keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Epigenetics immune response in cancer

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903713/-trained-immunity-consequences-for-lymphoid-malignancies
#1
REVIEW
Wendy B C Stevens, Mihai G Netea, Arnon P Kater, Walter J F M van der Velden
In hematological malignancies complex interactions exist between the immune system, microorganisms and malignant cells. On one hand, microorganisms can induce cancer, as illustrated by specific infection-induced lymphoproliferative diseases such as Helicobacter pylori-associated gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. On the other hand, malignant cells create an immunosuppressive environment for their own benefit, but this also results in an increased risk of infections. Disrupted innate immunity contributes to the neoplastic transformation of blood cells by several mechanisms, including the uncontrolled clearance of microbial and autoantigens resulting in chronic immune stimulation and proliferation, chronic inflammation, and defective immune surveillance and anti-cancer immunity...
December 2016: Haematologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903272/inhibition-of-bromodomain-and-extra-terminal-bet-proteins-increases-nkg2d-ligand-mica-expression-and-sensitivity-to-nk-cell-mediated-cytotoxicity-in-multiple-myeloma-cells-role-of-cmyc-irf4-mir-125b-interplay
#2
Maria Pia Abruzzese, Maria Teresa Bilotta, Cinzia Fionda, Alessandra Zingoni, Alessandra Soriani, Elisabetta Vulpis, Cristiana Borrelli, Beatrice Zitti, Maria Teresa Petrucci, Maria Rosaria Ricciardi, Rosa Molfetta, Rossella Paolini, Angela Santoni, Marco Cippitelli
BACKGROUND: Anti-cancer immune responses may contribute to the control of tumors after conventional chemotherapy, and different observations have indicated that chemotherapeutic agents can induce immune responses resulting in cancer cell death and immune-stimulatory side effects. Increasing experimental and clinical evidence highlight the importance of natural killer (NK) cells in immune responses toward multiple myeloma (MM), and combination therapies able to enhance the activity of NK cells against MM are showing promise in treating this hematologic cancer...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Hematology & Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887656/looking-beyond-the-cancer-cell-for-effective-drug-combinations
#3
Jonathan R Dry, Mi Yang, Julio Saez-Rodriguez
Combinations of therapies are being actively pursued to expand therapeutic options and deal with cancer's pervasive resistance to treatment. Research efforts to discover effective combination treatments have focused on drugs targeting intracellular processes of the cancer cells and in particular on small molecules that target aberrant kinases. Accordingly, most of the computational methods used to study, predict, and develop drug combinations concentrate on these modes of action and signaling processes within the cancer cell...
November 25, 2016: Genome Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869795/cd68-macrosialin-not-just-a-histochemical-marker
#4
Dimitry A Chistiakov, Murry C Killingsworth, Veronika A Myasoedova, Alexander N Orekhov, Yuri V Bobryshev
CD68 is a heavily glycosylated glycoprotein that is highly expressed in macrophages and other mononuclear phagocytes. Traditionally, CD68 is exploited as a valuable cytochemical marker to immunostain monocyte/macrophages in the histochemical analysis of inflamed tissues, tumor tissues, and other immunohistopathological applications. CD68 alone or in combination with other cell markers of tumor-associated macrophages showed a good predictive value as a prognostic marker of survival in cancer patients. Lowression of CD68 was found in the lymphoid cells, non-hematopoietic cells (fibroblasts, endothelial cells, etc), and tumor cells...
November 21, 2016: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865897/enigmas-in-tumor-resistance-to-kinase-inhibitors-and-calculation-of-the-drug-resistance-index-for-cancer-dric
#5
REVIEW
C I Edvard Smith
Darwinian selection is also applicable when antibiotics, the immune system or other host factors shape the repertoire of microorganisms, and similarly, clonal selection is the hallmark of tumor evolution. The ongoing revolution in new anti-cancer treatment modalities, combined with an unprecedented precision in characterizing malignant clones at the level below one percent, profoundly improves the understanding of repertoire-tuning mechanisms. There is no fundamental difference between selection of the tumor cells in the presence, or absence, of therapy...
