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Cancer precision medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523274/identification-of-braf-positive-cases-based-on-whole-slide-image-analysis
#1
Vlad Popovici, Aleš Křenek, Eva Budinská
A key requirement for precision medicine is the accurate identification of patients that would respond to a specific treatment or those that represent a high-risk group, and a plethora of molecular biomarkers have been proposed for this purpose during the last decade. Their application in clinical settings, however, is not always straightforward due to relatively high costs of some tests, limited availability of the biological material and time, and procedural constraints. Hence, there is an increasing interest in constructing tissue-based surrogate biomarkers that could be applied with minimal overhead directly to histopathology images and which could be used for guiding the selection of eventual further molecular tests...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28517988/the-promise-and-the-hype-of-personalised-medicine
#2
Tim Maughan
Personalised medicine is widely considered as the way of the future for medicine. However, progress in cancer, with a few outstanding exceptions, has fallen below expectations because of the challenges of tumour heterogeneity and clonal evolution. In both benign and malignant disease, diseases caused by single genetic alterations are more amenable to precision medicine approaches. However, most common diseases are caused by a complex interplay of multiple genetic and environmental factors making personalised medicine far more challenging...
April 2017: New Bioethics: a Multidisciplinary Journal of Biotechnology and the Body
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28517986/from-rosalind-franklin-to-barack-obama-data-sharing-challenges-and-solutions-in-genomics-and-personalised-medicine
#3
Mark Lawler, Tim Maughan
The collection, storage and use of genomic and clinical data from patients and healthy individuals is a key component of personalised medicine enterprises such as the Precision Medicine Initiative, the Cancer Moonshot and the 100,000 Genomes Project. In order to maximise the value of this data, it is important to embed a culture within the scientific, medical and patient communities that supports the appropriate sharing of genomic and clinical information. However, this aspiration raises a number of ethical, legal and regulatory challenges that need to be addressed...
April 2017: New Bioethics: a Multidisciplinary Journal of Biotechnology and the Body
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516087/dna-sequence-analysis-in-clinical-medicine-proceeding-cautiously
#4
REVIEW
Moyra Smith
Delineation of underlying genomic and genetic factors in a specific disease may be valuable in establishing a definitive diagnosis and may guide patient management and counseling. In addition, genetic information may be useful in identification of at risk family members. Gene mapping and initial genome sequencing data enabled the development of microarrays to analyze genomic variants. The goal of this review is to consider different generations of sequencing techniques and their application to exome sequencing and whole genome sequencing and their clinical applications...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514740/differential-expression-of-circulating-biomarkers-of-tumor-phenotype-and-outcomes-in-previously-treated-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-patients-receiving-erlotinib-vs-cytotoxic-chemotherapy
#5
Mary Jo Fidler, Casey Frankenberger, Richard Seto, Gabriela C Lobato, Cristina L Fhied, Selina Sayidine, Sanjib Basu, Mark Pool, Reem Karmali, Marta Batus, Wen-Rong Lie, David Hayes, Jehangir Mistry, Philip Bonomi, Jeffrey A Borgia
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to identify serum biomarkers capable of predicting clinical outcomes in previously-treated NSCLC patients with wild-type for EGFR activating mutations or insufficient tissue for mutation status determination. METHODS: Sixty-six Luminex immunoassays representative of biological themes that emerged from a re-analysis of transcriptome data from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) were evaluate against pretreatment serum specimens from previously-treated advanced NSCLC patients received either cytotoxic chemotherapy (n=32) or erlotinib (n=79)...
April 28, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514737/integration-of-phytochemicals-and-phytotherapy-into-cancer-precision-medicine
#6
REVIEW
Thomas Efferth, Mohamed E M Saeed, Elhaj Mirghani, Awadh Alim, Zahir Yassin, Elfatih Saeed, Hassan E Khalid, Salah Daak
Concepts of individualized therapy in the 1970s and 1980s attempted to develop predictive in vitro tests for individual drug responsiveness without reaching clinical routine. Precision medicine attempts to device novel individual cancer therapy strategies. Using bioinformatics, relevant knowledge is extracted from huge data amounts. However, tumor heterogeneity challenges chemotherapy due to genetically and phenotypically different cell subpopulations, which may lead to refractory tumors. Natural products always served as vital resources for cancer therapy (e...
April 27, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511612/ngs-analysis-on-tumor-tissue-and-cfdna-for-genotype-directed-therapy-in-metastatic-nsclc-patients-between-hope-and-hype
#7
Alexander T Falk, Simon Heeke, Véronique Hofman, Virginie Lespinet, Camille Ribeyre, Olivier Bordone, Michel Poudenx, Josiane Otto, Georges Garnier, Olivier Castelnau, Joël Guigay, Sylvie Leroy, Charles-Hugo Marquette, Paul Hofman, Marius Ilié
The advent of genomic based precision medicine led to the implementation of biomarker testing in metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Next generation sequencing (NGS) has been recently implemented to routine diagnostic requirements in lung oncology. Areas covered: Two cases of patients with metastatic NSCLC for whom NGS analysis performed on both tumor and liquid biopsy has not improved the clinical course of their disease are reported. These cases illustrate the difficulty of the so-called "personalized or precision" medicine in clinical routine practice for metastatic NSCLC...
