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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641536/overview-of-forensic-toxicology-yesterday-today-and-in-the-future
#1
Heesun Chung, Sanggil Choe
BACKGROUND: The scope of forensic toxicology has been tremendously expanded over the past 50 years. From two general sections forensic toxicology can be further classified into 8-9 sections. METHODS: The most outstanding improvement in forensic toxicology is the changes brought by instrumental development. The field of forensic toxicology was revolutionized by the development of immunoassay and bench-top GC-MS in the 1980's and LC-MS-MS in 2000's. Detection of trace amounts of analytes has allowed the use of new specimens such as hair and oral fluids, along with blood and urine...
June 22, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641530/method-development-in-forensic-toxicology
#2
Frank T Peters, Dirk K Wissenbach, Francesco Paolo Busardò, Emilia Marchei, Simona Pichini
BACKGROUND: In the field of forensic toxicology, the quality of analytical methods is of great importance to ensure the reliability of results and to avoid unjustified legal consequences. A key to high quality analytical methods is a thorough method development. METHODS: The presented article will provide an overview on the process of developing methods for forensic applications. RESULTS: This includes the definition of the method's purpose (e...
June 22, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637216/qualitative-analysis-and-detection-of-the-pyrolytic-products-of-jwh-018-and-11-additional-synthetic-cannabinoids-in-the-presence-of-common-herbal-smoking-substrates
#3
Stephen Raso, Suzanne Bell
Synthetic cannabinoids have become a ubiquitous challenge in forensic toxicology and seized drug analysis. Thermal degradation products have yet to be identified and evaluated for toxicity in comparison to parent and metabolic compounds. An investigation into these pyrolytic products, as the major route of ingestion is inhalation, may produce additional insight to understand the toxicity of synthetic cannabinoids. The pyrolysis of JWH-018 and 11 additional synthetic cannabinoids and six herbal plant substrates were conducted using an in-house constructed smoking simulator...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634759/current-applications-of-high-resolution-mass-spectrometry-for-the-analysis-of-new-psychoactive-substances-a-critical-review
#4
REVIEW
Daniel Pasin, Adam Cawley, Sergei Bidny, Shanlin Fu
The proliferation of new psychoactive substances (NPS) in recent years has resulted in the development of numerous analytical methods for the detection and identification of known and unknown NPS derivatives. High-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) has been identified as the method of choice for broad screening of NPS in a wide range of analytical contexts because of its ability to measure accurate masses using data-independent acquisition (DIA) techniques. Additionally, it has shown promise for non-targeted screening strategies that have been developed in order to detect and identify novel analogues without the need for certified reference materials (CRMs) or comprehensive mass spectral libraries...
June 20, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629236/advances-in-new-psychoactive-substances-identification-the-u-r-i-to-n-consortium
#5
Elisabetta Bertol, Fabio Vaiano, Francesco Mari, Maria Grazia Di Milia, Silvia Bua, Claudiu T Supuran, Fabrizio Carta
Identification of new psychoactive substances (NPS) in biological and non-biological samples represents a hard challenge for forensic toxicologists. Their great chemical variety and the speed with which new NPS are synthesised and spread make stringent the need of advanced tools for their detection based on multidisciplinary approaches. For this reason, in August 2016, the "Unit of Research and Innovation in Forensic Toxicology and Neuroscience of Addiction" (U.R.I.To.N.) was founded by the Forensic Toxicology Division of the University of Florence...
December 2017: Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625099/toxicology-in-clinical-laboratories-challenging-times
#6
N W Brown
In recent years, there have been a number of significant developments in toxicology within clinical laboratories, both with the available instrumentation and in the range of compounds abused by the drug using communities. There have also been developments in the regulation of forensic science in the UK which may in time impact clinical toxicology. This review is designed to provide an update of these changes within toxicology to the more general pathology laboratory audience. For detailed information in specific areas, the reader is referred to the references in the text...
June 19, 2017: British Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624672/analysis-of-fire-deaths-in-poland-and-influence-of-smoke-toxicity
#7
Joanna Giebułtowicz, Monika Rużycka, Piotr Wroczyński, David A Purser, Anna A Stec
Dwelling fires have changed over the years because building contents and the materials used in then have changed. They all contribute to an ever-growing diversity of chemical species found in fires, many of them highly toxic. These arise largely from the changing nature of materials in interior finishes and furniture, with an increasing content of synthetic materials containing higher levels of nitrogen, halogen and phosphorus additives. While there is still a belief that carbon monoxide is the major lethal toxic agent in fires, the hydrogen cyanide and acid gases released from these additives are now well-recognised as major contributory causes of incapacitation, morbidity and mortality in domestic fires...
