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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330993/chemical-composition-of-stones-in-paediatric-urolithiasis
#1
Kiran Imran, Mirza Naqi Zafar, Naureen Fatima, Uzma Ozair, Sajid Sultan, Syed Adibul Hasan Rizvi
BACKGROUND: Chemical composition of stones is one of the important diagnostic criteria for aetiology of stone formation and treatment to prevent recurrence. This paper reports composition of stones in children at a tertiary hospital by Fourier Transformation Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). METHODS: Between January-June 2015, 412 urinary stones from children were analysed by FTIR. Chi-square tests were used for the comparison of categorical measurements between groups...
October 2017: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307123/the-role-of-diet-in-managing-inflamatory-bowel-disease-affected-dogs-a-retrospective-cohort-study-on-76-cases
#2
Maria Chiara Marchesi
The term in ammatory bowel diseases (IBD) refers to a group of idiopathic, chronic intestinal diseases characterized by a di use in ltration of in ammatory cells into the lamina propria of the intestine. The pathogenesis of IBD is unknown. The most common signs described are diarrhoea, vomit, and progressive weight loss. In order to make a de nitive diagnosis, though, the presence of in ammatory cells in ltration must be evident on histopathologic analysis. The therapeutic approach has 2 main goals: decrease the in ammatory response and remove possible antigenic sources, such as food components or intestinal micro ora...
December 29, 2017: Veterinaria Italiana
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306010/high-resolution-melting-curve-hrm-analysis-for-c-meleagridis-identification-in-stool-samples
#3
Hanen Chelbi, Rym Essid, Refka Jelassi, Nesrine Bouzekri, I Zidi, Hamza Ben Salah, Ilhem Mrad, Iness Ben Sgaier, Rym Abdelmalek, Sameh Aissa, Aida Bouratbine, Karim Aoun
BACKGROUND: Cryptosporidiosis represents a major public health problem. This infection, caused by a protozoan parasite of the genus Cryptosporidium, has been reported worldwide as a frequent cause of diarrhoea. In the immunocompetent host, the typical watery diarrhea can be self-limiting. However, it is severe and chronic, in the immunocompromised host and may cause death. Cryptosporidium spp. are coccidians, which complete their life cycle in both humans and animals. The two species C...
January 3, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260510/interventions-for-managing-taste-disturbances
#4
REVIEW
Sumanth Kumbargere Nagraj, Renjith P George, Naresh Shetty, David Levenson, Debra M Ferraiolo, Ashish Shrestha
BACKGROUND: The sense of taste is very much essential to the overall health of an individual. It is a necessary component to enjoy one's food, which in turn provides nutrition to an individual. Any disturbance in taste perception can hamper quality of life in such patients by influencing their appetite, body weight and psychological well-being. Taste disorders have been treated using different modalities of treatment and there is no consensus for the best intervention. Hence this Cochrane Review was undertaken...
December 20, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260356/brain-diffusion-tensor-imaging-changes-in-cerebrotendinous-xanthomatosis-reversed-with-treatment
#5
Claudia B Catarino, Christian Vollmar, Clemens Küpper, Klaus Seelos, Constanze Gallenmüller, Joanna Bartkiewicz, Saskia Biskup, Konstanze Hörtnagel, Thomas Klopstock
Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX, MIM 213700) is a rare autosomal recessive lipid storage disorder caused by CYP27A1 mutations. Treatment with chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) may slow the progression of the disease and reverse some symptoms in a proportion of patients. In a non-consanguineous Caucasian family, two siblings with CTX were evaluated before treatment and prospectively followed-up every 6 months after starting CDCA therapy, using systematic clinical examination, neuropsychological tests, laboratory tests, electroencephalography (EEG) and brain MRI, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and tractography...
December 19, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246562/crohn-s-disease
#6
REVIEW
María Pilar Ballester Ferré, Marta Maia Boscá-Watts, Miguel Mínguez Pérez
Crohn's disease is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease of unknown etiology associated with an impaired immune response, with periods of activity and remission. It is characterised by patchy and transmural lesions which can affect the entire gastrointestinal tract, from the mouth to the anus. The most frequent symptoms are abdominal pain and diarrhoea, which can seriously affect patients' quality of life. The increasing incidence and prevalence of the disease in our area has had a large impact on clinical practice, with the rapid development of diagnostic and therapeutic techniques...
December 12, 2017: Medicina Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187079/anti-inflammatory-antioxidant-and-anti-apoptotic-activity-of-diosmin-in-acetic-acid-induced-ulcerative-colitis
#7
A S Shalkami, Mia Hassan, A G Bakr
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory disease affecting colon. The primary symptoms of UC are diarrhoea with blood and mucus and sometimes associated with pain. AIM: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of diosmin (DIO) on UC. METHODS: UC was induced in rats by rectal administration of acetic acid (AA). The degree of mucosal ulceration and damage was determined by evaluating the disease activity index (DAI) and colon damage index scores. Inflammation, oxidative stress and apoptotic responses were determined by measuring the levels of tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-II), malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) in addition to myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and caspase-3 expression...