May 17, 2017: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507205/a-case-of-metastatic-atypical-neuroendocrine-tumor-with-alk-translocation-and-diffuse-brain-metastases
#8
Victoria E Wang, Lauren Young, Siraj Ali, Vincent A Miller, Anatoly Urisman, John Wolfe, Trever G Bivona, Bertil Damato, Shannon Fogh, Emily K Bergsland
A challenge in precision medicine requires identification of actionable driver mutations. Critical to such effort is the deployment of sensitive and well-validated assays for mutation detection. Although identification of such alterations within the tumor tissue remains the gold standard, many advanced non-small cell lung cancer cases have only limited tissue samples, derived from small biopsies or fine-needle aspirates, available for testing. More recently, noninvasive methods using either circulating tumor cells or tumor DNA (ctDNA) have become an alternative method for identifying molecular biomarkers and screening patients eligible for targeted therapies...
May 15, 2017: Oncologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493816/sample-types-applied-for-molecular-diagnosis-of-therapeutic-management-of-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-in-the-precision-medicine
#9
Yanxi Han, Jinming Li
In this era of precision medicine, molecular biology is becoming increasingly significant for the diagnosis and therapeutic management of non-small cell lung cancer. The specimen as the primary element of the whole testing flow is particularly important for maintaining the accuracy of gene alteration testing. Presently, the main sample types applied in routine diagnosis are tissue and cytology biopsies. Liquid biopsies are considered as the most promising alternatives when tissue and cytology samples are not available...
May 11, 2017: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493287/soft-tissue-sarcoma-nomograms-and-their-incorporation-into-practice
#10
REVIEW
Dario Callegaro, Rosalba Miceli, Luigi Mariani, Chandrajit P Raut, Alessandro Gronchi
The accurate prediction of prognosis in patients with soft tissue sarcoma (STS) is a challenging issue. Extreme variability in the clinical and pathological characteristics of this family of tumors hinders the simple stratification of patients into meaningful prognostic cohorts. Precision medicine tools for the prediction of prognosis, such as nomograms, enable personalized computation of outcome based on clinical and pathological characteristics of both patient and tumor. The eighth edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer staging manual moved from a "population-based" to a "personalized" approach endorsing high-quality nomograms to improve clinician prediction ability in definite patient subgroups...
May 10, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492066/progression-inference-for-somatic-mutations-in-cancer
#11
Leif E Peterson, Tatiana Kovyrshina
Computational methods were employed to determine progression inference of genomic alterations in commonly occurring cancers. Using cross-sectional TCGA data, we computed evolutionary trajectories involving selectivity relationships among pairs of gene-specific genomic alterations such as somatic mutations, deletions, amplifications, downregulation, and upregulation among the top 20 driver genes associated with each cancer. Results indicate that the majority of hierarchies involved TP53, PIK3CA, ERBB2, APC, KRAS, EGFR, IDH1, VHL, etc...
April 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491135/highlights-from-the-15th-st-gallen-international-breast-cancer-conference-15-18-march-2017-vienna-tailored-treatments-for-patients-with-early-breast-cancer
#12
Consuelo Morigi
The 15th St Gallen International Breast Cancer Conference was held in Vienna for the second time, from 15th-18th March 2017. 4000 people from 105 countries all over the world were invited to take part in the event. The real highlight of the conference was the last day with the International Consensus Session which was chaired by around 50 experts on breast cancer worldwide. With reference to data from scientific research, the consensus panel tried to offer guidelines for the management of breast cancer with the aim of providing patients with optimal treatment...
2017: Ecancermedicalscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486527/prognostic-impact-of-egfr-mutation-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-patients-with-family-history-of-lung-cancer
#13
Jung Soo Kim, Min Seong Cho, Jong Hyeon Nam, Hyun-Jung Kim, Kyeng-Won Choi, Jeong-Seon Ryu
BACKGROUND: A family history can be a valuable tool in the era of precision medicine. Although a few studies have described an association of family history of lung cancer with EGFR activating mutation, their impact on survival of lung cancer patients is unclear. METHODS: The study included consecutive 829 non-small-cell lung cancer patients who received analysis of EGFR mutation in a prospective lung cancer cohort. Family history of lung cancer was obtained by face-to-face interviews at the time of diagnosis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485840/genetic-landscape-of-clear-cell-endometrial-cancer-and-the-era-of-precision-medicine
#14
EDITORIAL
Gloria S Huang, Alessandro D Santin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 9, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485033/localisation-of-two-bioactive-labdane-diterpenoids-in-the-peltate-glandular-trichomes-of-leonurus-japonicus-by-laser-microdissection-coupled-with-uplc-ms-ms
#15
Chao-Jiang Xiao, Yan-Chun Liu, Shi-Hong Luo, Juan Hua, Yan Liu, Sheng-Hong Li
INTRODUCTION: Glandular trichomes of plants are biochemical factories that could produce, store and secrete copious pharmaceutically important natural products. The Labiatae plant Leonurus japonicus is an important traditional Chinese medicine used to treat gynecological diseases, and has abundant peltate glandular trichomes (PGTs), in which the secondary metabolites accumulated are still unknown. OBJECTIVE: To study the secondary metabolites specifically accumulated in the PGTs of L...
