CPI-CPI and CPI-chemotherapy combinations are now being investigated aggressively as first line therapy for metastatic disease. Areas Covered: We discuss the recent insights into the tumor biology of UC, which may impact the prognosis as well as assist in developing precision medicine. This is followed by an overview of existing treatment including conventional chemotherapy as well as the trials that led to the recent approval of PD-1 and PD-L1 inhibitors...
December 10, 2017: Expert Opinion on Emerging Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224672/sle-redefined-on-the-basis-of-molecular-pathways
#3
REVIEW
Guillermo Barturen, Marta E Alarcón-Riquelme
The implementation of precision medicine requires the recruiting of patients in statistically enough numbers, the possibility of obtaining enough materials, and the integration of data from various platforms, which are all real limitations. These types of studies have been performed extensively in cancer but barely on systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) or other rheumatic diseases. To consider the practical use of the information obtained from such studies, we have to take into account the best biological fluid to use, the ease to perform the analysis in clinical practice, and its relevance to clinical practice...
June 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224259/-expert-consensus-of-precise-diagnosis-and-treatment-for-pancreatic-head-cancer-using-three-dimensional-visualization-technology
#4
(no author information available yet)
Three-dimensional (3D) visualization technology in pancreatic head cancers could offer decision-making support to preoperative diagnosis, resectability assessment and individualized surgical planning. In addition, the pancreas 3D printing helps to realize the leapfrog development from 3D images to 3D physical models and provides better guidance of the precise surgery of complicated cancers of the pancreatic head. In order to standardize the application of 3D visualization and 3D printing technology in the diagnosis and treatment of pancreatic head cancer, Chinese experts in relevant fields were organized by four committees to formulate this expert consensus...
December 1, 2017: Zhonghua Wai Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Surgery]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218868/large-scale-integration-of-heterogeneous-pharmacogenomic-data-for-identifying-drug-mechanism-of-action
#5
Yunan Luo, Sheng Wang, Jinfeng Xiao, Jian Peng
A variety of large-scale pharmacogenomic data, such as perturbation experiments and sensitivity profiles, enable the systematical identification of drug mechanism of actions (MoAs), which is a crucial task in the era of precision medicine. However, integrating these complementary pharmacogenomic datasets is inherently challenging due to the wild heterogeneity, high-dimensionality and noisy nature of these datasets. In this work, we develop Mania, a novel method for the scalable integration of large-scale pharmacogenomic data...
2018: Pacific Symposium on Biocomputing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218273/potential-future-consideration-for-imaging-and-blood-based-biomarkers-for-precision-medicine-in-lung-cancer
#6
EDITORIAL
Feng-Ming Spring Kong, Fred R Hirsch, Mitchell Machtay
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Translational Lung Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218269/blood-based-biomarkers-for-precision-medicine-in-lung-cancer-precision-radiation-therapy
#7
REVIEW
Dirk De Ruysscher, Jianyue Jin, Tim Lautenschlaeger, Jin-Xiong She, Zhongxing Liao, Feng-Ming Spring Kong
Both tumors and patients are complex and models that determine survival and toxicity of radiotherapy or any other treatment ideally must take into account this variability as well as its dynamic state. The genetic features of the tumor and the host, and increasingly also the epi-genetic and proteomic characteristics, are being unraveled. Multiple techniques, including histological examination, blood sampling, measurement of circulating tumor cells (CTCs), and functional and molecular imaging, can be used for this purpose...
December 2017: Translational Lung Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218267/radiomics-in-precision-medicine-for-lung-cancer
#8
REVIEW
Julie Constanzo, Lise Wei, Huan-Hsin Tseng, Issam El Naqa
With the improvement of external radiotherapy delivery accuracy, such as intensity-modulated and stereotactic body radiation therapy, radiation oncology has recently entered in the era of precision medicine. Despite these precise irradiation modalities, lung cancers remain one of the most aggressive human cancers worldwide, possibly because of diverse genotypic alterations that drive and maintain lung tumorigenesis. It has been long recognized that imaging could aid in the diagnosis, tumor delineation, and monitoring of lung cancer...
December 2017: Translational Lung Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218264/role-of-pet-ct-for-precision-medicine-in-lung-cancer-perspective-of-the-society-of-nuclear-medicine-and-molecular-imaging
#9
Bennett S Greenspan
This article discusses the role of PET/CT in contributing to precision medicine in lung cancer, and provides the perspective of the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging (SNMMI) on this process. The mission and vision of SNMMI are listed, along with the guidance provided by SNMMI to promote best practice in precision medicine. Basic principles of PET/CT are presented. An overview of the use of PET/CT imaging in lung cancer is discussed. In lung cancer patients, PET/CT is vitally important for optimal patient management...
