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Cancer precision medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679564/frequencies-and-expression-levels-of-programmed-death-ligand-1-pd-l1-in-circulating-tumor-rna-ctrna-in-various-cancer-types
#1
Toshiyuki Ishiba, Andreas-Claudius Hoffmann, Joshua Usher, Yahya Elshimali, Todd Sturdevant, Mai Dang, Yolanda Jaimes, Rama Tyagi, Ronald Gonzalez, Mary Grino, Jacek K Pinski, Afsaneh Barzi, Luis E Raez, Wilfried E Eberhardt, Dirk Theegarten, Heinz-Josef Lenz, Hiroyuki Uetake, Peter V Danenberg, Kathleen Danenberg
BACKGROUND: Precision medicine and prediction of therapeutic response requires monitoring potential biomarkers before and after treatment. Liquid biopsies provide noninvasive prognostic markers such as circulating tumor DNA and RNA. Circulating tumor RNA (ctRNA) in blood is also used to identify mutations in genes of interest, but additionally, provides information about relative expression levels of important genes. In this study, we analyzed PD-L1 expression in ctRNA isolated from various cancer types...
April 18, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678043/an-automated-technique-to-construct-a-knowledge-base-of-traditional-chinese-herbal-medicine-for-cancers-an-exploratory-study-for-breast-cancer
#2
Phung Anh Nguyen, Hsuan-Chia Yang, Rong Xu, Yu-Chuan Jack Li
Traditional Chinese Medicine utilization has rapidly increased worldwide. However, there is limited database provides the information of TCM herbs and diseases. The study aims to identify and evaluate the meaningful associations between TCM herbs and breast cancer by using the association rule mining (ARM) techniques. We employed the ARM techniques for 19.9 million TCM prescriptions by using Taiwan National Health Insurance claim database from 1999 to 2013. 364 TCM herbs-breast cancer associations were derived from those prescriptions and were then filtered by their support of 20...
2018: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677503/revolutionizing-precision-oncology-through-collaborative-proteogenomics-and-data-sharing
#3
Henry Rodriguez, Stephen R Pennington
The integration of proteomics into precision oncology presents opportunities that may transform the molecular analysis of cancer and accelerate basic and clinical cancer research. This Commentary discusses the importance of international collaboration and data sharing inspired by the Cancer Moonshot to accelerate the progress of multi-omic precision medicine-an approach that addresses the global diversity of people and of cancers.
April 19, 2018: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676618/cancer-risk-from-paediatric-computed-tomography-scanning-implications-for-radiation-protection-in-medicine
#4
A Kesminiene, E Cardis
The use of computed tomography (CT) imaging is clearly beneficial for millions of patients. However, the potential adverse health effects, particularly cancer, of ionising radiation exposure from CT early in life are an issue of growing concern in the radiological protection, medical, and public health communities. Although efforts to quantify these effects have been conducted, the precision and accuracy of reported risks needs confirmation. EPI-CT, a European collaborative epidemiological study, was set up to quantify risks from paediatric CT to optimise paediatric diagnostic protocol...
January 1, 2018: Annals of the ICRP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674173/precision-medicine-with-imprecise-therapy-computational-modeling-for-chemotherapy-in-breast-cancer
#5
REVIEW
Matthew T McKenna, Jared A Weis, Amy Brock, Vito Quaranta, Thomas E Yankeelov
Medical oncology is in need of a mathematical modeling toolkit that can leverage clinically-available measurements to optimize treatment selection and schedules for patients. Just as the therapeutic choice has been optimized to match tumor genetics, the delivery of those therapeutics should be optimized based on patient-specific pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic properties. Under the current approach to treatment response planning and assessment, there does not exist an efficient method to consolidate biomarker changes into a holistic understanding of treatment response...
