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chronic diarrhoea

Jeremy Woodward, Effrossyni Gkrania-Klotsas, Dinakantha Kumararatne
Chronic infection with Norovirus is emerging as a significant risk for patients with immunodeficiency - either primary or secondary to therapeutic immunosuppression. Patients with primary immunodeficiency present a range of pathological responses to Norovirus infection. Asymptomatic infections occur and differentiating viral carriage or prolonged viral shedding after self-limiting infection from infection causing protracted diarrhoea can be challenging due to relatively mild pathological changes that may mimic other causes of diarrhoea in such patients (for instance pathogenic bacteria or parasites or graft-versus-host disease)...
October 18, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
Maris S Arcilla, Jarne M van Hattem, Manon R Haverkate, Martin C J Bootsma, Perry J J van Genderen, Abraham Goorhuis, Martin P Grobusch, Astrid M Oude Lashof, Nicky Molhoek, Constance Schultsz, Ellen E Stobberingh, Henri A Verbrugh, Menno D de Jong, Damian C Melles, John Penders
BACKGROUND: International travel contributes to the dissemination of antimicrobial resistance. We investigated the acquisition of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) during international travel, with a focus on predictive factors for acquisition, duration of colonisation, and probability of onward transmission. METHODS: Within the prospective, multicentre COMBAT study, 2001 Dutch travellers and 215 non-travelling household members were enrolled...
October 14, 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Vinciane Saint-Criq, Michael A Gray
Salt and fluid absorption and secretion are two processes that are fundamental to epithelial function and whole body fluid homeostasis, and as such are tightly regulated in epithelial tissues. The CFTR anion channel plays a major role in regulating both secretion and absorption in a diverse range of epithelial tissues, including the airways, the GI and reproductive tracts, sweat and salivary glands. It is not surprising then that defects in CFTR function are linked to disease, including life-threatening secretory diarrhoeas, such as cholera, as well as the inherited disease, cystic fibrosis (CF), one of the most common life-limiting genetic diseases in Caucasian populations...
October 6, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Anthony K Akobeng, Dongni Zhang, Morris Gordon, John K MacDonald
BACKGROUND: The prevention of relapse is a major issue in the management of Crohn's disease. Corticosteroids, the mainstay of treatment of acute exacerbations, are not effective for maintenance of remission and its chronic use is limited by numerous adverse events. Randomised controlled trials assessing the efficacy of oral 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) agents for maintenance of medically-induced remission in Crohn's disease have produced conflicting results. OBJECTIVES: To conduct a systematic review to evaluate the efficacy and safety of oral 5-ASA agents for the maintenance of medically-induced remission in Crohn's disease...
September 28, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Catherine Napier, Earn H Gan, Simon H S Pearce
Loperamide is the most commonly used antidiarrhoeal medication in the UK. We report a serious and hitherto undocumented adverse effect of chronic use in a 45-year-old man with inflammatory bowel disease. He presented to the endocrine clinic with fatigue and low libido; biochemical assessment revealed hypogonadism and adrenal insufficiency without any elevated adrenocorticotropic hormone. When symptoms allowed, loperamide was reduced and a short synacthen test (SST) showed a 'clear pass' with a normal peak cortisol of 833 nmol/L...
