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forensic toxicology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803722/advantages-of-analyzing-postmortem-brain-samples-in-routine-forensic-drug-screening-case-series-of-three-non-natural-deaths-tested-positive-for-lysergic-acid-diethylamide-lsd
#1
Marie Mardal, Sys Stybe Johansen, Ragnar Thomsen, Kristian Linnet
Three case reports are presented, including autopsy findings and toxicological screening results, which were tested positive for the potent hallucinogenic drug lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD). LSD and its main metabolites were quantified in brain tissue and femoral blood, and furthermore hematoma and urine when available. LSD, its main metabolite 2-oxo-3-hydroxy-LSD (oxo-HO-LSD), and iso-LSD were quantified in biological samples according to a previously published procedure involving liquid-liquid extraction and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS)...
July 30, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782580/new-psychoactive-substances-studies-on-the-metabolism-of-xlr-11-ab-pinaca-fub-pb-22-4-methoxy-%C3%AE-pvp-25-i-nbome-and-meclonazepam-using-human-liver-preparations-in-comparison-to-primary-human-hepatocytes-and-human-urine
#2
Lilian H J Richter, Hans H Maurer, Markus R Meyer
New psychoactive substances (NPS) are an increasing problem in clinical and forensic toxicology. The knowledge of their metabolism is important for toxicological risk assessment and for developing toxicological urine screenings. Considering the huge numbers of NPS annually appearing on the market, metabolism studies should be realized in a fast, simple, cost efficient, and reliable way. Primary human hepatocytes (PHH) were recommended to be the gold standard for in vitro metabolism studies as they are expected to contain natural enzyme clusters, co-substrates, and drug transporters...
August 3, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767539/medicolegal-investigations-into-deaths-due-to-crush-asphyxia-after-tractor-side-rollovers
#3
Carlo Moreschi, Ugo Da Broi, Antonia Fanzutto, Sirio Cividino, Rino Gubiani, Gianfranco Pergher
Farm tractors are large, heavy, powerful vehicles with a high center of gravity. When driven carelessly on sloping, irregular, or slippery ground, tractors can overturn sideways and cause the death by crush asphyxia of the driver or passengers, especially if appropriate safety equipment is not fitted or used. The aim of this review is to focus on the diagnostic difficulties with which coroners and forensic pathologists have to cope when a confirmation of crush asphyxia after tractor side rollover is required by judicial authorities...
August 1, 2017: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766529/-the-coroner-s-autopsies-in-the-great-britain-the-problems-related-to-the-quality-of-the-studies-standardization-auditing-financial-support-and-the-approaches-to-their-solution-part-2
#4
I Ju Makarov, T A Kuprina, A A Gusarov, V A Fetisov
This article extends the previous publication of the authors based on the analysis of the detailed report of the experts of the National Confidential Enquiry into Patient Outcome and Death program (NCEPOD) issued in the Great Britain in 2006. The analysis has demonstrated that all autopsy studies should invariably involve measurement of the corpse length and weight (including body mass index) as well as the detailed description of all injuries to the body (or references to their absence). All autopsy studies should be carried out only by a medical professional (e...
2017: Sudebno-meditsinskaia Ekspertiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763296/hair-testing-of-ghb-an-everlasting-issue-in-forensic-toxicology
#5
REVIEW
Francesco Paolo Busardò, Simona Pichini, Simona Zaami, Roberta Pacifici, Pascal Kintz
BACKGROUND: In this paper, the authors present a critical review of different studies regarding hair testing of endogenous γ-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), concentrations in chronic users, and values measured after a single GHB exposure in drug facilitated sexual assault (DFSA) cases together with the role of a recently identified GHB metabolite, GHB-glucuronide. CONTENT: The following databases (up to March 2017) PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science were used, searching the following key words: γ-hydroxybutyrate, GHB, GHB glucuronide, hair...
August 1, 2017: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737525/death-by-snow-a-fatal-forensic-case-of-cocaine-leakage-in-a-drug-mule-on-postmortem-computed-and-magnetic-resonance-tomography-compared-with-autopsy
#6
Patricia Mildred Flach, Dominic Gascho, René Fader, Rosita Martinez, Michael J Thali, Lars C Ebert
This forensic case presents unique postmortem imaging of a "drug mule" with fatal intoxication due to cocaine leakage on postmortem computed and magnetic resonance (MR) tomography compared with autopsy.Imaging by postmortem computed and MR tomography was performed before autopsy, histology, and toxicology were commissioned. Forensic imaging revealed 91 hyperdense, uniformly shaped body packs with signs of leakage, which was confirmed by autopsy. Postmortem MR imaging displayed the rarely described hypointense appearance of the body packs in T1- and T2-weighted sequences...