April 16, 2018: Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673712/update-on-systemic-prostate-cancer-therapies-management-of-metastatic-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer-in-the-era-of-precision-oncology
#6
REVIEW
Philipp Nuhn, Johann S De Bono, Karim Fizazi, Stephen J Freedland, Maurizio Grilli, Philip W Kantoff, Guru Sonpavde, Cora N Sternberg, Srinivasan Yegnasubramanian, Emmanuel S Antonarakis
CONTEXT: Introduction of novel agents for the management of advanced prostate cancer provides a range of treatment options with notable benefits for men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). At the same time, understanding of optimal patient selection, effective sequential use, and development of resistance patterns remains incomplete. OBJECTIVE: To review current systemic therapies and recent advances in drug development for mCRPC and strategies to aid in patient selection and optimal sequencing...
April 16, 2018: European Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668600/chilean-gastric-cancer-task-force-a-study-protocol-to-obtain-a-clinical-and-molecular-classification-of-a-cohort-of-gastric-cancer-patients
#7
Gareth I Owen, Mauricio P Pinto, Ignacio N Retamal, María F Fernádez, Betzabe Cisternas, Sebastian Mondaca, Cesar Sanchez, Hector Galindo, Bruno Nervi, Carolina Ibañez, Francisco Acevedo, Jorge Madrid, José Peña, Maria Loreto Bravo, Maria Jose Maturana, Miguel Cordova-Delgado, Diego Romero, Nathaly de la Jara, Javiera Torres, Maria Rodriguez-Fernandez, Manuel Espinoza, Carlos Balmaceda, Matías Freire, Valentina Gárate-Calderón, Fernando Crovari, Paula Jimenez-Fonseca, Alberto Carmona-Bayonas, Ariel Zwenger, Ricardo Armisen, Alejandro H Corvalan, Marcelo Garrido
Gastric cancer (GC) is the world's second-leading cause of neoplastic mortality. Genetic alterations, response to treatments, and mortality rates are highly heterogeneous across different regions. Within Latin America, GC is the leading cause of cancer death in Chile, affecting 17.6 per 100,000 people and causing >3000 deaths/y. Clinical outcomes and response to "one size fits all" therapies are highly heterogeneous and thus a better stratification of patients may aid cancer treatment and response...
April 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666949/precision-medicine-against-alk-positive-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-beyond-crizotinib
#8
REVIEW
Biagio Ricciuti, Andrea De Giglio, Carmen Mecca, Cataldo Arcuri, Sabrina Marini, Giulio Metro, Sara Baglivo, Angelo Sidoni, Guido Bellezza, Lucio Crinò, Rita Chiari
Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) rearrangements represent the molecular driver of a subset of non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs). Despite the initial response, virtually all ALK-positive patients develop an acquired resistance to the ALK inhibitor crizotinib, usually within 12 months. Several next-generation ALK inhibitors have been developed in order to overcome crizotinib limitation, providing an unprecedented survival for this subset of patients. The aim of this review to summarize the current knowledge on ALK tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in the treatment of advanced ALK-positive NSCLC, focusing on the role of novel ALK inhibitors in this setting...
April 17, 2018: Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666832/structure-and-function-analysis-in-circulating-tumor-cells-using-nanotechnology-to-study-nuclear-size-in-prostate-cancer
#9
REVIEW
Nu Yao, Yu-Jen Jan, Shirley Cheng, Jie-Fu Chen, Leland Wk Chung, Hsian-Rong Tseng, Edwin M Posadas
Professor Donald Coffey and his laboratory pioneered studies showing the relationships between nuclear shape and cellular function. In doing so, he and his students established the field of nuclear morphometry in prostate cancer. By using perioperative tissues via biopsies and surgical sampling, Dr. Coffey's team discovered that nuclear shape and other pathologic features correlated with clinical outcome measures. Cancer cells also exist outside of solid tumor masses as they can be shed from both primary and metastatic lesions into the circulatory system...