January 2018: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146678/cross-organ-sensitisation-between-the-colon-and-bladder-to-pee-or-not-to-pee
#8
Luke Grundy, Stuart M Brierley
Chronic abdominal and pelvic pain are common, debilitating clinical conditions experienced by millions of patients around the globe. The origin of such pain commonly arises from the intestine and bladder, which share common primary roles; the collection, storage and expulsion of waste. These visceral organs are located in close proximity to one another, and also share common innervation from spinal afferent pathways. Chronic abdominal pain, constipation or diarrhoea are primary symptoms for patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) or Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD)...
November 16, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119003/novel-associations-of-bile-acid-diarrhoea-with-fatty-liver-disease-and-gallstones-a-cohort-retrospective-analysis
#9
Richard N Appleby, Jonathan D Nolan, Ian M Johnston, Sanjeev S Pattni, Jessica Fox, Julian Rf Walters
Background: Bile acid diarrhoea (BAD) is a common cause of chronic diarrhoea with a population prevalence of primary BAD around 1%. Previous studies have identified associations with low levels of the ileal hormone fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19), obesity and hypertriglyceridaemia. The aim of this study was to identify further associations of BAD. Methods: A cohort of patients with chronic diarrhoea who underwent 75selenohomocholic acid taurate (SeHCAT) testing for BAD was further analysed retrospectively...
2017: BMJ Open Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109476/the-major-targets-of-acute-norovirus-infection-are-immune-cells-in-the-gut-associated-lymphoid-tissue
#10
Katrina R Grau, Alexa N Roth, Shu Zhu, Abel Hernandez, Natacha Colliou, Bayli B DiVita, Drake T Philip, Cara Riffe, Benoit Giasson, Shannon M Wallet, Mansour Mohamadzadeh, Stephanie M Karst
Noroviruses are the leading cause of food-borne gastroenteritis outbreaks and childhood diarrhoea globally, estimated to be responsible for 200,000 deaths in children each year 1-4 . Thus, reducing norovirus-associated disease is a critical priority. Development of vaccines and therapeutics has been hindered by the limited understanding of basic norovirus pathogenesis and cell tropism. While macrophages, dendritic cells, B cells and stem-cell-derived enteroids can all support infection of certain noroviruses in vitro 5-7 , efforts to define in vivo norovirus cell tropism have generated conflicting results...
December 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101428/composition-of-urinary-calculi-in-infants-a-report-from-an-endemic-country
#11
Mirza Naqi Zafar, Salma Ayub, Hafsa Tanwri, Syed Ali Anwar Naqvi, Syed Adibul Hasan Rizvi
Pediatric urolithiasis remains endemic in low-resource countries where infants constitute 17-40% of all children with urolithiasis. This study reports socio-economic factors, medical history and chemical composition of urinary stones in 976 infants of up to 2 years of age. Between 1992 and 2016, 976 infants presented to our institute with 1038 stones. Chemical composition of stones was analyzed by Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The mean age of infants was 19.5 ± 5.74 months with a M:F ratio of 5...
November 3, 2017: Urolithiasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099760/symptom-severity-following-rifaximin-and-the-probiotic-vsl-3-in-patients-with-chronic-pelvic-pain-syndrome-due-to-inflammatory-prostatitis-plus-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#12
Enzo Vicari, Michele Salemi, Giuseppe Sidoti, Mariano Malaguarnera, Roberto Castiglione
This study investigated the effects of long-term treatment with rifaximin and the probiotic VSL#3 on uro-genital and gastrointestinal symptoms in patients with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) plus diarrhoea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (D-IBS) compared with patients with D-IBS alone. Eighty-five patients with CP/CPPS (45 with subtype IIIa and 40 with IIIb) plus D-IBS according to the Rome III criteria and an aged-matched control-group of patients with D-IBS alone (n = 75) received rifaximin and VSL#3...
November 3, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098567/oxycodone-naloxone-prolonged-release-a-review-in-severe-chronic-pain
#13
Esther S Kim
Oral oxycodone/naloxone prolonged release (PR) [Targin(®), Targinact(®), Targiniq(®)] is a 12-hourly opioid receptor agonist and opioid receptor antagonist fixed-dose combination product that is approved in countries in the EU for the management of severe pain (adequately manageable only with opioid analgesics) in adults. Oral naloxone prevents oxycodone from binding to μ-receptors in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, thereby counteracting opioid-induced constipation (OIC). In short-term (5- to 12-week) clinical trials of adults with moderate to severe, chronic pain and OIC (OXN3001, OXN3006, OXN3506), oxycodone/naloxone PR significantly improved OIC while providing noninferior analgesia relative to oxycodone PR; results were consistent between cancer and non-cancer patients in OXN3506...