July 22, 2017: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729524/cardiac-arrest-following-drug-abuse-with-intravenous-tapentadol-case-report-and-literature-review
#7
Misbahuddin Khaja, George Lominadze, Konstantin Millerman
BACKGROUND Tapentadol is a centrally acting opioid analgesic, with a dual mode of action, as a norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor and an agonist of the μ-opioid receptor (MOR). Tapentadol is used for the management of musculoskeletal pain, and neuropathic pain associated with diabetic peripheral neuropathy. CASE REPORT A 32-year-old woman attended hospital for evaluation of an intractable headache. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of the brain were negative. She was found unresponsive in the bathroom on the day following hospital admission, and despite resuscitative measures, the patient died following cardiac arrest...
July 21, 2017: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714411/pharmacology-and-literature-review-based-on-related-death-and-non-fatal-case-reports-of-the-benzofurans-and-benzodifurans-designer-drugs
#8
Bernardino Barceló Martín, Isabel Gomila
BACKGROUND: Benzofurans and benzodifurans are two groups of psychoactive substances that had originally been synthesized for research purpose. Benzofurans' structure is quite similar to the known recreational drug 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine together with its active metabolite 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine. Benzodifurans are closely related to phenethylamines, but have more hallucinogens effects and much longer duration of action. This study aims to review the accessible evidence-based literature on benzofurans and benzodifurans pharmacology and toxicology...
July 14, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714407/update-of-standard-practices-for-new-method-validation-in-forensic-toxicology
#9
Sarah M R Wille, Wim Coucke, Thierry De Baere, Frank T Peters
: International agreement concerning validation guidelines is important as reporting reliable analytical data is the backbone of forensic bioanalytical research and applications. Guidelines such as those provided by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the European Medicines Agency (EMA), the German speaking Gesellschaft für Toxikologie und Forensische Chemie (GTFCH) and the Scientific Working Group of Forensic Toxicology (SWGTOX) provide a standard for fundamental validation parameters such as selectivity, matrix effects, method limits, calibration, accuracy and stability, as well as other parameters such as carryover, dilution integrity and incurred sample reanalysis...
July 14, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710688/death-by-food
#10
Roger W Byard
Although death from food is not an uncommon finding in forensic facilities worldwide, the range of underlying lethal mechanisms and associated conditions that should be sought at the time of autopsy is quite disparate. Deaths may occur from i) infectious agents including bacteria, viruses, protozoa, cestodes, nematodes and prions; ii) natural toxins including amanita toxins, tetrodotoxin, ciguatera and scombroid; iii) anaphylaxis; iv) poisoning; v) mechanical issues around airway and gut obstruction and/or perforation; and vi) miscellaneous causes...
July 15, 2017: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704207/the-adult-male-rape-victim-forensic-description-of-a-series-of-57-cases
#11
Michelangelo Bruno Casali, Elisa Palazzo, Alberto Blandino, Alessio Battistini, Francesca Motta, Alessandra Kustermann, Cristina Cattaneo
A retrospective analysis on 57 adult male victims of sexual violence has been performed. Age, nationality and anamnesis of the victims, location of the assault, type of violence, number and identity of the assailants, presence of physical injuries, lapse of time between the assault and the request of medical assistance, and toxicological and semen detection tests were analyzed. Victims were mostly in the 31- to 40-year age group. Ten victims referred themselves as either active homosexuals or bisexuals. Forced oral and/or anal penetration was registered in 86...
September 2017: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696835/urinary-cadmium-levels-in-active-and-retired-coal-miners
#12
Julia Isermann, Hans-Martin Prager, Rainer Ebbinghaus, Beata Janasik, Wojciech Wasowicz, Bertinus Dufaux, Hans-Friedrich Meyer, Agata Widera, Silvia Selinski, Jan G Hengstler, Klaus Golka
A meta-analysis, based upon 24 publications, showed a significantly elevated risk for urinary bladder cancer amongst miners. In European underground hard coal mining areas, an increased risk for urinary bladder cancer development was noted among hard coal miners, in particular in three investigations in the greater Dortmund area. However, the cause remains unclear. As cadmium (Cd), which was reported to be a bladder carcinogen in humans and is a constituent of coal, the aim of this study was to determine urinary Cd levels in active and retired hard coal miners and assess whether hard coal miners demonstrated elevated metal levels...
July 11, 2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691766/detection-of-metabolites-of-the-new-synthetic-cannabinoid-cumyl-4cn-binaca-in-authentic-urine-samples-and-human-liver-microsomes-using-high-resolution-mass-spectrometry
#13
Yeter Erol Ozturk, Oya Yeter, Serkan Ozturk, Goksun Karakus, Ismail Ates, Yalçın Buyuk, Turkan Yurdun
CUMYL-4CN-BINACA(1-(4-cyanobutyl)-N-(2-phenylpropan-2-yl)-1H-indazole-3-carboxamide) is a recently introduced indazole-3-carboxamide type synthetic cannabinoid (SC) that was detected in herbal incense seized by of the Council of Forensic Medicine Istanbul Narcotics Department in May 2016 in Turkey. Recently introduced SCs are not detected in routine toxicological analysis; therefore, analytical methods to measure these compounds are in demand. The present study aims to identify urinary marker metabolites of CUMYL-4CN-BINACA by investigating its metabolism in human liver microsomes and to confirm the results in authentic urine samples (n=80)...
