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chronic diarrhoea

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853337/complicated-jejunal-diverticulosis-small-bowel-volvulus-with-obstruction
#1
Rommel Singh Mohi, Ashish Moudgil, Suresh Kumar Bhatia, Kaushal Seth, Tajinder Kaur
The incidence of the diverticulum of the small bowel varies from 0.2-1.3% in autopsy studies to 2.3% when assessed on enteroclysis. It occurs mostly in patients in the 6(th) decade of their life. Of all the small bowel diverticuli, jejunal diverticulum is the most common type. This rare entity is usually asymptomatic. However, they may cause chronic non-specific symptoms for a long period of time like dyspepsia, chronic postprandial pain, nausea, vomiting, borborgymi, alternating diarrhoea and constipation, weight loss, anaemia, steatorrhea or rarely lead to complications like haemorrhage, obstruction, perforation...
November 2016: Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796144/microscopic-colitis-a-missed-diagnosis-among-patients-with-moderate-to-severe-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#2
Frank Hilpüsch, Peter Holger Johnsen, Rasmus Goll, Per Christian Valle, Sveinung Wergeland Sørbye, Birgit Abelsen
OBJECTIVE: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a very common condition in general practise, affecting 10-20% of the population in the Western world. The clinical picture of diarrhoea-predominant IBS (IBS-D) resembles other chronic diarrhoeic conditions, such as microscopic colitis (MC). It is impossible to separate these by clinical examinations or lab-tests that can be done in general practise. The aim of this study was to detect any missed diagnoses when only using a symptom-based approach for the diagnosis of IBS...
October 31, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784958/towards-a-new-paradigm-of-microscopic-colitis-incomplete-and-variant-forms
#3
REVIEW
Danila Guagnozzi, Stefania Landolfi, Maria Vicario
Microscopic colitis (MC) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease that has emerged in the last three decades as a leading cause of chronic watery diarrhoea. MC classically includes two main subtypes: lymphocytic colitis (LC) and collagenous colitis (CC). Other types of histopathological changes in the colonic mucosa have been described in patients with chronic diarrhoea, without fulfilling the conventional histopathological criteria for MC diagnosis. Whereas those unclassified alterations remained orphan for a long time, the use of the term incomplete MC (MCi) is nowadays universally accepted...
October 14, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784723/dientamoeba-fragilis-colonization-is-not-associated-with-gastrointestinal-symptoms-in-children-at-primary-care-level
#4
Gea A Holtman, Justin J Kranenberg, Marco H Blanker, Alewijn Ott, Yvonne Lisman-van Leeuwen, Marjolein Y Berger
BACKGROUND: Dientamoeba fragilis is commonly identified in children in primary care and is suspected to cause gastrointestinal disease. OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between D. fragilis colonization and gastrointestinal symptoms in children. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study with children who presented in primary care with gastrointestinal symptoms. The associations between D. fragilis colonization and specific symptoms were explored by means of logistic regression analyses...
October 26, 2016: Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765806/perforated-jejunal-diverticulum-a-rare-case-of-acute-abdomen
#5
Rishabh Sehgal, Cherry X Cheung, Tristram Hills, Aqueel Waris, Donagh Healy, Tahir Khan
Jejunal pseudo-diverticulosis is a rare acquired herniation of the mucosa and submucosa through weakened areas of the muscularis mucosa of the mesenteric aspect of the bowel. They are asymptomatic in the majority of cases; however, they can present with a wide spectrum of non-specific symptoms such as chronic abdominal discomfort, postprandial flatulence, diarrhoea, malabsorption and steattorhoea. In up to 15% of cases, more serious acute complications may arise such as the development of intestinal obstruction, haemorrhage or as in our case, localized peritonitis secondary to perforation...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Surgical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765536/-75-sehcat-scan-in-bile-acid-malabsorption-in-chronic-diarrhoea
#6
L M Mena Bares, E Carmona Asenjo, M V García Sánchez, E Moreno Ortega, F R Maza Muret, M V Guiote Moreno, A M Santos Bueno, E Iglesias Flores, J M Benítez Cantero, J A Vallejo Casas
Chronic diarrhoea is a common entity in daily clinical practice and it leads to a loss in these patients quality of life. It may be the main symptom of multiple ethiologies including bile acid malabsorption (BAM) which has a comparable prevalence to celiac disease. The BAM results from imbalances in the homeostasis of bile acids in the enterohepatic circulation. It can be a consequence of ileal disease or ileal dysfunction (BAM type i), it can be considered idiopathic or primary (BAM type ii) or associated with other gastrointestinal entities (BAM type iii)...
