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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677556/prenatal-exposure-to-polychlorinated-biphenyls-and-fetal-growth-in-british-girls
#1
Jill F Patel, Terryl J Hartman, Andreas Sjodin, Kate Northstone, Ethel V Taylor
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are synthetic chemicals that bioaccumulate in the food chain. PCBs were used primarily for industrial applications due to their insulating and fire retardant properties, but were banned in the 1970s in the United States and in the 1980s in the United Kingdom, as adverse health effects following exposure were identified. Previous studies of populations with high PCB exposure have reported inverse associations with birth weight and gestational length. Birth weight is a powerful predictor of infant survival, and low birth weight can predispose infants to chronic conditions in adult life such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases...
April 17, 2018: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677170/development-of-the-who-environmental-noise-guidelines-for-the-european-region-an-introduction
#2
Dorota Jarosińska, Marie-Ève Héroux, Poonum Wilkhu, James Creswick, Jos Verbeek, Jördis Wothge, Elizabet Paunović
Following the Parma Declaration on Environment and Health adopted at the Fifth Ministerial Conference (2010), the Ministers and representatives of Member States in the WHO European Region requested the World Health Organization (WHO) to develop updated guidelines on environmental noise, and called upon all stakeholders to reduce children's exposure to noise, including that from personal electronic devices. The WHO Environmental Noise Guidelines for the European Region will provide evidence-based policy guidance to Member States on protecting human health from noise originating from transportation (road traffic, railway and aircraft), wind turbine noise, and leisure noise in settings where people spend the majority of their time...
April 20, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676936/pediatric-metabolic-outcome-comparisons-based-on-a-spectrum-of-obesity-and-asthmatic-symptoms
#3
Ashley D Perdue, Lesley A Cottrell, Christa L Lilly, William A Gower, Brian A Ely, Brad Foringer, Melvin L Wright, William A Neal
RATIONALE: Asthma and obesity are two of the most prevalent public health issues for children in the U.S. Trajectories of both have roughly paralleled one another over the past several decades causing many to explore their connection to one another and to other associated health issues such as diabetes and dyslipidemia. Earlier models have commonly designated obesity as the central hub of these associations; however, more recent models have argued connections between pediatric asthma and other obesity-related metabolic conditions regardless of children's obesity risk...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Asthma: Official Journal of the Association for the Care of Asthma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675980/longitudinal-assessment-of-hippocampus-structure-in-children-with-type-1-diabetes
#4
Lara C Foland-Ross, Allan L Reiss, Paul K Mazaika, Nelly Mauras, Stuart A Weinzimer, Tandy Aye, Michael J Tansey, Neil H White
The extant literature finds that children with type 1 diabetes (T1D) experience mild cognitive alterations compared to healthy age-matched controls. The neural basis of these cognitive differences is unclear but may relate in part to the effects of dysglycemia on the developing brain. We investigated longitudinal changes in hippocampus volume in young children with early-onset T1D. Structural magnetic resonance imaging data were acquired from 142 children with T1D and 65 age-matched control subjects (4-10 years of age at study entry) at two time points, 18 months apart...
April 19, 2018: Pediatric Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673333/protocol-for-the-chord-project-community-health-outreach-to-reduce-diabetes-a-cluster-randomized-community-health-worker-trial-to-prevent-diabetes
#5
Nadia Islam, Thomas Gepts, Isaac Lief, Radhika Gore, Natalie Levy, Michael Tanner, Yixin Fang, Scott E Sherman, Mark D Schwartz
BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) affects 9.4% of US adults and children, while another 33.9% of Americans are at risk of DM. Health care institutions face many barriers to systematically delivering the preventive care needed to decrease DM incidence. Community health workers (CHWs) may, as frontline public health workers bridging clinic and community, help overcome these challenges. This paper presents the protocol for a pragmatic, cluster-randomized trial integrating CHWs into two primary care clinics to support DM prevention for at-risk patients...
April 19, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672623/impaired-vibrotactile-sense-in-children-and-adolescents-with-type-1-diabetes-signs-of-peripheral-neuropathy
#6
Erik Ising, Lars B Dahlin, Helena Elding Larsson
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether multi-frequency vibrometry can identify individuals with elevated vibration perception thresholds (VPTs), reflecting impaired vibrotactile sense, among children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes. METHODS: In 72 pediatric patients with type 1 diabetes, VPTs were evaluated for seven frequencies on two sites of the hand, and five frequencies on two sites of the foot. Z-scores, based on previously collected reference data, were calculated...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671962/glycemic-control-is-related-to-cognitive-dysfunction-in-chinese-children-with-type-1-diabetes-mellitus
#7
Jing He, Shichen Li, Fang Liu, Hong Zheng, Xiang Yan, Yuting Xie, Xia Li, Zhiguang Zhou, Xiongzhao Zhu
BACKGROUND: Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) type 1 diabetes is considered to be a risk factor for developing cognitive difficulties. The present study examined if Chinese children with T1DM differ in cognitive performance from healthy control (HC) children, and whether cognitive dysfunction is related to glycemic control. METHODS: Using a cross-sectional design, we administered cognitive tests, including general intelligence tests, to pediatric T1DM patients (N = 105) and HC participants (N = 90)...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671100/pediatric-type-2-diabetes-in-japan-similarities-and-differences-from-type-2-diabetes-in-other-pediatric-populations
#8
REVIEW
Tatsuhiko Urakami
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review clinical characteristics of pediatric type 2 diabetes in Japan. RECENT FINDINGS: It is well recognized that Asian populations, particularly the Japanese, have a higher incidence of childhood type 2 diabetes. Of note, most Asian populations show a higher incidence of pediatric type 2 diabetes than that of type 1 diabetes. However, a current report in the USA demonstrated a dramatic increase in the incidence of young people with type 2 diabetes in recent years...