2016: BMJ Case Reports
Mariem Rekik, Khaoula Achour, Anouer Abdallah, Sonia Lebib, Imen Miri, Fatima Zahra Ben Salah, Catherine Dziri
OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to assess the bladder and sphincter function after brain injury (BI) and to review their association with quality of life (QOL). MATERIAL/PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study, including patients referred to physical and rehabilitation medicine department at the Med Kassab Institute of Orthopedics. The initial gravity data were collected. The bladder-sphincter assessment included evaluation of the urine drain mode, the irritative disorders, obstructive disorders, disorders of transit and the existence of secondary anal lesions...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Manoj K Pandey, Deepkamal Karelia, Shantu G Amin
Kokum, a spice derived from the fruit of the Garcinia hanburyi tree, is traditionally used in Ayurvedic medicines to facilitate digestion and to treat sores, dermatitis, diarrhoea, dysentery, and ear infection. One of the major active components of kokum is gambogic acid, also known as guttic acid, guttatic acid, beta-guttilactone, and beta-guttiferin. Gambogic acid's anti-proliferative, anti-bacterial; antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects result from its modulation of numerous cell-signaling intermediates...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Daisy Khera, Baldev Sharma, Kuldeep Singh
We report a 17 year-old male patient, who presented with chronic diarrhoea, progressive pallor, short stature, anaemia (haemoglobin of 4.9 g/dL) and neutropenia and was diagnosed as coeliac disease. His neutropenia did not respond to 8 months of gluten-free diet, iron, folic acid and vitamin B12 therapy. So we suspected copper deficiency and his serum copper levels were tested, which was low. His neutrophil counts normalised after 2 months of copper supplementation. Hence we concluded that the cause of neutropenia in our case was copper deficiency...
2016: BMJ Case Reports
Supriya M Paranjpe, Avani Koticha, Preeti R Mehta
Common Variable Immunodeficiency (CVID) is a primary immunodeficiency characterized by low antibody levels and recurrent infections. This makes an individual more prone to recurrent respiratory and gastrointestinal tract infections. In cases where there is persistent positive finding of intestinal parasites in stool, a high index of suspicion should be raised to rule out immunodeficiency state. Early diagnosis of such cases will help in reducing the morbidity and better management of the patient. A case of CVID in 18-year-old male with recurrent lower respiratory tract infection and chronic diarrhoea due to Giardia lamblia is reported herewith...
July 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Luis Furuya-Kanamori, Archie C A Clements, Niki F Foster, Charlotte A Huber, Stacey Hong, Tiffany Harris-Brown, Laith Yakob, David L Paterson, Thomas V Riley
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the prevalence and risk factors for asymptomatic toxigenic (TCD) and non-toxigenic C. difficile (NTCD)-colonisation in a broad cross-section of the general hospital population over a 3-year period. METHODS: Patients without diarrhoea admitted to two Australian tertiary hospitals were randomly selected through six repeated cross-sectional surveys conducted between 2012 and 2014. Stool specimens were cultured under anaerobic conditions and C...
September 8, 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Julianne R Brown, Divya Shah, Judy Breuer
BACKGROUND: Diarrhoea in children is a common disease; understanding the incidence of causative viruses can aid infection control and vaccine development. OBJECTIVES: Describe the incidence and characteristics of gastroenteric viruses including norovirus genotypes in a paediatric hospital cohort. STUDY DESIGN: Norovirus, adenovirus, sapovirus, astrovirus, rotavirus qPCR and norovirus genotyping results for all stool specimens (n=4786; 1393 patients) at a UK paediatric tertiary referral hospital June 2014-July 2015...
August 30, 2016: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
Poonam Sharma, Sumeeta Khurana, Aman Sharma, Rakesh Sehgal, Nancy Malla
UNLABELLED: Cryptosporidium is a major cause of diarrheal illness mainly in children and immunocompromised adults. Disease severity ranges from asymptomatic or self-limited gastroenteritis to acute or chronic diarrhoea which may be associated with systemic features. Intracellular viruses that reside in many parasites have been incriminated in pathogenesis of diseases like trichomoniasis, leishmaniasis etc. Thus we attempted to detect and quantitate the intracellular viruses in Cryptosporidium isolates and sought to seek a relationship if any, with clinical features...