2018: American Journal of Clinical and Experimental Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666812/tumor-progression-the-neuronal-input
#10
REVIEW
Marco Arese, Federico Bussolino, Margherita Pergolizzi, Laura Bizzozero, Davide Pascal
One of the challenges of cancer is its heterogeneity and rapid capacity to adapt. Notwithstanding significant progress in the last decades in genomics and precision medicine, new molecular targets and therapies appear highly necessary. One way to approach this complex problem is to consider cancer in the context of its cellular and molecular microenvironment, which includes nerves. The peripheral nerves, the topic of this review, modulate the biological behavior of the cancer cells and influence tumor progression, including the events related to the metastatic spread of the disease...
March 2018: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666669/-egfr-amplification-induces-sensitivity-to-anti-egfr-therapy-in-pancreatic-acinar-cell-carcinoma
#11
Corentin Richard, Julie Niogret, Romain Boidot, Francois Ghiringhelli
Pancreatic acinar cell carcinoma (PACC) is a rare cancer. When the tumor is metastatic, few therapeutic options are available. Precision medicine using next-generation sequencing is defined by the administration of drugs based on the tumor genetic mutations. The usage of precision medicine for finding new therapeutic options for rare cancers is an emerging field. We have reported here the case of a patient bearing a multitreated metastatic PACC. This patient underwent somatic and constitutional exome analyses...
April 15, 2018: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665274/combining-multiplex-sers-nanovectors-and-multivariate-analysis-for-in-situ-profiling-of-circulating-tumor-cell-phenotype-using-a-microfluidic-chip
#12
Yizhi Zhang, Zhuyuan Wang, Lei Wu, Shenfei Zong, Binfeng Yun, Yiping Cui
Isolating and in situ profiling the heterogeneous molecular phenotype of circulating tumor cells are of great significance for clinical cancer diagnosis and personalized therapy. Herein, an on-chip strategy is proposed that combines size-based microfluidic cell isolation with multiple spectrally orthogonal surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) analysis for in situ profiling of cell membrane proteins and identification of cancer subpopulations. With the developed microfluidic chip, tumor cells are sieved from blood on the basis of size discrepancy...
April 17, 2018: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664813/development-and-validation-of-nomograms-predicting-overall-and-cancer-specific-survival-of-spinal-chondrosarcoma-patients
#13
Kehan Song, Jian Song, Xio Shi, Hongli Wang, Xiaosheng Ma, Xinlei Xia, Xin Liang, Kaiyuan Lin, Jianyuan Jiang
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective analysis. OBJECTIVE: To develop and validate nomograms to predict overall survival (OS) and cancer-specific survival (CSS) of spinal chondrosarcoma patients. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: In this era of personalized medicine, data those are available to predict the survival of spinal chondrosarcoma patients are still limited due to the rarity of the disease. Nomogram, which has been widely used in clinical oncology, could conveniently and precisely predict survival outcome for individual patient...
April 16, 2018: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662881/the-continuum-of-aging-and-age-related-diseases-common-mechanisms-but-different-rates
#14
REVIEW
Claudio Franceschi, Paolo Garagnani, Cristina Morsiani, Maria Conte, Aurelia Santoro, Andrea Grignolio, Daniela Monti, Miriam Capri, Stefano Salvioli
Geroscience, the new interdisciplinary field that aims to understand the relationship between aging and chronic age-related diseases (ARDs) and geriatric syndromes (GSs), is based on epidemiological evidence and experimental data that aging is the major risk factor for such pathologies and assumes that aging and ARDs/GSs share a common set of basic biological mechanisms. A consequence is that the primary target of medicine is to combat aging instead of any single ARD/GSs one by one, as favored by the fragmentation into hundreds of specialties and sub-specialties...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662557/ct-radiomics-in-thoracic-oncology-technique-and-clinical-applications
#15
REVIEW
Geewon Lee, So Hyeon Bak, Ho Yun Lee
Precision medicine offers better treatment options and improved survival for cancer patients based on individual variability. As the success of precision medicine depends on robust biomarkers, the requirement for improved imaging biomarkers that reflect tumor biology has grown exponentially. Radiomics, the field of study in which high-throughput data are generated and large amounts of advanced quantitative features are extracted from medical images, has shown great potential as a source of quantitative biomarkers in the field of oncology...
