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DNA methylation cancer immune response

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451581/effect-of-exposure-to-900-mhz-gsm-mobile-phone-radiofrequency-radiation-on-estrogen-receptor-methylation-status-in-colon-cells-of-male-sprague-dawley-rats
#1
P Mokarram, M Sheikhi, S M J Mortazavi, S Saeb, N Shokrpour
BACKGROUND: Over the past several years, the rapidly increasing use of mobile phones has raised global concerns about the biological effects of exposure to radiofrequency (RF) radiation. Numerous studies have shown that exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMFs) can be associated with effects on the nervous, endocrine, immune, cardiovascular, hematopoietic and ocular systems. In spite of genetic diversity, the onset and progression of cancer can be controlled by epigenetic mechanisms such as gene promoter methylation...
March 2017: Journal of Biomedical Physics & Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427185/transcriptional-landscape-of-human-cancers
#2
Mengyuan Li, Qingrong Sun, Xiaosheng Wang
The homogeneity and heterogeneity in somatic mutations, copy number alterations and methylation across different cancer types have been extensively explored. However, the related exploration based on transcriptome data is lacking. In this study we explored gene expression profiles across 33 human cancer types using The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) data. We identified consistently upregulated genes (such as E2F1, EZH2, FOXM1, MYBL2, PLK1, TTK, AURKA/B and BUB1) and consistently downregulated genes (such as SCARA5, MYOM1, NKAPL, PEG3, USP2, SLC5A7 and HMGCLL1) across various cancers...
March 2, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404974/tumor-immunotherapy-drug-induced-neoantigens-xenogenization-and-immune-checkpoint-inhibitors
#3
Ornella Franzese, Francesco Torino, Maria Pia Fuggetta, Angelo Aquino, Mario Roselli, Enzo Bonmassar, Anna Giuliani, Stefania D'Atri
More than 40 years ago, we discovered that novel transplantation antigens can be induced in vivo or in vitro by treating murine leukemia with dacarbazine. Years later, this phenomenon that we called "Chemical Xenogenization" (CX) and more recently, "Drug-Induced Xenogenization" (DIX), was reproduced by Thierry Boon with a mutagenic/carcinogenic compound (i.e. N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine). In both cases, the molecular bases of DIX rely on mutagenesis induced by methyl adducts to oxygen-6 of DNA guanine...
March 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344890/suppression-of-indoleamine-2-3-dioxygenase-1-expression-by-promoter-hypermethylation-in-er-positive-breast-cancer
#4
Dyah L Dewi, Soumya R Mohapatra, Saioa Blanco Cabañes, Isabell Adam, Luis F Somarribas Patterson, Bianca Berdel, Masroor Kahloon, Loreen Thürmann, Stefanie Loth, Katharina Heilmann, Dieter Weichenhan, Oliver Mücke, Ines Heiland, Pauline Wimberger, Jan Dominik Kuhlmann, Karl-Heinz Kellner, Sarah Schott, Christoph Plass, Michael Platten, Clarissa Gerhäuser, Saskia Trump, Christiane A Opitz
Kynurenine formation by tryptophan-catabolic indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) plays a key role in tumor immune evasion and inhibition of IDO1 is efficacious in preclinical models of breast cancer. As the response of breast cancer to immune checkpoint inhibitors may be limited, a better understanding of the expression of additional targetable immunomodulatory pathways is of importance. We therefore investigated the regulation of IDO1 expression in different breast cancer subtypes. We identified estrogen receptor α (ER) as a negative regulator of IDO1 expression...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325688/current-and-emerging-molecular-tests-for-human-papillomavirus-related-neoplasia-in-the-genomic-era
#5
REVIEW
Sixto M Leal, Margaret L Gulley
Laboratory tests have a key role in preventing human papillomavirus (HPV)-driven carcinomas and in guiding therapeutic interventions. An understanding of the virology, immunology, and carcinogenesis of HPV is essential for choosing appropriate diagnostic test modalities and developing new and even more effective cancer prevention strategies. HPV infects basal epithelial cells on multiple surfaces and induces carcinoma primarily in the cervix and the oropharynx. HPV types are stratified as high risk or low risk based on their carcinogenic potential...