October 17, 2016: Revista Española de Medicina Nuclear e Imagen Molecular
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753693/mesenchymal-stem-cell-treatment-of-inflammation-induced-cancer
#7
Monica D Prakash, Sarah Miller, Sarron Randall-Demllo, Kulmira Nurgali
Cancer development is often associated with chronic inflammation. To date, research into inflammation-induced cancer has largely focused on chemokines, cytokines, and their downstream targets. These inflammatory mediators may promote tumor growth, invasion, metastasis, and facilitate angiogenesis. However, the exact mechanisms by which inflammation promotes neoplasia remain unclear. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is characterized by recurrent, idiopathic intestinal inflammation, the complications of which are potentially fatal...
November 2016: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753065/chronic-norovirus-infection-and-common-variable-immunodeficiency
#8
Jeremy Woodward, Effrossyni Gkrania-Klotsas, Dinakantha Kumararatne
Chronic infection with Norovirus is emerging as a significant risk for patients with immunodeficiency - either primary or secondary to therapeutic immunosuppression. Patients with primary immunodeficiency present a range of pathological responses to Norovirus infection. Asymptomatic infections occur and differentiating viral carriage or prolonged viral shedding after self-limiting infection from infection causing protracted diarrhoea can be challenging due to relatively mild pathological changes that may mimic other causes of diarrhoea in such patients (for instance pathogenic bacteria or parasites or graft-versus-host disease)...
October 18, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27751772/import-and-spread-of-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-enterobacteriaceae-by-international-travellers-combat-study-a-prospective-multicentre-cohort-study
#9
Maris S Arcilla, Jarne M van Hattem, Manon R Haverkate, Martin C J Bootsma, Perry J J van Genderen, Abraham Goorhuis, Martin P Grobusch, Astrid M Oude Lashof, Nicky Molhoek, Constance Schultsz, Ellen E Stobberingh, Henri A Verbrugh, Menno D de Jong, Damian C Melles, John Penders
BACKGROUND: International travel contributes to the dissemination of antimicrobial resistance. We investigated the acquisition of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) during international travel, with a focus on predictive factors for acquisition, duration of colonisation, and probability of onward transmission. METHODS: Within the prospective, multicentre COMBAT study, 2001 Dutch travellers and 215 non-travelling household members were enrolled...
October 14, 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27714410/role-of-cftr-in-epithelial-physiology
#10
Vinciane Saint-Criq, Michael A Gray
Salt and fluid absorption and secretion are two processes that are fundamental to epithelial function and whole body fluid homeostasis, and as such are tightly regulated in epithelial tissues. The CFTR anion channel plays a major role in regulating both secretion and absorption in a diverse range of epithelial tissues, including the airways, the GI and reproductive tracts, sweat and salivary glands. It is not surprising then that defects in CFTR function are linked to disease, including life-threatening secretory diarrhoeas, such as cholera, as well as the inherited disease, cystic fibrosis (CF), one of the most common life-limiting genetic diseases in Caucasian populations...