April 18, 2018: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671076/sugar-sweetened-beverage-obesity-and-type-2-diabetes-in-children-and-adolescents-policies-taxation-and-programs
#9
REVIEW
Yilin Yoshida, Eduardo J Simoes
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Obesity has grown at an alarming rate in children and adolescents. Concurrently, consumption on sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) also rose significantly. This review provides an overview of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) related to SSBs and current policies restricting SSBs in schools, school-based interventions, and taxation on reducing SSB intake and obesity. We also discuss challenges of and future steps for these initiatives. RECENT FINDINGS: Clinical and epidemiological studies suggest a strong association between SSB intake and obesity and T2DM...
April 18, 2018: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669934/divergent-responses-to-kisspeptin-in-children-with-delayed-puberty
#10
Yee-Ming Chan, Margaret F Lippincott, Temitope O Kusa, Stephanie B Seminara
BACKGROUND: The neuropeptide kisspeptin stimulates luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion in healthy adults but not in adults with idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. We hypothesized that, in children presenting with delayed or stalled puberty, kisspeptin would elicit LH secretion in those children found on detailed nighttime neuroendocrine profiling to have evidence of emerging reproductive endocrine function. METHODS: Eleven boys and four girls were admitted overnight to assess LH secretion at baseline, after a single intravenous bolus of kisspeptin, and after a single intravenous bolus of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)...
April 19, 2018: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668891/maternal-polycystic-ovarian-syndrome-and-early-offspring-development
#11
Griffith A Bell, Rajeshwari Sundaram, Sunni L Mumford, Hyojun Park, James Mills, Erin M Bell, Miranda Broadney, Edwina H Yeung
STUDY QUESTION: Is maternal polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) associated with developmental delays in offspring? SUMMARY ANSWER: Offspring of mothers with PCOS were at higher risk of failure on the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ). WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: There is growing evidence that offspring of mothers with PCOS may be at higher risk for developmental disorders due to potential exposure to hyperandrogenism and insulin resistance. Few studies exist regarding maternal PCOS and early childhood development in the USA...
April 13, 2018: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668553/glucose-homeostasis-markers-in-beta-thalassemia
#12
Sunil Gomber, Anjali Bagaria, Sri V Madhu, Pooja Dewan
BACKGROUND: Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) has been a well-recognized marker of glucose homeostasis among thalassemics. Recently some studies have proposed the role of fructosamine as a better marker as compared with HbA1c. Hence, the study was carried out to find out which marker holds promise among Indian beta-thalassemic children. METHODS: In this case-control study, 60 diagnosed cases of beta-thalassemia major and equal number of normal controls who were ≥8 years of age were enrolled...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668472/obesity-in-childhood-and-adolescence-genetic-factors
#13
Marko Kostovski, Velibor Tasic, Nevena Laban, Momir Polenakovic, Dragan Danilovski, Zoran Gucev
Obesity and excess weight are a pandemic phenomenon in the modern world. Childhood and adolescent obesity often ends up in obesity in adults. The costs of obesity and its consequences are staggering for any society, crippling for countries in development. Childhood obesity is also widespread in Macedonia. Metabolic syndrome, dyslipidemia and carbohydrate intolerance are found in significant numbers. Parents and grandparents are often obese. Some of the children are either dysmorphic, or slightly retarded. We have already described patients with Prader-Willi syndrome, Bardet-Biedl syndrome or WAGR syndrome...
December 1, 2017: Prilozi (Makedonska Akademija Na Naukite i Umetnostite. Oddelenie za Medicinski Nauki)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667488/testing-the-theory-of-resilience-and-relational-load-trrl-in-families-with-type-i-diabetes
#14
Tamara Afifi, Douglas Granger, Anne Ersig, Eva Tsalikian, Ariana Shahnazi, Sharde Davis, Kathryn Harrison, Michelle Acevedo Callejas, Audrey Scranton
The theory of resilience and relational load was tested with 60 couples and their adolescent children (ages 11-18) with type I diabetes (T1D). The couples participated in a stress-inducing conversation task in their home, followed by a random assignment to a two-week intervention designed to increase their relationship maintenance. Before the intervention, stronger communal orientation predicted greater maintenance for husbands and wives, but maintenance only reduced T1D stress for wives. The wives' and adolescents' T1D stress were also correlated, but the husbands' T1D stress was not significantly associated with either of them...
