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forensic toxicology

Rongshuai Wang, Luo Zhuo, Yunyun Wang, Liang Ren, Qian Liu, Liang Liu
BACKGROUND: Tetramine (tetramethylene disulphotetramine, TETS) and fluoroacetamide (FAA) are known as illegal rodenticides with high toxicity to animal species and human beings, which could lead to severe clinical features, including reduction of consciousness, convulsions, coma, and even death. METHODS AND RESULTS: We presented 2 cases that involved rodenticides poisoning. Even though the patients showed severe manifestations, they were initially misdiagnosed, resulting in 2 persons finally died from TETS and FAA poisoning in homicide cases...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Andrea E Steuer, Elena Williner, Sandra Staeheli, Thomas Kraemer
Increasing numbers of new psychoactive substances (NPS) among them fentanyl derivatives has been reported by the European monitoring centre for drugs and drug addiction (EMCDDA). Butyrfentanyl is a new fentanyl derivative whose potency ratio was found to be seven compared to morphine and 0.13 compared to fentanyl. Several case reports on butyrfentanyl intoxications have been described. Little is known about its pharmacokinetic properties including its metabolism. However, knowledge of metabolism is essential for analytical detection in clinical and forensic toxicology...
October 13, 2016: Drug Testing and Analysis
Dayong Lee, Chris W Chronister, Wilson A Broussard, Suzanne R Utley-Bobak, Daniel L Schultz, Russell S Vega, Bruce A Goldberger
Fentanyl induces pharmacological effects and abuse liability comparable to other prescription opioids and heroin. A surge in fentanyl-related fatalities has been periodically reported throughout the USA. The University of Florida Forensic Toxicology Laboratory observed a significant increase in fentanyl-related deaths starting in mid-2014. The present report evaluated toxicological findings, demographics of the decedents and circumstances of death in the postmortem cases that were submitted to the laboratory for toxicological analysis from July 2014 to January 2015 and that were tested for fentanyl in biological specimens...
October 2016: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Lindsay Glicksberg, Kelsie Bryand, Sarah Kerrigan
Synthetic cathinones continue to present a formidable challenge to forensic toxicology laboratories despite the fact that they are often encountered in impaired driving and death investigations. Due to limitations in immunoassay-based screening technologies, many forensic toxicology laboratories must rely on more labor intensive chromatographic-based screening approaches in order to detect these drugs in biological evidence. Solid phase extraction (SPE) and liquid chromatography-quadrupole/time of flight (LC-Q/TOF) mass spectrometry were used to identify twenty-two synthetic cathinones in urine and blood...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Kim Brøsen, Stig Ejdrup Andersen, Jeanett Borregaard, Hanne Rolighed Christensen, Palle Mark Christensen, Kim Peder Dalhoff, Per Damkier, Jesper Hallas, Jens Heisterberg, Niels Jessen, Gesche Jürgens, Jens Peter Konnerup Kampmann, Britt Elmedal Laursen, Torben Laursen, Lars Peter Nielsen, Birgitte Klindt Poulsen, Henrik Enghusen Poulsen, Ljubica Vukelic Andersen, Thomas Senderovitz, Jesper Sonne
The Danish Society of Clinical Pharmacology was founded in 1976, and mainly thanks to the persistent efforts of the Society, clinical pharmacology became an independent medical speciality in Denmark in 1996. Since then, clinical pharmacology has gone from strength to strength. In the Danish health care system, clinical pharmacology has established itself as an indispensible part of the efforts to promote the rational, safe and economic use of drugs. Clinical pharmacologists are active in drug committees in both hospitals and in the primary sector...
September 29, 2016: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
Gudrun Høiseth, Silja Skogstad Tuv, Ritva Karinen
INTRODUCTION: A number of new designer benzodiazepines have reached the illegal drug market over the past years. Toxicological interpretation of concentrations of these drugs in blood is quite challenging as very limited human data have previously been published. The aim of this study was to report blood concentrations of new designer benzodiazepines in a population of drugged drivers as well as some other criminal offenders, and to relate this to clinical impairment. METHODS: The present material represents cases involving new designer benzodiazepines (clonazolam, diclazepam, flubromazepam, flubromazolam and pyrazolam) and etizolam, submitted for analyses during the period July 1, 2013-May 31, 2016...
September 16, 2016: Forensic Science International
André Gottås, Marianne Arnestad, Per Steinar Halvorsen, Liliana C Bachs, Gudrun Høiseth
Vitreous humor (VH) is an alternative matrix for drug analysis in forensic toxicology. However, little is known about the distribution of xenobiotics, such as opioids, into VH in living organisms. The aim of this study was to simultaneously measure heroin and metabolite concentrations in blood and VH after injection of heroin in a living pig model. Six pigs were under non-opioid anesthesia during the surgical operation and experiment. Ocular microdialysis was used to acquire dialysate from VH, and a venous catheter was used for blood sampling...