May 2017: Journal of Molecular Diagnostics: JMD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264810/promoter-methylation-modulates-indoleamine-2-3-dioxygenase-1-induction-by-activated-t-cells-in-human-breast-cancers
#6
Satish K Noonepalle, Franklin Gu, Eun-Joon Lee, Jeong-Hyeon Choi, Qimei Han, Jaejik Kim, Maria Ouzounova, Austin Y Shull, Lirong Pei, Pei-Yin Hsu, Ravindra Kolhe, Fang Shi, Jiseok Choi, Katie Chiou, Tim H M Huang, Hasan Korkaya, Libin Deng, Hong-Bo Xin, Shuang Huang, Muthusamy Thangaraju, Arun Sreekumar, Stefan Ambs, Shou-Ching Tang, David H Munn, Huidong Shi
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells are modulated in reaction to tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes. However, their specific responses to this immune pressure are unknown. In order to address this question, we first used mRNA sequencing to compare the immunophenotype of the TNBC cell line MDA-MB-231 and the luminal breast cancer cell line MCF7 after both were cocultured with activated human T cells. Despite similarities in the cytokine-induced immune signatures of the two cell lines, MDA-MD-231 cells were able to transcribe more IDO1 than MCF7 cells...
April 2017: Cancer Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194035/recurrently-deregulated-lncrnas-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#7
Yang Yang, Lei Chen, Jin Gu, Hanshuo Zhang, Jiapei Yuan, Qiuyu Lian, Guishuai Lv, Siqi Wang, Yang Wu, Yu-Cheng T Yang, Dongfang Wang, Yang Liu, Jing Tang, Guijuan Luo, Yang Li, Long Hu, Xinbao Sun, Dong Wang, Mingzhou Guo, Qiaoran Xi, Jianzhong Xi, Hongyang Wang, Michael Q Zhang, Zhi John Lu
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells often invade the portal venous system and subsequently develop into portal vein tumour thrombosis (PVTT). Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been associated with HCC, but a comprehensive analysis of their specific association with HCC metastasis has not been conducted. Here, by analysing 60 clinical samples' RNA-seq data from 20 HCC patients, we have identified and characterized 8,603 candidate lncRNAs. The expression patterns of 917 recurrently deregulated lncRNAs are correlated with clinical data in a TCGA cohort and published liver cancer data...
February 13, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174608/genome-wide-dna-methylation-profile-identified-a-unique-set-of-differentially-methylated-immune-genes-in-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma-patients-in-india
#8
Baidehi Basu, Joyeeta Chakraborty, Aditi Chandra, Atul Katarkar, Jadav Ritesh Kumar Baldevbhai, Debjit Dhar Chowdhury, Jay Gopal Ray, Keya Chaudhuri, Raghunath Chatterjee
BACKGROUND: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is one of the common malignancies in Southeast Asia. Epigenetic changes, mainly the altered DNA methylation, have been implicated in many cancers. Considering the varied environmental and genotoxic exposures among the Indian population, we conducted a genome-wide DNA methylation study on paired tumor and adjacent normal tissues of ten well-differentiated OSCC patients and validated in an additional 53 well-differentiated OSCC and adjacent normal samples...
2017: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149332/the-immunomodulatory-anticancer-agent-rrx-001-induces-an-interferon-response-through-epigenetic-induction-of-viral-mimicry
#9
Hongjuan Zhao, Shoucheng Ning, Rosalie Nolley, Jan Scicinski, Bryan Oronsky, Susan J Knox, Donna M Peehl
BACKGROUND: RRx-001, a dinitroazetidine derivative, is a novel anticancer agent currently in phase II clinical trials. It mediates immunomodulatory effects either directly through polarization of tumor associated macrophages or indirectly through vascular normalization and increased T-lymphocyte infiltration. With multiple additional mechanisms of action including upregulation of oxidative stress, depletion of GSH and NADPH, anti-angiogenesis and epigenetic modulation, RRx-001 is being studied as a radio- and chemo-sensitizer to resensitize tumors to prior therapy and to prime tumors to respond to radiation, chemotherapy and immunotherapy in combination therapy studies...