October 6, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27681657/oral-5-aminosalicylic-acid-for-maintenance-of-medically-induced-remission-in-crohn-s-disease
#11
Anthony K Akobeng, Dongni Zhang, Morris Gordon, John K MacDonald
BACKGROUND: The prevention of relapse is a major issue in the management of Crohn's disease. Corticosteroids, the mainstay of treatment of acute exacerbations, are not effective for maintenance of remission and its chronic use is limited by numerous adverse events. Randomised controlled trials assessing the efficacy of oral 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) agents for maintenance of medically-induced remission in Crohn's disease have produced conflicting results. OBJECTIVES: To conduct a systematic review to evaluate the efficacy and safety of oral 5-ASA agents for the maintenance of medically-induced remission in Crohn's disease...
September 28, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27681351/loperamide-induced-hypopituitarism
#12
Catherine Napier, Earn H Gan, Simon H S Pearce
Loperamide is the most commonly used antidiarrhoeal medication in the UK. We report a serious and hitherto undocumented adverse effect of chronic use in a 45-year-old man with inflammatory bowel disease. He presented to the endocrine clinic with fatigue and low libido; biochemical assessment revealed hypogonadism and adrenal insufficiency without any elevated adrenocorticotropic hormone. When symptoms allowed, loperamide was reduced and a short synacthen test (SST) showed a 'clear pass' with a normal peak cortisol of 833 nmol/L...
2016: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27676782/bladder-sphincter-disorders-and-quality-of-life-of-traumatic-brain-injury-tunisian-experience
#13
Mariem Rekik, Khaoula Achour, Anouer Abdallah, Sonia Lebib, Imen Miri, Fatima Zahra Ben Salah, Catherine Dziri
OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to assess the bladder and sphincter function after brain injury (BI) and to review their association with quality of life (QOL). MATERIAL/PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study, including patients referred to physical and rehabilitation medicine department at the Med Kassab Institute of Orthopedics. The initial gravity data were collected. The bladder-sphincter assessment included evaluation of the urine drain mode, the irritative disorders, obstructive disorders, disorders of transit and the existence of secondary anal lesions...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27671824/gambogic-acid-and-its-role-in-chronic-diseases
#14
Manoj K Pandey, Deepkamal Karelia, Shantu G Amin
Kokum, a spice derived from the fruit of the Garcinia hanburyi tree, is traditionally used in Ayurvedic medicines to facilitate digestion and to treat sores, dermatitis, diarrhoea, dysentery, and ear infection. One of the major active components of kokum is gambogic acid, also known as guttic acid, guttatic acid, beta-guttilactone, and beta-guttiferin. Gambogic acid's anti-proliferative, anti-bacterial; antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects result from its modulation of numerous cell-signaling intermediates...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27635061/copper-deficiency-as-a-cause-of-neutropenia-in-a-case-of-coeliac-disease
#15
Daisy Khera, Baldev Sharma, Kuldeep Singh
We report a 17 year-old male patient, who presented with chronic diarrhoea, progressive pallor, short stature, anaemia (haemoglobin of 4.9 g/dL) and neutropenia and was diagnosed as coeliac disease. His neutropenia did not respond to 8 months of gluten-free diet, iron, folic acid and vitamin B12 therapy. So we suspected copper deficiency and his serum copper levels were tested, which was low. His neutrophil counts normalised after 2 months of copper supplementation. Hence we concluded that the cause of neutropenia in our case was copper deficiency...
2016: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27630845/chronic-giardiasis-in-a-case-of-common-variable-immunodeficiency-cvid-a-case-report
#16
Supriya M Paranjpe, Avani Koticha, Preeti R Mehta
Common Variable Immunodeficiency (CVID) is a primary immunodeficiency characterized by low antibody levels and recurrent infections. This makes an individual more prone to recurrent respiratory and gastrointestinal tract infections. In cases where there is persistent positive finding of intestinal parasites in stool, a high index of suspicion should be raised to rule out immunodeficiency state. Early diagnosis of such cases will help in reducing the morbidity and better management of the patient. A case of CVID in 18-year-old male with recurrent lower respiratory tract infection and chronic diarrhoea due to Giardia lamblia is reported herewith...