2016: Forensic Toxicology
Elham Bazmi, Behnam Behnoush, Maryam Akhgari, Leila Bahmanabadi
OBJECTIVE: Benzodiazepines are frequently screened drugs in emergency toxicology, drugs of abuse testing, and in forensic cases. As the variations of benzodiazepines concentrations in biological samples during bleeding, postmortem changes, and redistribution could be biasing forensic medicine examinations, hence selecting a suitable sample and a validated accurate method is essential for the quantitative analysis of these main drug categories. The aim of this study was to develop a valid method for the determination of four benzodiazepines (flurazepam, lorazepam, alprazolam, and diazepam) in vitreous humor using liquid-liquid extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography...
2016: SAGE Open Medicine
Fernanda Auciello Salvagni, Adriana de Siqueira, Andre Rinaldi Fukushima, Marina Frota de Albuquerque Landi, Heidi Ponge-Ferreira, Paulo Cesar Maiorka
Animal cruelty is a known behavior of psychopaths, and although the serial killing of humans is widely acknowledged worldwide, this type of crime against animals is seldom discussed. This report describes the necropsy and toxicological findings of 37 dogs and cats, which were found dead in plastic bags in Sao Paulo, Brazil. The animals had all been in the care of an alleged animal rescuer and were to be referred for adoption before being found dead. In the necropsy, the animals showed varying degrees of putrefaction, indicating different periods of death, as well as single or multiple perforations on the thorax...
October 2016: Forensic Science International
Giovanna Tassoni, Marta Cippitelli, Dora Mirtella, Rino Froldi, Giovanni Ottaviani, Massimiliano Zampi, Mariano Cingolani
Under Italian law drug addiction and regular drug abuse are incompatible with driving ability. One important problem with the enforcement of the impaired driving law is the large number of people that re-offend. To regain their license, offenders must be drug-free for the duration of an observation period, according to the judgement of a medical commission. The exclusion of illicit drug use is determined by toxicological analysis. A few studies exist that have used a hair matrix to monitor recidivism. Hair is an attractive matrix for monitoring drug recidivism, due to the large time window for drug detection, and to the non-alterability of this matrix...
October 2016: Forensic Science International
Alan Wayne Jones, Anita Holmgren, Johan Ahlner
BACKGROUND: Reference concentrations of drugs in post-mortem femoral blood furnishes useful information when poisoning (intoxication) deaths are investigated. However, few publications compare the concentrations of drugs in single-drug fatalities with multi-drug intoxications. This article attempts to fill this gap in knowledge. METHODS: We searched a national forensic toxicology database (TOXBASE) and found N=13,963 deaths attributed by pathologists to intoxication by drugs (poisoning)...
October 2016: Forensic Science International
Shigeki Jin, Hideki Hyodoh, Kotaro Matoba, Fei Feng, Akira Hayakawa, Katsuhiro Okuda, Keiko Shimizu, Sanae Haga, Michitaka Ozaki, Koichi Terazawa
Thiosulfate measurement is crucial to diagnosis of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) poisoning in forensic toxicology. Although GC-MS method is currently regarded as a standard thiosulfate measurement, it requires complicated sample preparation prior to analysis. This study presents a simple, rapid, and highly sensitive method for the quantitative analysis of serum thiosulfate by using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). This method is based on selected reaction monitoring and has high sensitivity with a lower quantification limit of 0...
September 2016: Legal Medicine
Antonio Osculati, Silvia Damiana Visonà, Francesco Ventura, Francesca Castelli, Luisa Andrello
BACKGROUND: Generally, rheumatic heart disease is, today, sporadic in developed countries, even though it continues to be a major health hazard in the developing ones. It is also a very rare cause of sudden unexpected death. We report a case of a 15-year-old boy who suddenly died at home. Since 3 days he had presented fever and chest pain. The family physician had diagnosed bronchitis and treated the boy with amoxicillin. METHODS: Seven hours after death, a forensic autopsy were performed ...
August 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Nele Sadones, Elien Van Bever, John R H Archer, David M Wood, Paul I Dargan, Luc Van Bortel, Willy E Lambert, Christophe P Stove
Dried blood spot (DBS) sampling and analysis is increasingly being applied in bioanalysis. Although the use of DBS has many advantages, it is also associated with some challenges. E.g. given the limited amount of available material, highly sensitive detection techniques are often required to attain sufficient sensitivity. In gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS), derivatization can be helpful to achieve adequate sensitivity. Because this additional sample preparation step is considered as time-consuming, we introduce a new derivatization procedure, i...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. A
Claude Mallet, Sabra Botch-Jones
For the identification of illicit drugs in forensic toxicological casework, analysis can be delayed and potentially compromised due to lengthy sample preparation techniques. For a complete forensic identification, a robust methodology is required and the current trend in forensic laboratories is the use of liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC/MS or LC/MS-MS). However, to achieve satisfactory results, extensive and time-consuming sample preparation protocols are required to reach sub-ng/mL levels...