2016: Annals of Parasitology
R Flisiak, E Janczewska, M Wawrzynowicz-Syczewska, J Jaroszewicz, D Zarębska-Michaluk, K Nazzal, B Bolewska, J Bialkowska, H Berak, K Fleischer-Stępniewska, K Tomasiewicz, K Karwowska, K Rostkowska, A Piekarska, O Tronina, G Madej, A Garlicki, M Lucejko, A Pisula, E Karpińska, W Kryczka, A Wiercińska-Drapało, I Mozer-Lisewska, M Jabłkowski, A Horban, B Knysz, M Tudrujek, W Halota, K Simon
BACKGROUND: Virologic and safety outcomes of ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir ± dasabuvir ± ribavirin (OBV/PTV/r ± DSV ± RBV) therapy have shown high sustained virologic response (SVR) rates and good tolerability in most patient populations in pre-registration studies. AIM: To confirm these clinical trial findings in the treatment of genotype 1 and 4 hepatitis C under real-world conditions. METHODS: Patients enrolled for treatment with OBV/PTV/r ± DSV ± RBV based on therapeutic guidelines were included, and the regimen was administered according to product characteristics...
November 2016: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Mohammad Qasim Khan, Jonathan Williams
A 51-year-old woman presented with epigastric pain, vomiting and diarrhoea. Her sister was recently diagnosed with duodenal adenocarcinoma, manifesting similar symptoms. Imaging revealed thickened gastric antrum with enlarged local lymph nodes. Endoscopy illustrated 3 worms embedded in the antral wall, identified as Anisakis simplex larvae. Larvae removal and a 2-week albendazole regimen treated the symptoms. With globalisation of cultural culinary practices, physicians must be vigilant of anisakidosis. Its ability to mimic peptic ulcer disease, chronic gastritis and malignancy necessitates broader differential diagnoses and lower thresholds for endoscopy...
2016: BMJ Case Reports
Vanessa Mateus, João Rocha, Paula Alves, Hélder Mota-Filipe, Bruno Sepodes, Rui Manuel Amaro Pinto
Erythropoietin is a potent stimulator of erythroid progenitor cells, which is able to inhibit NF-kB activation, due to its pleiotropic properties, thus promoting an anti-inflammatory effect. Since inflammatory bowel disease is a chronic disease with reduced quality of life, and the current pharmacotherapy only induces or maintains the patient in remission, there is a crucial need of new pharmacological approaches. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of erythropoietin in the TNBS-induced colitis model in mice with a normal intestinal flora...
August 31, 2016: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2016: Netherlands Journal of Medicine
L T van Hulsteijn, M van Buren
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2016: Netherlands Journal of Medicine
Christine Azzopardi, Edgar Pullicino, Bernard Coleiro, Sandro Galea Soler
Congenital tufting enteropathy is a rare condition which presents in early infancy. It is a condition which should be suspected in infants who present with diarrhoea soon after birth. A rare association with arthritis has been observed with a handful of cases documented in the literature. Our case differs as the arthritis described is erosive in nature, a feature which is not present in other cases.
2016: BMJ Case Reports
Karen Whitfield, Claudia Barkeij, Angela North
AIM: To present a case of an extremely premature infant and the role that the specialist neonatal pharmacist has on the quality of care of these patients. METHOD: Interventions and recommendations made by the pharmacists over the admission of a triplet born at 23 weeks and 5 days gestation were recorded. The type of interventions were categorised and classified for risk using a consequence/probability matrix.1 RESULTS: The patient required admission to the intensive care unit and subsequently the special care unit for a period of 163 days before discharge home...
September 2016: Archives of Disease in Childhood
Stojanović Predrag
Clostridium difficile is the leading cause of infectious diarrhoea in hospitalized patients. The aim of this study was to determine the risk factors important for the development of hospital-acquired Clostridium difficile-associated disease and clinical manifestations of Clostridium difficile-associated disease. The clinical trial group included 37 hospitalized patients who were selected according to the inclusion criteria. A control group of 74 hospitalized patients was individually matched with cases based on hospital, age (within 4 years), sex and month of admission...
October 2016: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
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