2017: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074529/epigenetic-mediated-immune-suppression-of-positive-co-stimulatory-molecules-in-chemoresistant-ovarian-cancer-cells
#10
Ercan Cacan
The immunological response against cancer is a critical balance between immune-activating and immune-suppressing mechanisms. Ovarian cancer creates a suppressive microenvironment to escape immune elimination; however, the molecular mechanisms are poorly understood, and it is unclear whether chemotherapeutic drugs exert an immunoreactive or immunosuppressive effect on the tumor microenvironment. 4-1BB ligand (4-1BBL/CD157) and OX-40 ligand (OX-40L/CD252) are important regulators of effector cytotoxic T-cells activity...
March 2017: Cell Biology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057213/a-new-molecular-mechanism-underlying-the-antitumor-effect-of-dna-methylation-inhibitors-via-an-antiviral-immune-response
#11
Y Saito, T Nakaoka, H Saito
Chromatin remodeling mediated by DNA methylation and histone modifications play critical roles in the transcriptional regulation of protein-coding genes, noncoding RNAs such as microRNAs, and endogenous retroviruses (ERVs). Many studies have shown that aberrant DNA methylation and histone modifications are associated with the initiation and progression of various malignancies. Epigenetic silencing of tumor suppressor genes in cancer is generally mediated by DNA hypermethylation of CpG island promoters and histone modifications such as histone deacetylation, methylation of histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9), and trimethylation of H3K27...
2017: Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982729/differential-dna-methylation-and-pm2-5-species-in-a-450k-epigenome-wide-association-study
#12
Lingzhen Dai, Amar Mehta, Irina Mordukhovich, Allan C Just, Jincheng Shen, Lifang Hou, Petros Koutrakis, David Sparrow, Pantel S Vokonas, Andrea A Baccarelli, Joel D Schwartz
Although there is growing evidence that exposure to ambient particulate matter is associated with global DNA methylation and gene-specific methylation, little is known regarding epigenome-wide changes in DNA methylation in relation to particles and, especially, particle components. Using the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip, we examined the relationship between one-year moving averages of PM2.5 species (Al, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Na, Ni, S, Si, V, and Zn) and DNA methylation at 484,613 CpG probes in a longitudinal cohort that included 646 subjects...
February 2017: Epigenetics: Official Journal of the DNA Methylation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959926/predictors-of-chemosensitivity-in-triple-negative-breast-cancer-an-integrated-genomic-analysis
#13
Tingting Jiang, Weiwei Shi, Vikram B Wali, Lőrinc S Pongor, Charles Li, Rosanna Lau, Balázs Győrffy, Richard P Lifton, William F Symmans, Lajos Pusztai, Christos Hatzis
BACKGROUND: Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a highly heterogeneous and aggressive disease, and although no effective targeted therapies are available to date, about one-third of patients with TNBC achieve pathologic complete response (pCR) from standard-of-care anthracycline/taxane (ACT) chemotherapy. The heterogeneity of these tumors, however, has hindered the discovery of effective biomarkers to identify such patients. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We performed whole exome sequencing on 29 TNBC cases from the MD Anderson Cancer Center (MDACC) selected because they had either pCR (n = 18) or extensive residual disease (n = 11) after neoadjuvant chemotherapy, with cases from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA; n = 144) and METABRIC (n = 278) cohorts serving as validation cohorts...
December 2016: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865469/interplay-between-inflammation-and-epigenetic-changes-in-cancer
#14
A R Maiuri, H M O'Hagan
Immune responses can suppress tumorigenesis, but also contribute to cancer initiation and progression suggesting a complex interaction between the immune system and cancer. Epigenetic alterations, which are heritable changes in gene expression without changes to the DNA sequence, also play a role in carcinogenesis through silencing expression of tumor suppressor genes and activating oncogenic signaling. Interestingly, epithelial cells at sites of chronic inflammation undergo DNA methylation alterations that are similar to those present in cancer cells, suggesting that inflammation may initiate cancer-specific epigenetic changes in epithelial cells...