October 2016: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Dani C Mata
Forensic laboratories are challenged with backlogs that produce turnaround times that vary from days to months. Therefore, drug stability is important for interpretation in both antemortem (blood and urine) and postmortem (blood, brain, liver, stomach contents) cases. In this study, 23 benzodiazepines (2-hydroxyethylflurazepam, 7-aminoclonazepam, 7-aminoflunitrazepam, α-hydroxyalprazolam, α-hydroxytriazolam, alprazolam, bromazepam, chlordiazepoxide, clonazepam, demoxepam, desalkylflurazepam, diazepam, estazolam, flunitrazepam, flurazepam, lorazepam, midazolam, nitrazepam, nordiazepam, oxazepam, phenazepam, temazepam and triazolam) and three sedative hypnotics (zaleplon, zopiclone and zolpidem) were spiked into the six matrices at two different concentrations for each drug...
October 2016: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Xiaoru Dong, Liliang Li, Yonghong Ye, Lixing Zheng, Yan Jiang
Simultaneous determination of major phytocannabinoids (THC, CBD, CBN), their main metabolites (11-OH-THC, THC-COOH, THC-COOH-glucuronide) and common synthetic cannabinoids (HU-210, JWH-018, JWH-073, JWH-250) remains an issue in forensic toxicology. The present study has developed a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method to simultaneously detect the above 10 analytes in human urine samples. The chromatographic separation was performed on an ACQUITY UPLC(®)BEH Phenyl 1.7μm (2.1×100mm) column, using a mobile phase consisting of 0...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
V Bachmann, B von Salis, A Fürst
The goal of this study was to describe the development of equine drug testing in horses in Switzerland. This was achieved through evaluation of a film made by the Institute of Forensic Medicine at the University of Basel entitled 'Doping von Rennpferden' [Doping of Race Horses], toxicological detection, 1962', the analysis of doping test results of the Swiss Equestrian Federation and by interviewing individuals of various professions who were involved in equine drug testing at the time. The study compares early and modern methods of drug testing and highlights the changes in the attitude of equestrian athletes, horse owners and the general public toward doping in equestrian sports...
April 2016: Schweizer Archiv Für Tierheilkunde
Franziska Krumbiegel, Martin Hastedt, Lena Westendorf, André Niebel, Maximilian Methling, Maria Kristina Parr, Michael Tsokos
PURPOSE: This article describes the validation of multi-target methods for the determination of 76 different analytes in hair and nail samples. Segmented hair and nail samples taken from autopsy cases were included in this study. METHOD: Drugs of abuse, psychotropic drugs, and other drugs were included for the validation of this method. Hair and nail samples were ground using a ball mill and extracted for 18 h. Extracts were measured using a UHPLC-triple quadrupole-mass analyzer...
August 11, 2016: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
U Toscanini, L Gusmão, M C Álava Narváez, J C Álvarez, L Baldassarri, A Barbaro, G Berardi, E Betancor Hernández, M Camargo, J Carreras-Carbonell, J Castro, S C Costa, P Coufalova, V Domínguez, E Fagundes de Carvalho, S T G Ferreira, S Furfuro, O García, A Goios, R González, A González de la Vega, A Gorostiza, A Hernández, S Jiménez Moreno, M V Lareu, A León Almagro, M Marino, G Martínez, M C Miozzo, N M Modesti, V Onofri, S Pagano, B Pardo Arias, S Pedrosa, G A Penacino, M L Pontes, M J Porto, J Puente-Prieto, R Ramírez Pérez, T Ribeiro, B Rodríguez Cardozo, Y M Rodríguez Lesmes, A Sala, B Santiago, V G Saragoni, A Serrano, E R Streitenberger, M A Torres Morales, S A Vannelli Rey, M Velázquez Miranda, M R Whittle, K Fernández, A Salas
Since 1992, the Spanish and Portuguese-Speaking Working Group of the ISFG (GHEP-ISFG) has been organizing annual Intercomparison Exercises (IEs) coordinated by the Quality Service at the National Institute of Toxicology and Forensic Sciences (INTCF) from Madrid, aiming to provide proficiency tests for forensic DNA laboratories. Each annual exercise comprises a Basic (recently accredited under ISO/IEC 17043: 2010) and an Advanced Level, both including a kinship and a forensic module. Here, we show the results for both autosomal and sex-chromosomal STRs, and for mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in two samples included in the forensic modules, namely a mixture 2:1 (v/v) saliva/blood (M4) and a mixture 4:1 (v/v) saliva/semen (M8) out of the five items provided in the 2014 GHEP-ISFG IE...
July 19, 2016: Forensic Science International. Genetics
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