December 2017: Clinical Drug Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067154/a-positive-sehcat-test-results-in-fewer-subsequent-investigations-in-patients-with-chronic-diarrhoea
#14
James M Turner, Sanjeev S Pattni, Richard N Appleby, Julian Rf Walters
Chronic diarrhoea is a common condition, resulting from a number of different disorders. Bile acid diarrhoea, occurring in about a third of these patients, is often undiagnosed. We hypothesised that a positive diagnosis of bile acid diarrhoea would reduce the need for subsequent investigations for alternative diagnoses. METHODS: Patients previously recruited to a study of chronic diarrhoea who had selenium homocholic acid taurine (SeHCAT) testing and subsequent follow-up at our institution were identified...
October 2017: Frontline Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067147/collagenous-panenteritis-a-rare-cause-of-chronic-diarrhoea
#15
Sandev Singh, Larry Ee Juan Loo, Christopher Watters, Suhail Ahmed
Collagenous panenteritis is a rare inflammatory condition that causes profound diarrhoea and weight loss. There has only been a handful of cases reported in the literature. We report this rare case and the diagnostic difficulties encountered in securing the diagnosis. A 59-year-old woman presented with an 8-month history of diarrhoea and weight loss on a background of a family history of coeliac disease. Her presentation was complicated with acute kidney injury secondary to prerenal losses. Repeated gastroscopies and colonoscopies along with biopsies were inconclusive...
October 2017: Frontline Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063894/multiple-parasitic-and-viral-infections-in-a-patient-living-with-hiv-aids-on-antiretroviral-therapy
#16
K Deepika, Nonika Rajkumari, A S Liji, Subhash Chandra Parija, Abdoul Hamide
Patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are more prone for gastrointestinal infections causing diarrhoea, particularly with parasites. Parasitic infections have been regularly reported in such patients. A female patient confirmed positive for HIV 1 on antiretroviral therapy came with complaints of chronic diarrhoea for the past 7 months. Her initial CD4 count was 89 cells/μl of blood, and antibodies to cytomegalovirus and herpes simplex virus 1 and 2 virus were found to be positive in the patient's serum, but there was no HIV-associated retinopathy...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062389/use-of-peg-asparaginase-in-monomorphic-epitheliotropic-intestinal-t-cell-lymphoma-a-disease-with-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-challenges
#17
Cesar Gentille, Qian Qin, Andreia Barbieri, Pingali Sai Ravi, Swaminathan Iyer
Monomorphic epitheliotropic intestinal T-cell lymphoma (MEITL), previously known as enteropathy associated T-cell lymphoma (EATL) type II, is a rare haematological malignancy with a difficult and delayed diagnosis. Symptoms can include abdominal pain, weight loss, and chronic diarrhoea. However, most patients are only diagnosed after complications, such as perforation or obstruction, have developed. There is no standard treatment for MEITL; most accepted regimens consist of surgical resection and anthracycline-based chemotherapy...
2017: Ecancermedicalscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062326/isolation-and-evaluation-of-candida-species-and-their-association-with-cd4-t-cells-counts-in-hiv-patients-with-diarrhoea
#18
Ayobami Awoyeni, Olarinde Olaniran, Babatunde Odetoyin, Rachel Hassan-Olajokun, Bolatito Olopade, David Afolayan, Oluwakayode Adekunle
BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal infection is one of the most common infections among HIV patients. Candida spp have been implicated in the aetiology of chronic diarrhoea in HIV patients, but little is known about this in Nigeria. OBJECTIVES: We determined the prevalence of faecal candidiasis in HIV patients in relation to diarrhoea, CD4 counts, and other socio-demographic factors and the spectrum of Candida isolates involved. METHODS: One hundred and fifty four HIV patients were investigated...
June 2017: African Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062325/demographic-and-epidemiological-characteristics-of-hiv-opportunistic-infections-among-older-adults-in-nigeria
#19
Joshua O Akinyemi, Babatunde O Ogunbosi, Adetona S Fayemiwo, Olubukola A Adesina, Michael Obaro, Modupe A Kuti, Olutosin A Awolude, David O Olaleye, Isaac F Adewole
BACKGROUND: In view of the maturing HIV epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa, better understanding of its epidemiology among older adults is necessary in order to design appropriate care and treatment programmes for them. OBJECTIVES: To describe the demographic and epidemiological characteristics of HIV opportunistic infections among newly enrolled patients aged 50 years and above in Ibadan, South-West Nigeria. METHODS: Analysis of data extracted from electronic records of 17, 312 subjects enrolled for HIV/AIDS care and treatment between January 2006 and December 2014 at the ART clinic, University College Hospital, Ibadan...
June 2017: African Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030367/patients-with-common-variable-immunodeficiency-paradoxically-have-increased-rates-of-autoimmune-disorders
#20
Ammu Thampi Susheela, Andrew Hale
Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID), characterised by disordered B cell function, is one of the most common primary immunodeficiency disorders. Patients with CVID are at lifelong risk of recurrent infections, particularly of the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. Paradoxically, given their immunocompromised state, patients with CVID are also at significantly increased risk of autoimmune disorders, which are seen in almost 25% of cases. The authors report a 24-year-old female patient with CVID, manifested as severe hypogammaglobulinaemia with recurrent sinopulmonary infections and enterocolitis, who presented with transaminitis, chronic diarrhoea and haematemesis...
October 13, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
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