2016: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863190/human-papillomavirus-drives-tumor-development-throughout-the-head-and-neck-improved-prognosis-is-associated-with-an-immune-response-largely-restricted-to-the-oropharynx
#15
Ankur Chakravarthy, Stephen Henderson, Stephen M Thirdborough, Christian H Ottensmeier, Xiaoping Su, Matt Lechner, Andrew Feber, Gareth J Thomas, Tim R Fenton
Purpose In squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck (HNSCC), the increasing incidence of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (OPSCCs) is attributable to human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Despite commonly presenting at late stage, HPV-driven OPSCCs are associated with improved prognosis compared with HPV-negative disease. HPV DNA is also detectable in nonoropharyngeal (non-OPSCC), but its pathogenic role and clinical significance are unclear. The objectives of this study were to determine whether HPV plays a causal role in non-OPSCC and to investigate whether HPV confers a survival benefit in these tumors...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835705/dna-methylation-mediated-downregulation-of-defb1-in-prostate-cancer-cells
#16
Jaehyouk Lee, Jun Hyun Han, Ara Jang, Jin Wook Kim, Soon Auck Hong, Soon Chul Myung
Epigenetic aberrations play crucial roles in prostate cancer (PCa) development and progression. The DEFB1 gene, which encodes human ß-defensin-1 (HBD-1), contributes to innate immune responses and functions as a potential tumor suppressor in urological cancers. We investigated whether differential DNA methylation at the low CpG-content promoter (LCP) of DEFB1 was associated with transcriptional regulation of DEFB1 in PCa cells. To identify distinct CpG loci within the DEFB1 LCP related to the epigenetic regulation of DEFB1, we performed an in vitro methylated reporter assay followed by bisulfite sequencing of the DEFB1 promoter fragment...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826838/the-role-of-dna-methylation-in-cancer
#17
Ranjani Lakshminarasimhan, Gangning Liang
The malignant transformation of normal cells is driven by both genetic and epigenetic changes. With the advent of next-generation sequencing and large-scale multinational consortium studies, it has become possible to profile the genomes and epigenomes of thousands of primary tumors from nearly every cancer type. From these genome-wide studies, it became clear that the dynamic regulation of DNA methylation is a critical epigenetic mechanism of cancer initiation, maintenance, and progression. Proper control of DNA methylation is not only crucial for regulating gene transcription, but its broader consequences include maintaining the integrity of the genome and modulating immune response...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814656/alpha-enolase-eno1-a-potential-target-in-novel-immunotherapies
#18
Paola Cappello, Moitza Principe, Sara Bulfamante, Francesco Novelli
Alpha-enolase (ENO1) is a metabolic enzyme involved in the synthesis of pyruvate. It also acts as a plasminogen receptor and mediates the activation of plasmin and extracellular matrix degradation. In tumor cells, ENO1 is up-regulated and supports the Warburg effect; it is expressed at the cell surface, where it promotes cancer invasion, and is subjected to a specific array of post-translational modifications, namely acetylation, methylation and phosphorylation. ENO1 overexpression and post-translational modifications could be of diagnostic and prognostic value in many cancer types...
January 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770445/understanding-the-epigenetic-regulation-of-tumours-and-their-microenvironments-opportunities-and-problems-for-epigenetic-therapy
#19
REVIEW
Man Liu, Jingying Zhou, Zhiwei Chen, Alfred Sze-Lok Cheng
The tumour microenvironment plays an instrumental role in cancer development, progression and treatment response/resistance. Accumulating evidence is underscoring the fundamental importance of epigenetic regulation in tumour immune evasion. Following many pioneering discoveries demonstrating malignant transformation through epigenetic anomalies ('epimutations'), there is also a growing emphasis on elucidating aberrant epigenetic mechanisms that reprogramme the milieu of tumour-associated immune and stromal cells towards an immunosuppressive state...
January 2017: Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27700179/epigenetic-control-of-the-tumor-microenvironment
#20
David L Marks, Rachel Lo Olson, Martin E Fernandez-Zapico
Stromal cells of the tumor microenvironment have been shown to play important roles in both supporting and limiting cancer growth. The altered phenotype of tumor-associated stromal cells (fibroblasts, immune cells, endothelial cells etc.) is proposed to be mainly due to epigenetic dysregulation of gene expression; however, only limited studies have probed the roles of epigenetic mechanisms in the regulation of stromal cell function. We review recent studies demonstrating how specific epigenetic mechanisms (DNA methylation and histone post-translational modification-based gene expression regulation, and miRNA-mediated translational regulation) drive aspects of stromal cell phenotype, and discuss the implications of these findings for treatment of malignancies...
December 2016: Epigenomics
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