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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673128/synthesis-analytical-characterization-and-monoamine-transporter-activity-of-the-new-psychoactive-substance-4-methylphenmetrazine-4-mpm-with-differentiation-from-its-ortho-and-meta-positional-isomers
#1
Gavin McLaughlin, Michael H Baumann, Pierce V Kavanagh, Noreen Morris, John D Power, Geraldine Dowling, Brendan Twamley, John O'Brien, Gary Hessman, Folker Westphal, Donna Walther, Simon D Brandt
The availability of new psychoactive substances on the recreational drug market continues to create challenges for scientists in the forensic, clinical and toxicology fields. Phenmetrazine (3-methyl-2-phenylmorpholine) and an array of its analogs form a class of psychostimulants that are well documented in the patent and scientific literature. The present study reports on two phenmetrazine analogs that have been encountered on the NPS drug market following the introduction of 3-fluorophenmetrazine (3-FPM), namely 4-methylphenmetrazine (4-MPM) and 3-methylphenmetrazine (3-MPM)...
April 19, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669397/direct-detection-of-the-psychoactive-substance-mt-45-in-human-tissue-samples-by-probe-electrospray-ionization-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#2
Kiyotaka Usui, Tasuku Murata, Yuji Fujita, Yoshito Kamijo, Tomoki Hanazawa, Tomohiro Yoshizawa, Masato Funayama
Analyses of drugs and poisons in tissue samples are essential in forensic toxicology and pharmacology. However, current procedures for tissue analysis are laborious and time-consuming. Therefore, we assessed the utility of a newly devised probe electrospray ionization (PESI) technique with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) for easy, ultra-rapid drug detection in human tissue samples. Using this system, typical pre-treatment procedures, such as solid-phase extraction, liquid-liquid extraction, deproteinization, or homogenization, can be avoided...
April 18, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667641/-on-the-occasion-of-his-180th-birthday-anniversary-of-ivan-ivanovich-neiding
#3
Yu I Pigolkin, Yu V Lomakin, A V Khodulapov
This article is devoted to the life and professional activities of the internationally renowned forensic doctor Ivan Ivanovich Neiding who became widely known in the early youth as the discoverer of the microscopic diagnostic features of the constriction marks formed in association with hanging and strangulation. During more than 22 years (from 1878 till 1900), I.I. Neiding acted as the head of the Department of Forensic medicine at the Moscow University where a large number of investigations on forensic medical ballistics, toxicology, obstetric and gynecological expertise were carried out under his supervision...
2018: Sudebno-meditsinskaia Ekspertiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653319/analysis-of-fatal-accidents-with-tractors-in-the-centre-of-portugal-ten-years-analysis
#4
Soraia M Antunes, Cristina Cordeiro, Helena M Teixeira
Tractors have been described as one of the deadliest farming implements concerning agricultural activity. In Portugal, the scientific investigations about this problem are practically non-existent, with only statistical studies performed by entities related to road traffic safety, not in accordance to the study now performed, pinpointing the possibility of an underreporting of these accidents. This work aims to characterize the fatal tractor accidents in Portugal, autopsied at the Forensic Pathology Department of the Centre Branch of the National Institute of Legal Medicine and Forensic Sciences of Portugal, analysing several variables: gender, age, occupation, survival time, the victim position in the tractor, cause of death, toxicological and histological exams, year/month/day of the week, type of agricultural machine, existence of rollover protective structures (ROPS), type of accident, ground conditions, circumstantial information and geographic distribution of the accidents...
April 6, 2018: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649771/systematic-forensic-toxicological-analysis-by-liquid-chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry-in-serum-and-comparison-to-gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry
#5
Marcel Grapp, Christoph Kaufmann, Frank Streit, Lutz Binder
Comprehensive screening procedures for psychoactive agents in body fluids are an essential task in clinical and forensic toxicology. With the continuous emergence and adaption of new psychoactive substances (NPS) keeping a screening method up to date is challenging. To meet these demands, hyphenated high-resolution mass spectrometry has gained interest as extensive and expandable screening approach. Here we present a comprehensive method for systematic toxicological analysis of serum by liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS) with data independent acquisition...