July 10, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690283/postmortem-computed-tomographic-analysis-of-death-caused-by-oral-drug-intoxication
#14
Akihito Usui, Yusuke Kawasumi, Kiyotaka Usui, Yuya Ishizuka, Kaito Takahashi, Masato Funayama, Haruo Saito
Traditional autopsy has changed little in the past century. In Japan, the rate of forensic autopsy in cases of unusual death is very low. Therefore, multi-slice computed tomography (CT) has been used to obtain imaging data instead of or in addition to autopsy in suspicious forensic cases. In our institute, postmortem multi-slice CT has been performed since 2009, and by 2014 there were over 1,000 cases. Our extensive experience with postmortem CT shows that in many cases of death by drug overdose, stomach contents exhibit high X-ray absorption...
July 2017: Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689029/course-constructions-a-case-base-of-forensic-toxicology
#15
Nan Zhou, Yeda Wu, Terry Su, Liyong Zhang, Kun Yin, Da Zheng, Jingjing Zheng, Lei Huang, Qiuping Wu, Jianding Cheng
Forensic toxicology education in China is limited by insufficient teaching methods and resources, resulting in students with adequate theoretical principles but lacking practice experience. Typical cases used as teaching materials vividly represent intoxication and provide students with an opportunity to practice and hone resolving skills. In 2013, the Department of Forensic Pathology at Zhongshan School of Medicine began to construct top-quality courses in forensic toxicology, with its first step, creating a base containing typical cases of intoxication...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686962/forensic-aspects-of-homicides-by-insulin-overdose
#16
Fang Tong, Rongqi Wu, Wen Huang, Yi Yang, Lin Zhang, Biao Zhang, Xin Chen, Xiaohui Tang, Yiwu Zhou
Analysis of homicidal insulin overdose is a challenging task in forensic practice because of the difficulties in toxicological analysis as well as the elusive pathologic changes. We performed a detailed histopathologic examination on four autopsy cases involving insulin homicide, using H&E, immunohistochemistry (IHC) and immunofluorescence assays. Severe reactive astrocyte proliferation was obvious in the white matter of the cerebrum, corpus callosum, cerebellum and brain stem, especially in subcortical regions...
June 20, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682757/-forensic-examination-of-sexual-assault-victims-medical-aspects-and-associations-with-the-legal-outcomes
#17
M Kolopp, E Delbaere-Crespo, C Lecossec, F Guillet-May, H Coudane, L Martrille
OBJECTIVES: To describe the medical and legal characteristics of sexual assault victims and to highlight which aspects of the medical examination may be associated with a conviction of the alleged offender. METHODS: This study included all women who consulted to the center for the victims of sexual assault in Nancy between 2008 and 2012 and who filed a complaint. Associations were evaluated with a logistic regression trying to explain the presence of a conviction at the end of the legal proceeding...
March 2017: Gynecologie, Obstetrique, Fertilite & Senologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681613/the-toxicological-significance-of-post-mortem-drug-concentrations-in-bile
#18
Robin E Ferner, Jeffrey K Aronson
CONTEXT: Some authors have proposed that post-mortem drug concentrations in bile are useful in estimating concentrations in blood. Both The International Association of Forensic Toxicologists (TIAFT) and the US Federal Aviation Administration recommend that samples of bile should be obtained in some circumstances. Furthermore, standard toxicological texts compare blood and bile concentrations, implying that concentrations in bile are of forensic value. AIM: To review the evidence on simultaneous measurements of blood and bile drug concentrations reported in the medical literature...
July 6, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677506/mephedrone-concentrations-in-cases-of-clinical-intoxication
#19
Esther Papaseit, Eulàlia Olesti, Rafael de la Torre, Marta Torrens, Magí Farré
Background Mephedrone (4-methylmethcathinone, 4-MMC), a ring-substituted synthetic cathinone derivative has become established as a permanent illicit drug in the dynamic new psychoactive substances (NPS) scene. Objective This review summarizes current knowledge on mephedrone concentrations in biological samples from cases of acute intoxications (fatal and non-fatal), pharmacokinetics studies, wastewater and anonymous pooled urine analysis in order to provide an overview of the reliable scientific knowledge on toxicokinetics of mephedrone in humans...
July 4, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677500/good-practices-in-forensic-toxicology
#20
Olaf H Drummer
This manuscript provides an overview for analysts, medical and scientific investigators, and laboratory administrators, the range of factors that should be considered to implement best practice forensic toxicology. These include laboratory influence over the collection of specimens, their proper transport and chain-of-custody before arrival in the laboratory. In addition, the laboratory needs to ensure properly trained staff use suitably validated and documented analytical procedures that meet the intended purpose and type of case in an accredited or suitably quality oriented management system...
July 4, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
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