December 2017: Translational Lung Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218263/research-in-imaging-biomarkers-for-precision-medicine-in-lung-cancer-national-cancer-institute-funding-opportunities
#10
EDITORIAL
Bhadrasain Vikram
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Translational Lung Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216340/incorporating-blood-based-liquid-biopsy-information-into-cancer-staging-time-for-a-tnmb-system
#11
M Yang, M E Forbes, R L Bitting, S S O'Neill, P-C Chou, U Topaloglu, L D Miller, G A Hawkins, S C Grant, B R DeYoung, W J Petty, K Chen, B C Pasche, W Zhang
Tissue biopsy is the standard diagnostic procedure for cancer. Biopsy may also provide material for genotyping, which can assist in the diagnosis and selection of targeted therapies but may fall short in cases of inadequate sampling, particularly from highly heterogeneous tumors. Traditional tissue biopsy suffers greater limitations in its prognostic capability over the course of disease, most obviously as an invasive procedure with potential complications, but also with respect to probable tumor clonal evolution and metastasis over time from initial biopsy evaluation...
December 5, 2017: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215763/breast-cancer-the-translation-of-big-genomic-data-to-cancer-precision-medicine
#12
REVIEW
Siew-Kee Low, Hitoshi Zembutsu, Yusuke Nakamura
Cancer is a complex genetic disease that consequence from the accumulation of genomic alterations, in which germline variations predispose individuals to cancer and somatic alterations initiate and trigger the progression of cancer. For the past two decades, genomic research has advanced remarkably, evolving from single-gene to whole-genome screening by using genome-wide association study (GWAS) and next generation sequencing (NGS) that contributing to big genomic data. International collaborative efforts have contributed in curating these data to identify clinically significant alterations that could be used in the clinical settings...
December 7, 2017: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210986/ubiquitin-specific-peptidase-22-regulates-histone-h2b-mono-ubiquitination-and-exhibits-both-oncogenic-and-tumor-suppressor-roles-in-cancer
#13
REVIEW
Lucile M-P Jeusset, Kirk J McManus
Ubiquitin-Specific Peptidase 22 (USP22) is a ubiquitin hydrolase, notably catalyzing the removal of the mono-ubiquitin moiety from histone H2B (H2Bub1). Frequent overexpression of USP22 has been observed in various cancer types and is associated with poor patient prognosis. Multiple mechanisms have been identified to explain how USP22 overexpression contributes to cancer progression, and thus, USP22 has been proposed as a novel drug target in cancer. However, gene re-sequencing data from numerous cancer types show that USP22 expression is frequently diminished, suggesting it may also harbor tumor suppressor-like properties...
December 6, 2017: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208398/future-cancer-research-priorities-in-the-usa-a-lancet-oncology-commission
#14
REVIEW
Elizabeth M Jaffee, Chi Van Dang, David B Agus, Brian M Alexander, Kenneth C Anderson, Alan Ashworth, Anna D Barker, Roshan Bastani, Sangeeta Bhatia, Jeffrey A Bluestone, Otis Brawley, Atul J Butte, Daniel G Coit, Nancy E Davidson, Mark Davis, Ronald A DePinho, Robert B Diasio, Giulio Draetta, A Lindsay Frazier, Andrew Futreal, Sam S Gambhir, Patricia A Ganz, Levi Garraway, Stanton Gerson, Sumit Gupta, James Heath, Ruth I Hoffman, Cliff Hudis, Chanita Hughes-Halbert, Ramy Ibrahim, Hossein Jadvar, Brian Kavanagh, Rick Kittles, Quynh-Thu Le, Scott M Lippman, David Mankoff, Elaine R Mardis, Deborah K Mayer, Kelly McMasters, Neal J Meropol, Beverly Mitchell, Peter Naredi, Dean Ornish, Timothy M Pawlik, Jeffrey Peppercorn, Martin G Pomper, Derek Raghavan, Christine Ritchie, Sally W Schwarz, Richard Sullivan, Richard Wahl, Jedd D Wolchok, Sandra L Wong, Alfred Yung
We are in the midst of a technological revolution that is providing new insights into human biology and cancer. In this era of big data, we are amassing large amounts of information that is transforming how we approach cancer treatment and prevention. Enactment of the Cancer Moonshot within the 21st Century Cures Act in the USA arrived at a propitious moment in the advancement of knowledge, providing nearly US$2 billion of funding for cancer research and precision medicine. In 2016, the Blue Ribbon Panel (BRP) set out a roadmap of recommendations designed to exploit new advances in cancer diagnosis, prevention, and treatment...