June 9, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617565/psychotropic-medications-in-swedish-homicide-victims-and-offenders-a-forensic-toxicological-case-control-study-of-adherence-and-recreational-use
#8
Jonatan Hedlund, Jonas Forsman, Joakim Sturup, Thomas Masterman
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to assess the extent to which adherence to, and recreational use of, psychotropic medications influence the risk of homicide offending and victimization. METHODS: We conducted a population-based case-control study by way of linking a nationwide registry of dispensed prescriptions with a forensic-toxicological database. Homicide victims (n = 200) and offenders (n = 105) were identified for the years 2007-2009 and vehicle-accident controls (n = 1,643) for the years 2006-2013...
June 6, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616810/accuracy-of-non-contrast-pmct-for-determining-cause-of-death
#9
Garyfalia Ampanozi, Yannick A Thali, Wolf Schweitzer, Gary M Hatch, Lars C Ebert, Michael J Thali, Thomas D Ruder
The aim of this study was (1) to compare levels of accuracy regarding the categorization of causes of death between non-contrast post-mortem computed tomography (PMCT) and the final forensic report as well as between autopsy and the final forensic report, and (2) to assess levels of confidence regarding the categorization of causes of death after non-contrast PMCT and after autopsy. This prospective study was conducted over a 5 month period during which 221 cases were admitted to our institute for forensic investigations...
June 15, 2017: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610598/forensic-toxicology-analysis-of-self-poisoning-suicidal-deaths-in-tehran-iran-trends-between-2011-2015
#10
Roya Kordrostami, Maryam Akhgari, Maryam Ameri, Masoud Ghadipasha, Kamran Aghakhani
BACKGROUND: Suicide ranks among the top ten causes of death in all age groups all over the world. There are many methods for committing suicide including self-poisoning, firearm and hanging. The aim of the present study was to provide an overview of self-poisoning related suicidal deaths with special focus on forensic toxicology analysis results in Tehran, Iran from 2011 to 2015. METHODS: All suspicious cases with the the history of self-poisoning were investigated to define the cause and manner of death under the supervision of forensic medicine practitioners...
June 13, 2017: Daru: Journal of Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605020/report-of-increasing-overdose-deaths-that-include-acetyl-fentanyl-in-multiple-counties-of-the-southwestern-region-of-the-commonwealth-of-pennsylvania-in-2015-2016
#11
Jessica B Dwyer, Jennifer Janssen, Todd M Luckasevic, Karl E Williams
Acetyl fentanyl is a Schedule I controlled synthetic opioid that is becoming an increasingly detected "designer drug." Routine drug screening procedures in local forensic toxicology laboratories identified a total of 41 overdose deaths associated with acetyl fentanyl within multiple counties of the southwestern region of the state of Pennsylvania. The range, median, mean, and standard deviation of blood acetyl fentanyl concentrations for these 41 cases were 0.13-2100 ng/mL, 11 ng/mL, 169.3 ng/mL, and 405...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601767/pooled-human-liver-preparations-heparg-or-hepg2-cell-lines-for-metabolism-studies-of-new-psychoactive-substances-a-study-using-mdma-mdbd-butylone-mdppp-mdpv-mdpb-5-mapb-and-5-api-as-examples
#12
Lilian H J Richter, Veit Flockerzi, Hans H Maurer, Markus R Meyer
Metabolism studies play an important role in clinical and forensic toxicology. Because of potential species differences in metabolism, human samples are best suitable for elucidating metabolism. However, in the case of new psychoactive substances (NPS), human samples of controlled studies are not available. Primary human hepatocytes have been described as gold standard for in vitro metabolism studies, but there are some disadvantages such as high costs, limited availability, and variability of metabolic enzymes...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567968/sudden-death-by-spontaneous-epiglottic-hematoma-secondary-to-high-blood-levels-of-warfarin
#13
Séverine Gilard-Pioc, Pascal Guerard, François Paraf, Irène François-Purssell
A 67-year-old man was found dead, at his home. On external examination, we found a voluminous purplish black ecchymosis of the anterior neck area. On internal examination, we found a voluminous epiglottis hematoma completely obstructing the upper airway. It was associated with other sites of intra-abdominal hemorrhage. Toxicological studies revealed the presence of warfarin at a concentration of 8.4 mg/L in peripheral blood, which supposes an INR well above 4.5. To conclude, we supposed death was due to asphyxia secondary to a spontaneous epiglottic hematoma caused by a high blood concentration of warfarin...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567525/forensic-entomotoxicology-revisited-towards-professional-standardisation-of-study-designs
#14
REVIEW
Erica I T da Silva, Brendan Wilhelmi, Martin H Villet
Forensic entomotoxicology is the use of insects as evidence of whether a toxicant is present in an environment such as a corpse, river or landscape. The earliest overtly forensic study was published in 1977, and since then, at least 63 papers have been published, most of them focused on the detection of toxicants in insects or on effects of toxicants on diverse insect indicator taxa. A comprehensive review of the published literature revealed various inconsistencies between studies that could be addressed by introducing standard protocols for such studies...