April 3, 2018: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649351/epidemiological-study-of-carbon-monoxide-deaths-in-scotland-2007-2016
#6
Claudia Forés Lisbona, Hilary J Hamnett
Carbon monoxide (CO) intoxications are quite frequent in forensic toxicology. Using a sample of 209 CO-positive deaths in Scotland from 2007 to 2016, this study provides ranges of percentage CO saturations (%COHb) according to the CO source and examines any correlation with age, gender, alcohol, and preexisting disease. It also reports the full toxicological findings, including drug concentrations, in CO-positive cases. The highest numbers of fatalities involved males, occurred during autumn/winter, and the main source of CO was fire...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625259/effective-methodologies-for-enantiomeric-separations-of-150-pharmacology-and-toxicology-related-1%C3%A2-2%C3%A2-and-3%C3%A2-amines-with-core-shell-chiral-stationary-phases
#7
Garrett Hellinghausen, Daipayan Roy, Jauh T Lee, Yadi Wang, Choyce A Weatherly, Diego A Lopez, Kate A Nguyen, John D Armstrong, Daniel W Armstrong
Core-shell particles (superficially porous particles, SPPs) have been proven to provide high-throughput and effective separations of a variety of chiral molecules. However, due to their limited commercialization, many separations have not been reported with these stationary phases. In this study, four SPP chiral stationary phases (CSPs) were utilized for the enantiomeric separation of 150 chiral amines. These amines encompass a variety of structural and drug classes, which are particularly important to the pharmaceutical industry and in forensics...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615164/profile-of-asphyxial-deaths-in-faisalabad-a-10-year-study
#8
Mobin Inam Pal, Altaf Pervez Qasim, Mohammad Naeem, Humera Arshad, Ahmad Saeed
OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of violent asphyxial deaths in Faisalabad over a span of a decade; and assessing the age and gender vulnerability. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive cross-sectional study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, Punjab Medical College, Faisalabad, from January 2007 to December 2016. METHODOLOGY: Cases identified as violent asphyxial deaths according to police inquests and findings of the medico-legal examiners were computed...
April 2018: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29579279/distribution-of-eight-qt-prolonging-drugs-and-their-main-metabolites-between-postmortem-cardiac-tissue-and-blood-reveals-potential-pitfalls-in-toxicological-interpretation
#9
Christian R Mikkelsen, Jakob R Jornil, Ljubica V Andersen, Jytte Banner, Jørgen B Hasselstrøm
Femoral blood concentrations are usually used in postmortem toxicology to assess possible toxic effects of drugs. This includes QT-prolongation and other cardiac dysrhythmia, which could have been the cause of death. However, blood concentration is only a surrogate for the active site concentration, and therefore cardiac tissue concentration may provide a more accurate toxicological interpretation. Thus, cardiac tissue and femoral and cardiac blood concentrations were examined for eight frequently used QT-prolonging drugs (QTD) and their metabolites in a mentally ill population...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574345/range-of-therapeutic-metformin-concentrations-in-clinical-blood-samples-and-comparison-to-a-forensic-case-with-death-due-to-lactic-acidosis
#10
C Hess, M Unger, B Madea, B Stratmann, D Tschoepe
Due to a lack of reference values for blood concentration of metformin in the literature, the forensic evaluation of metformin findings in blood samples is difficult. Interpretations with regard to the assessment of blood concentrations as well as an estimation of the ingested metformin amounts are often vague. Furthermore, post mortem evaluation of death due to lactic acidosis because of metformin is difficult since renal performance or lactate concentrations can not always reliably be determined after death...
March 12, 2018: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29573426/ionic-liquid-based-liquid-liquid-microextraction-for-benzodiazepine-analysis-in-postmortem-blood-samples
#11
Marieke De Boeck, Wim Dehaen, Jan Tytgat, Eva Cuypers
Sample preparation is rapidly improving to fulfill the need for faster and more environmentally friendly alternatives. In this respect, ionic liquid-based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (IL-DLLME) is an interesting technique. However, it has not yet been evaluated for the analysis of postmortem samples, which are frequently analyzed in forensic toxicology. This study investigates the applicability of IL-DLLME coupled to liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), for the analysis of benzodiazepines in postmortem blood of 11 forensic cases...
March 24, 2018: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570893/comparison-of-dispensed-medications-and-forensic-toxicological-findings-to-assess-pharmacotherapy-in-the-swedish-population-2006-to-2013
#12
Jonas Forsman, Heidi Taipale, Thomas Masterman, Jari Tiihonen, Antti Tanskanen
PURPOSE: To investigate person-level agreement between medication exposure as predicted using the PRE2DUP (a prescription-based design to estimate continuous drug use) method and postmortem toxicological findings, in the Swedish population during the years 2006 to 2013. METHODS: Using the Swedish National Board of Forensic Medicine's toxicology database and the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare's registries on causes of death, dispensed medications, and in-patient care, forensic-toxicological findings were compared with prescription-based estimates of drug use for 27 medications...
March 23, 2018: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29565701/assessment-of-pregabalin-use-by-hair-testing
#13
Pascal Kintz, Alice Ameline, Jean-Sébastien Raul
BACKGROUND: The detection and analysis of drugs in hair has progressively emerged as a consequence of the enhanced sensitivity of analytical techniques used in forensic toxicology; a greater advantage in using this matrix respect to classical ones (i.e., urine and blood) is an easier and noninvasive sample collection, even when the careful supervision of law-enforcement officers is required to avoid the risk that the sample may be adulterated or replaced. Moreover, according to the length of the hair, the history of drug exposure can be retrospectively monitored from few weeks up to months or years since sample collection...
March 22, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29558687/cathinone-stability-in-authentic-urine-specimens
#14
Lindsay Glicksberg, Sumandeep Rana, Sarah Kerrigan
PURPOSE: Synthetic cathinones are encountered in a variety of antemortem and postmortem forensic toxicology investigations. Earlier experimental studies using fortified urine have evaluated analyte, temperature and pH-dependent variables associated with their stability. The purpose of this study was to compare experimental findings with those obtained using authentic urine from cathinone users. METHODS: In this report we compare cathinone concentrations in 180 authentic unpreserved urine specimens, following known periods of refrigerated storage...