July 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27615716/asymptomatic-clostridium-difficile-colonisation-in-two-australian-tertiary-hospitals-2012-2014-a-prospective-repeated-cross-sectional-study
#17
Luis Furuya-Kanamori, Archie C A Clements, Niki F Foster, Charlotte A Huber, Stacey Hong, Tiffany Harris-Brown, Laith Yakob, David L Paterson, Thomas V Riley
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the prevalence and risk factors for asymptomatic toxigenic (TCD) and non-toxigenic C. difficile (NTCD)-colonisation in a broad cross-section of the general hospital population over a 3-year period. METHODS: Patients without diarrhoea admitted to two Australian tertiary hospitals were randomly selected through six repeated cross-sectional surveys conducted between 2012 and 2014. Stool specimens were cultured under anaerobic conditions and C...
September 8, 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27615516/viral-gastrointestinal-infections-and-norovirus-genotypes-in-a-paediatric-uk-hospital-2014-2015
#18
Julianne R Brown, Divya Shah, Judy Breuer
BACKGROUND: Diarrhoea in children is a common disease; understanding the incidence of causative viruses can aid infection control and vaccine development. OBJECTIVES: Describe the incidence and characteristics of gastroenteric viruses including norovirus genotypes in a paediatric hospital cohort. STUDY DESIGN: Norovirus, adenovirus, sapovirus, astrovirus, rotavirus qPCR and norovirus genotyping results for all stool specimens (n=4786; 1393 patients) at a UK paediatric tertiary referral hospital June 2014-July 2015...
August 30, 2016: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27614480/presence-of-intracellular-viruses-in-human-cryptosporidium-isolates
#19
Poonam Sharma, Sumeeta Khurana, Aman Sharma, Rakesh Sehgal, Nancy Malla
UNLABELLED: Cryptosporidium is a major cause of diarrheal illness mainly in children and immunocompromised adults. Disease severity ranges from asymptomatic or self-limited gastroenteritis to acute or chronic diarrhoea which may be associated with systemic features. Intracellular viruses that reside in many parasites have been incriminated in pathogenesis of diseases like trichomoniasis, leishmaniasis etc. Thus we attempted to detect and quantitate the intracellular viruses in Cryptosporidium isolates and sought to seek a relationship if any, with clinical features...
2016: Annals of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27611776/real-world-effectiveness-and-safety-of-ombitasvir-paritaprevir-ritonavir%C3%A2-%C3%A2-%C3%A2-dasabuvir%C3%A2-%C3%A2-%C3%A2-ribavirin-in-hepatitis-c-amber-study
#20
R Flisiak, E Janczewska, M Wawrzynowicz-Syczewska, J Jaroszewicz, D Zarębska-Michaluk, K Nazzal, B Bolewska, J Bialkowska, H Berak, K Fleischer-Stępniewska, K Tomasiewicz, K Karwowska, K Rostkowska, A Piekarska, O Tronina, G Madej, A Garlicki, M Lucejko, A Pisula, E Karpińska, W Kryczka, A Wiercińska-Drapało, I Mozer-Lisewska, M Jabłkowski, A Horban, B Knysz, M Tudrujek, W Halota, K Simon
BACKGROUND: Virologic and safety outcomes of ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir ± dasabuvir ± ribavirin (OBV/PTV/r ± DSV ± RBV) therapy have shown high sustained virologic response (SVR) rates and good tolerability in most patient populations in pre-registration studies. AIM: To confirm these clinical trial findings in the treatment of genotype 1 and 4 hepatitis C under real-world conditions. METHODS: Patients enrolled for treatment with OBV/PTV/r ± DSV ± RBV based on therapeutic guidelines were included, and the regimen was administered according to product characteristics...
November 2016: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
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