May 31, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541461/screening-with-quantification-for-64-drugs-and-metabolites-in-human-urine-using-uplc-ms-ms-analysis-and-a-threshold-accurate-calibration
#15
Thomas G Rosano, Patrice Y Ohouo, Michelle Wood
Drug and metabolite (analytes) identification together with quantification is an important analytical tool in forensic and clinical toxicology. We report the development and validation of a definitive detection and quantification method (UPLC-MS-MS) for initial screening of 64 analytes in urine. The principle of the method is a quantitative extension of a recently reported threshold accurate calibration (TAC) technique which employs a rapid dual-specimen analysis i.e., with and without addition of a reference-analyte standard for normalization of matrix effects...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527983/when-a-death-apparently-associated-to-sexual-assault-is-instead-a-natural-death-due-to-idiopathic-hypereosinophilic-syndrome-the-importance-of-gamma-hydroxybutyric-acid-analysis-in-vitreous-humor
#16
Francesco Paolo Busardò, Francesca Portelli, Angelo Montana, Maria Concetta Rotolo, Simona Pichini, Emiliano Maresi
We here report a case involving a 21-year-old female, found dead in a central square of a city in the south of Italy. Initial evidences and circumstances were suggestive of a death associated with a sexual assault. Two peripheral blood and two vitreous humor samples were collected for the purpose of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) testing from the dead body at two different post-mortem intervals (PMIs): approximately 2 (t0) and 36 (t1) hours. The obtained results showed that, between t0 and t1, there was an increase of GHB concentrations in peripheral blood and vitreous humor of 66...
May 2017: Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521790/unintentional-drowning-role-of-medicinal-drugs-and-alcohol
#17
Tuulia Pajunen, Erkki Vuori, Frank F Vincenzi, Pirjo Lillsunde, Gordon Smith, Philippe Lunetta
BACKGROUND: Alcohol is a well-known risk factor in unintentional drownings. Whereas psychotropic drugs, like alcohol, may cause psychomotor impairment and affect cognition, no detailed studies have focused on their association with drowning. Finland provides extensive post-mortem toxicological data for studies on drowning because of its high medico-legal autopsy rates. METHODS: Drowning cases, 2000 through 2009, for which post-mortem toxicological analysis was performed, came from the database of the Toxicological Laboratory, Department of Forensic Medicine, University of Helsinki, using the ICD-10 nature-of-injury code T75...
May 19, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520563/multiple-deaths-caused-by-a-fire-in-a-factory-identification-and-investigative-issues
#18
V Pinchi, V Bartolini, E Bertol, M Focardi, F Mari, U Ricci, S Vanin, G A Norelli
The article presents a case of multiple casualties following a textile factory fire. The incident required a full DVI team similar to large mass-disaster because of the specific operational aspects and identification difficulties. The autopsy results were consistent with death by fire and the toxicological investigations revealed carbon monoxide poisoning in four cases (HbCO% ranging between 88,05 and 95,77), two deaths by cyanide intoxication (with concentrations between 5,17 and 8,85 mcg/ml), and in one case there was a synergistic effect of the two substances (carbon monoxide and cyanide)...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Forensic Odonto-stomatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516444/toxicological-analysis-of-opiates-from-alternative-matrices-collected-from-an-exhumed-body
#19
Marta Cippitelli, Dora Mirtella, Giovanni Ottaviani, Giovanna Tassoni, Rino Froldi, Mariano Cingolani
In this case study, the body of a 45-year-old man was exhumed after 1 year at the request of the public prosecutor to assess whether the death was caused by drug consumption. Toxicological analyses were performed on several matrices, including liver, kidney, and the alternative matrices hair and teeth. The systematic toxicological analysis (STA), which consisted of basic and acid liquid/liquid extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis, showed the presence of opiates in each of the matrices analyzed...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472358/metabolic-profile-determination-of-nbome-compounds-using-human-liver-microsomes-and-comparison-with-findings-in-authentic-human-blood-and-urine
#20
Keith-Dane H Temporal, Karen S Scott, Amanda L A Mohr, Barry K Logan
The emergence of novel psychoactive substances (NPS) such as hallucinogenic NBOMes (N-methoxybenzyl derivatives of 2C phenethylamines) in the past few years into the recreational drug market has introduced various challenges in forensic analytical toxicology in regard to adequate and timely detection of these compounds. This is especially true in samples from individuals who have experienced severe and fatal intoxications. The aim of this research was to identify the major Phase I metabolites of selected NBOMe compounds to generate a predicted human metabolic pathway of these substances...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
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