May 9, 2017: Phytochemical Analysis: PCA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482068/mtctscan-a-comprehensive-platform-for-annotation-and-prioritization-of-mutations-affecting-drug-sensitivity-in-cancers
#16
Mulin Jun Li, Hongcheng Yao, Dandan Huang, Huanhuan Liu, Zipeng Liu, Hang Xu, Yiming Qin, Jeanette Prinz, Weiyi Xia, Panwen Wang, Bin Yan, Nhan L Tran, Jean-Pierre Kocher, Pak C Sham, Junwen Wang
Cancer therapies have experienced rapid progress in recent years, with a number of novel small-molecule kinase inhibitors and monoclonal antibodies now being widely used to treat various types of human cancers. During cancer treatments, mutations can have important effects on drug sensitivity. However, the relationship between tumor genomic profiles and the effectiveness of cancer drugs remains elusive. We introduce Mutation To Cancer Therapy Scan (mTCTScan) web server (http://jjwanglab.org/mTCTScan) that can systematically analyze mutations affecting cancer drug sensitivity based on individual genomic profiles...
May 8, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481473/injectable-supramolecular-hydrogels-as-delivery-agents-of-bcl-2-conversion-gene-for-the-effective-shrinkage-of-therapeutic-resistance-tumors
#17
Xuan Liu, Xiaohong Chen, Ming Xuan Chua, Zibiao Li, Xian Jun Loh, Yun-Long Wu
Injectable hydrogels to deliver therapeutic genes in a minimally invasive manner and to achieve long term sustained release at tumor sites to minimize side effects are attractive for cancer therapy and precision medicine, but its rational design remains a challenge. In this report, an injectable supramolecular hydrogel system is designed based on the polypesudorotaxane formation between α-cyclodextrin (α-CD) and cationic methoxy-poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(ε-caprolactone)-b-poly(ethylene imine) (MPEG-PCL-PEI) copolymer, with the ability to form polyplexes with anionic plasmid DNA for effective sustained gene delivery...
May 8, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477422/prostate-cancer-molecular-profiling-the-achille-s-heel-for-the-implementation-of-precision-medicine
#18
REVIEW
Eliane Gouvêa de Oliveira Barros, Pedro Nicolau-Neto, Nathalia Meireles Da Costa, Luís Felipe Ribeiro Pinto, Antonio Palumbo Jr, Luiz Eurico Nasciutti
Cancer has been mainly treated by traditional therapeutic approaches which do not consider the human genetic diversity and present limitations, probably as a consequence of a poor knowledge of both patient's genetic background and tumor biology. Due to genome project conclusion and large scale gene analyses emergence, the therapeutic management of several prevalent and aggressive tumors has dramatically improved and represents the closest examples of a precision medicine intervention in this field. Nonetheless, prostate cancer (PCa) remains as a challenge to personalized medicine implementation, probably due to its notorious heterogeneous molecular profile...
May 6, 2017: Cell Biology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474802/rapid-and-sensitive-detection-of-ugt1a1-polymorphisms-associated-with-irinotecan-toxicity-by-a-novel-dna-microarray
#19
Ryouichi Tsunedomi, Shoichi Hazama, Naoko Okayama, Masaaki Oka, Hiroaki Nagano
Recent developments in the field of human genomics have greatly enhanced the potential for precision and personalized medicine. We have developed a novel DNA microarray, using a 3-mm square chip coated with diamond-like carbon to enhance the signal-to-background ratio, for use as an in vitro diagnostic tool in precision medicine. To verify the genotyping effectiveness of this newly developed DNA microarray we examined UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 (UGT1A1) polymorphisms in DNA extracted from patients with metastatic colorectal cancer...
May 5, 2017: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473040/individualized-medicine-in-gastroenterology-and-hepatology
#20
REVIEW
Michael C Stephens, Lisa A Boardman, Konstantinos N Lazaridis
After the completion of the Human Genome Project, there has been an acceleration in methodologies on sequencing nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) at a high precision and with ever-decreasing turnaround time and cost. Collectively, these approaches are termed next-generation sequencing and are already affecting the transformation of medical practice. In this symposium article, we highlight the current knowledge of the genetics of selected gastrointestinal tract and liver diseases, namely, inflammatory bowel disease, hereditary cholestatic liver disease, and familial colon cancer syndromes...
May 2017: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
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