April 18, 2018: Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664909/higher-parental-occupational-social-contact-is-associated-with-a-reduced-risk-of-incident-pediatric-type-1-diabetes-mediation-through-molecular-enteroviral-indices
#15
Anne-Louise Ponsonby, Angela Pezic, Fergus J Cameron, Christine Rodda, Andrew S Kemp, John B Carlin, Heikki Hyoty, Amirbabak Sioofy-Khojine, Terence Dwyer, Justine A Ellis, Maria E Craig
We aimed to examine the association between parental occupational social contact and hygiene factors on type 1 diabetes (T1D) risk and possible mediation of these effects through child enteroviral infection. We interviewed 333 incident T1D cases and 660 controls from 2008-2011 in Melbourne, Australia. Enteroviral indices (ribonucleic acid by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Coxsackie B virus antibody levels) in peripheral blood were measured in nested case control samples. Parent occupational social contact was assessed by the number of well or sick children, adults or animals contacted daily through work...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664674/associations-between-neighborhood-walkability-and-incident-and-ongoing-asthma-in-children
#16
Elinor Simons, Sharon D Dell, Rahim Moineddin, Teresa To
RATIONALE: Childhood asthma has shown variable associations with children's physical activity. Neighborhood walkability captures community features that promote walking and is protective against some chronic conditions, such as obesity and diabetes. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated associations between home neighborhood walkability and incident and ongoing childhood asthma. METHODS: This population-based cohort study used prospectively-collected administrative healthcare data for the province of Ontario housed at the Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences...
April 17, 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663652/a-longitudinal-study-of-serum-insulin-like-growth-factor-i-igf-i-levels-over-six-years-in-a-large-cohort-of-children-and-adolescents-with-type-1-diabetes-mellitus-a-marker-reflecting-diabetic-retinopathy
#17
Daniel Öberg, Jenny Salemyr, Eva Örtqvist, Anders Juul, Peter Bang
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate longitudinal serum IGF-I in a large cohort of children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes in relation to HbA1c, age, diabetes duration, and BMI, its association to height and retinopathy, and in comparison with healthy subject references. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A total of 2,683 serum IGF-I values were obtained from 806 children and adolescents with T1DM, from annual blood samples for up to 6 consecutive years. RESULTS: In a multiple regression analysis IGF-I values were negatively correlated to HbA1c and diabetes duration, and positively correlated to BMI (p<0...
April 16, 2018: Pediatric Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662644/autoantibodies-against-islet-cell-antigens-in-children-with-type-1-diabetes-mellitus
#18
Bi-Wen Cheng, Fu-Sung Lo, An-Mei Wang, Chen-Mei Hung, Chi-Yu Huang, Wei-Hsin Ting, Mei-Ore Yang, Chao-Hsu Lin, Chia-Ching Chen, Chiung-Ling Lin, Yi-Lei Wu, Yann-Jinn Lee
We investigated the prevalence of glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 autoantibody (GADA), insulinoma-associated protein 2 autoantibody (IA2A), and insulin autoantibody (IAA) in 750 children with type 1 diabetes (T1D) living in Taiwan. GADA, IA2A, and IAA were measured by radioimmunoassay. The data were assessed by χ 2 test, binary logistic regression, and Spearman rank correlation. Of the 750 T1D patients, 66.3% had GADA, 65.3% IA2A, 35.7% IAA, and 17.2% no autoantibodies. The prevalence of GADA and IA2A significantly decreased along T1D duration...
March 27, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661673/the-use-of-pediatric-flexible-intramedullary-nails-for-minimally-invasive-fibular-fracture-fixation
#19
James C Connors, Mark A Hardy, Duane J Ehredt, Michael A Coyer
Fibular fractures in the setting of an unstable ankle joint require surgical fixation; however, several factors contradict open surgical correction. Severe soft tissue compromise can delay adequate fracture reduction and preclude the standard incisional approach. The soft tissue envelope in the setting of obesity, diabetes, and/or peripheral vascular disease further complicates definitive treatment. Poorly timed open fixation can lead to delayed healing of the incision site, with wound breakdown and the potential for hardware failure...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Foot and Ankle Surgery: Official Publication of the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661561/clinically-actionable-hypercholesterolemia-and-hypertriglyceridemia-in-children-with-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#20
Kathryn E Harlow, Jonathan A Africa, Alan Wells, Patricia H Belt, Cynthia A Behling, Ajay K Jain, Jean P Molleston, Kimberly P Newton, Philip Rosenthal, Miriam B Vos, Stavra A Xanthakos, Joel E Lavine, Jeffrey B Schwimmer
OBJECTIVE: To determine the percentage of children with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in whom intervention for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol or triglycerides was indicated based on National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute guidelines. STUDY DESIGN: This multicenter, longitudinal cohort study included children with NAFLD enrolled in the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis Clinical Research Network...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
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