April 2018: Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662530/are-we-ready-for-routine-precision-medicine-highlights-from-the-milan-summit-on-precision-medicine-milan-italy-8-9-february-2018
#16
Luca Mazzarella
On 8 and 9 February 2018, the IFOM-IEO campus in Milan hosted the Milan summit on Precision Medicine, which gathered clinical and translational research experts from academia, industry and regulatory bodies to discuss the state of the art of precision medicine in Europe. The meeting was pervaded by a generalised feeling of excitement for a field that is perceived to be technologically mature for the transition into clinical routine but still hampered by numerous obstacles of a methodological, ethical, regulatory and possibly cultural nature...
2018: Ecancermedicalscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655550/proteomic-investigating-the-cooperative-lethal-effect-of-egfr-and-mdm2-inhibitors-on-ovarian-carcinoma
#17
Shing-Jyh Chang, En-Chi Liao, Hsin-Yueh Yeo, Wen-Hong Kuo, Hsin-Yi Chen, Yi-Ting Tsai, Yu-Shan Wei, Ying-Jen Chen, Yi-Shiuan Wang, Ji-Min Li, Chuan-Chi Shih, Chia-Hao Chan, Hsiu-Chuan Chou, Yung-Jen Chuang, Hong-Lin Chan
With the concept of precision medicine, combining multiple molecular-targeting therapies has brought new approaches to current cancer treatments. Malfunction of the tumor suppressor protein, p53 is a universal hallmark in human cancers. Under normal conditions, p53 is degraded through an ubiquitin-proteosome pathway regulated by its negative regulator, MDM2. In contrast, cellular stress such as DNA damage will activate p53 to carry out DNA repair, cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis. In this study, we focused on ovarian carcinoma with high EGFR and MDM2 overexpression rate...
April 12, 2018: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653366/bufalin-inhibits-glioblastoma-growth-by-promoting-proteasomal-degradation-of-the-na-k-atpase-%C3%AE-1-subunit
#18
Yu-Long Lan, Xun Wang, Jia-Cheng Lou, Jin-Shan Xing, Zhen-Long Yu, Hongjin Wang, Shuang Zou, Xiaochi Ma, Bo Zhang
Chansu is a traditional Chinese medicine that is generally recognized as a specific inhibitor of Na+ /K+ -ATPase. Bufalin, an active component of Chansu, is an endogenous steroid hormone with great potential as a cancer treatment. However, the mechanism by which it exerts its antitumor activity requires further research. Currently, the α1 subunit of Na+ /K+ -ATPase (ATP1A1) is known to exert important roles in tumorigenesis, and the precise mechanisms underlying the effect of Bufalin on the Na+ /K+ -ATPase α1 subunit was therefore investigated in this study to determine its role in glioblastoma treatments...
April 10, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650813/-the-cutting-edge-of-sarcoma-genomics
#19
Katsuhito Takahashi
Sarcoma is well-known rare cancer with few therapeutic options. Recent comprehensive genomic analyses of adult soft tissue sarcoma revealed few somatic mutations and massive copy number variations(CNVs)by the specific chromosomes. Those features are quite different from the genomics of carcinoma such as lung and colon cancers in which driver and passenger mutations play a central role in the pathogenesis. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that substantial population of sarcoma patients has pathological germline variants of cancer predisposition genes...
April 2018: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650812/-clinical-implementation-of-precision-medicine
#20
Shuta Tomida, Shinichi Toyooka
In the end of last year, the US Food and Drug Administration has announced the authorization of MSK-IMPACT(TM), clinical test based on multiplex cancer panel profiling for genetic mutations and other alterations in patients' tumors, while in Japan, NCC Oncopanel, domestic multiplex cancer panel, is scheduled to be clinically implemented as advanced medical care B in this coming spring, chasing the state of the art technology for cancer treatment. In this article, we outline a recently published roadmap for precision medicine in Japan, together with our years of experience on cancer diagnosis and treatment based on multiplex cancer panel at Okayama University Hospital and Okadai Biobank...
April 2018: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
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