November 2017: Lancet Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205942/biomaterials-based-approaches-to-tumor-spheroid-and-organoid-modeling
#15
REVIEW
Pradip Shahi Thakuri, Chun Liu, Gary D Luker, Hossein Tavana
Evolving understanding of structural and biological complexity of tumors has stimulated development of physiologically relevant tumor models for cancer research and drug discovery. A major motivation for developing new tumor models is to recreate the 3D environment of tumors and context-mediated functional regulation of cancer cells. Such models overcome many limitations of standard monolayer cancer cell cultures. Under defined culture conditions, cancer cells self-assemble into 3D constructs known as spheroids...
December 4, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205637/a-field-guide-for-cancer-diagnostics-using-cell-free-dna-from-principles-to-practice-and-clinical-applications
#16
REVIEW
Anna-Lena Volckmar, Holger Sültmann, Anja Riediger, Thoas Fioretos, Peter Schirmacher, Volker Endris, Albrecht Stenzinger, Steffen Dietz
Recently, many genome-wide profiling studies provided insights into the molecular background of major cancer types. The deeper understanding of the genetic alterations and their functional consequences leveraged the discovery of novel therapeutic opportunities, improving clinical management of cancer patients. While tissue-based molecular patient stratification is the gold standard for precision medicine, it has certain limitations: Tissue biopsies are risky invasive sampling procedures and may not represent the entire tumor due to genetic heterogeneity...
December 5, 2017: Genes, Chromosomes & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205162/multiparametric-mri-guided-biopsy-in-the-era-of-precision-medicine
#17
Miguel A Bergero, Pablo F Martínez, Jan P Radtke, Boris A Hadaschik
OBJECTIVE: Technical improvements in prostate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have resulted in the use of MRI to target prostate biopsy. This allowed urologists to progress from blind biopsies to target biopsies with a better performance in prostate cancer (PC) diagnosis. We herein review the current status of Magnetic Resonance Imaging Guided Biopsy (MRGB) for the detection of PC. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature was conducted using PubMed, Embase and Cochrane using the search criteria: "PC and MRI/US fusion" or "PC and guided biopsy" or "PC and multiparametric MRI" or "PC and MRI guided prostate biopsy"...
December 2017: Archivos Españoles de Urología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204310/laser-emission-imaging-of-nuclear-biomarkers-for-high-contrast-cancer-screening-and-immunodiagnosis
#18
Yu-Cheng Chen, Xiaotian Tan, Qihan Sun, Qiushu Chen, Wenjie Wang, Xudong Fan
Detection of nuclear biomarkers such as nucleic acids and nuclear proteins is critical for early-stage cancer diagnosis and prognosis. Conventional methods relying on morphological assessment of cell nuclei in histopathology slides may be subjective, whereas colorimetric immunohistochemical and fluorescence-based imaging are limited by strong light absorption, broad-emission bands and low contrast. Here, we describe the development and use of a scanning laser-emission-based microscope that maps lasing emissions from nuclear biomarkers in human tissues...
2017: Nature Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203694/path-toward-precision-oncology-review-of-targeted-therapy-studies-and-tools-to-aid-in-defining-actionability-of-a-molecular-lesion-and-patient-management-support
#19
REVIEW
Young Kwang Chae, Alan P Pan, Andrew A Davis, Sandip P Patel, Benedito A Carneiro, Razelle Kurzrock, Francis J Giles
Precision medicine trials and targeted therapies have shifted to the forefront of oncology. Although targeted therapies have shown initial promise, implementation across the broad landscape of oncology has many challenges. These limitations include an incomplete understanding of the functional significance of variant alleles as well as the need for clinical research and practice models that are more patient-centered and account for the complexity of individual patient tumors. Furthermore, successful implementation of targeted therapies will also be predicated on efforts to standardize the framework for patient management support...
December 2017: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203461/identifying-and-targeting-sporadic-oncogenic-genetic-aberrations-in-mouse-models-of-triple-negative-breast-cancer
#20
Hui Liu, Charles J Murphy, Florian A Karreth, Kristina B Emdal, Forest M White, Olivier Elemento, Alex Toker, Gerburg M Wulf, Lewis C Cantley
Triple negative breast cancers (TNBC) are genetically characterized by aberrations in TP53 and a low rate of activating point mutations in common oncogenes, rendering it challenging in applying targeted therapies. We performed whole exome sequencing (WES) and RNAseq to identify somatic genetic alterations in mouse models of TNBCs driven by loss of Trp53 alone or in combination with Brca1. Amplifications or translocations that resulted in elevated oncoprotein expressions or oncoprotein-containing fusions, respectively, as well as frame-shift mutations of tumor suppressors were identified in approximately 50% of the tumors evaluated...
December 4, 2017: Cancer Discovery
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