March 8, 2018: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29554274/dibutylone-bk-dmbdb-intoxications-quantitative-confirmations-and-metabolism-in-authentic-biological-specimens
#15
Alex J Krotulski, Amanda L A Mohr, Donna M Papsun, Barry K Logan
The number of emerging novel stimulants modified based on beta-keto variations of amphetamine-like substances continues to rise. Dibutylone reports described in the medical and toxicological literature are limited, therefore little information is available in terms of quantitative confirmation or metabolism. During this study, authentic human specimens, including blood, urine, vitreous humor, oral fluid and liver were quantitatively and qualitatively analyzed for the presence of dibutylone and butylone, with paired case history and demographic information...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551452/the-genus-datura-l-solanaceae-in-mexico-and-spain-ethnobotanical-perspective-at-the-interface-of-medical-and-illicit-uses
#16
REVIEW
Guillermo Benítez, Martí March-Salas, Alberto Villa-Kamel, Ulises Cháves-Jiménez, Javier Hernández, Nuria Montes-Osuna, Joaquín Moreno-Chocano, Paloma Cariñanos
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The different species of the genus Datura have been used traditionally by some pre-Columbian civilizations, as well as in medieval rituals linked to magic and witchcraft in both Mexico and Europe. It is also noteworthy the use of different alkaloids obtained from the plants for medicinal purposes in the treatment of various groups of diseases, especially of the respiratory and muscularskeletal systems. AIM OF THE STUDY: A review of the ethnobotanical uses of the genus Datura in Mexico and Spain has been conducted...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29542872/an-approach-to-shortening-the-timeframe-between-the-emergence-of-new-compounds-on-the-drugs-market-and-the-availability-of-reference-standards-the-microscale-syntheses-of-nitrazolam-and-clonazolam-for-use-as-reference-materials-utilizing-polymer-supported-reagents
#17
Geraldine Dowling, Pierce V Kavanagh, Hans-Georg Eckhardt, Brendan Twamley, Gary Hessman, Gavin McLaughlin, John O' Brien, Simon D Brandt
Nitrazolam and clonazolam are two designer benzodiazepines that are available from internet retailers and there is growing evidence suggesting that such compounds have the potential to cause severe adverse events. Information about tolerability in humans is scarce but typically, low doses can be difficult to administer for users when handling bulk material and variability of the active ingredient in tablet formulations can also be of a concern. Customs, toxicology and forensic laboratories are increasingly encountering designer benzodiazepines, both in tablet and powdered forms, and the unavailability of reference standards can impact on the ability to identify these compounds...
March 15, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29540067/the-synthetic-cathinone-%C3%AE-pyrrolidinovalerophenone-%C3%AE-pvp-pharmacokinetic-and-pharmacodynamic-clinical-and-forensic-aspects
#18
Leandro Nóbrega, Ricardo Jorge Dinis-Oliveira
New psychoactive substances (NPS), often referred as 'legal highs' or 'designer drugs', are derivatives and analogs of existing psychoactive drugs that are introduced in the recreational market to circumvent existing legislation on drugs of abuse. This work aims to review the state-of-the-art regarding chemical, molecular pharmacology, and in vitro and in vivo data on toxicokinetics of the potent synthetic cathinone α-pyrrolidinovalerophenone (α-PVP or flakka or zombie drug). Chemical, pharmacological, toxicological, and clinical effects of α-PVP were searched in PubMed (U...
March 14, 2018: Drug Metabolism Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29533206/pre-offense-alcohol-intake-in-homicide-offenders-and-victims-a-forensic-toxicological-case-control-study
#19
Jonatan Hedlund, Jonas Forsman, Joakim Sturup, Thomas Masterman
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Alcohol is associated with violent behavior, although little is known regarding to what extent alcohol increases homicide risk. We aimed to estimate risks of homicide offending and victimization conferred by the presence of ethanol in blood by using toxicological data from homicide victims and offenders and from controls who had died in vehicle-related accidents. METHODS: From nationwide governmental registries and databases, forensic-toxicological results were retrieved for victims (n = 200) and offenders (n = 105) of homicides committed during the years 2007-2009 and individuals killed in vehicle-related accidents (n = 1629) during the years 2006-2014...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29518652/subarachnoid-hemorrhage-in-a-japanese-cocaine-abuser-cocaine-related-sudden-death
#20
Mio Takayama, Brian Waters, Hiroshi Fujii, Kenji Hara, Masayuki Kashiwagi, Aya Matsusue, Natsuki Ikematsu, Shin-Ichi Kubo
Based on a prospective case-control study of forensic autopsies, the causes of cocaine (COC)-related sudden death (SD) are cardiovascular events in 62.0% of cases, cerebrovascular events in 14.0%, and others. A forensic autopsy of a male in his early forties revealed subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) at the base of the brain. A cerebral arterial aneurysm was not detected even though hemorrhage was clearly observed in the anterior cerebral artery (ACA) bifurcation area. The brain weighed 1488 g and was edematous...
March 2, 2018: Legal Medicine
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