November 16, 2016: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865469/interplay-between-inflammation-and-epigenetic-changes-in-cancer
#6
A R Maiuri, H M O'Hagan
Immune responses can suppress tumorigenesis, but also contribute to cancer initiation and progression suggesting a complex interaction between the immune system and cancer. Epigenetic alterations, which are heritable changes in gene expression without changes to the DNA sequence, also play a role in carcinogenesis through silencing expression of tumor suppressor genes and activating oncogenic signaling. Interestingly, epithelial cells at sites of chronic inflammation undergo DNA methylation alterations that are similar to those present in cancer cells, suggesting that inflammation may initiate cancer-specific epigenetic changes in epithelial cells...
2016: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863852/the-rag-recombinase-beyond-breaking
#7
Chloé Lescale, Ludovic Deriano
DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are commonly seen as lesions that threaten genome integrity and contribute to cancer and aging processes. However, in the context of antigen receptor gene assembly, known as V(D)J recombination, DSBs are obligatory intermediates that allow the establishment of genetic diversity and adaptive immunity. V(D)J recombination is initiated when the lymphoid-restricted recombination-activating genes RAG1 and RAG2 are expressed and form a site-specific endonuclease (the RAG nuclease or RAG recombinase)...
November 15, 2016: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862100/role-of-epigenetic-modification-and-immunomodulation-in-a-murine-prostate-cancer-model
#8
Jay E Sulek, Samuel P Robinson, Albert A Petrossian, Shaoqing Zhou, Ekaterine Goliadze, Masoud H Manjili, Amir Toor, Georgi Guruli
INTRODUCTION: Decreased expression of highly immunogenic cancer-testis antigens (CTA) might help tumor to achieve low immunogenicity, escape immune surveillance and grow unimpeded. Our aim was to evaluate CTA expression in tumor and normal tissues and to investigate possible means of improving the immune response in a murine prostate cancer (CaP) model by using the combination of epigenetic modifier 5-azacitidine (5-AzaC) and immunomodulator lenalidomide. No study to date has examined the effect of this combination on the prostate cancer or its impact on antigen-presenting cells (APC)...
November 8, 2016: Prostate
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854240/the-impact-of-chemotherapy-radiation-and-epigenetic-modifiers-in-cancer-cell-expression-of-immune-inhibitory-and-stimulatory-molecules-and-anti-tumor-efficacy
#9
REVIEW
Jessica Ann Chacon, Keith Schutsky, Daniel J Powell
Genomic destabilizers, such as radiation and chemotherapy, and epigenetic modifiers are used for the treatment of cancer due to their apoptotic effects on the aberrant cells. However, these therapies may also induce widespread changes within the immune system and cancer cells, which may enable tumors to avoid immune surveillance and escape from host anti-tumor immunity. Genomic destabilizers can induce immunogenic death of tumor cells, but also induce upregulation of immune inhibitory ligands on drug-resistant cells, resulting in tumor progression...
November 14, 2016: Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835705/dna-methylation-mediated-downregulation-of-defb1-in-prostate-cancer-cells
#10
Jaehyouk Lee, Jun Hyun Han, Ara Jang, Jin Wook Kim, Soon Auck Hong, Soon Chul Myung
Epigenetic aberrations play crucial roles in prostate cancer (PCa) development and progression. The DEFB1 gene, which encodes human ß-defensin-1 (HBD-1), contributes to innate immune responses and functions as a potential tumor suppressor in urological cancers. We investigated whether differential DNA methylation at the low CpG-content promoter (LCP) of DEFB1 was associated with transcriptional regulation of DEFB1 in PCa cells. To identify distinct CpG loci within the DEFB1 LCP related to the epigenetic regulation of DEFB1, we performed an in vitro methylated reporter assay followed by bisulfite sequencing of the DEFB1 promoter fragment...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826838/the-role-of-dna-methylation-in-cancer
#11
Ranjani Lakshminarasimhan, Gangning Liang
The malignant transformation of normal cells is driven by both genetic and epigenetic changes. With the advent of next-generation sequencing and large-scale multinational consortium studies, it has become possible to profile the genomes and epigenomes of thousands of primary tumors from nearly every cancer type. From these genome-wide studies, it became clear that the dynamic regulation of DNA methylation is a critical epigenetic mechanism of cancer initiation, maintenance, and progression. Proper control of DNA methylation is not only crucial for regulating gene transcription, but its broader consequences include maintaining the integrity of the genome and modulating immune response...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811314/epigenetic-treatment-of-pancreatic-cancer-is-there-a-therapeutic-perspective-on-the-horizon
#12
REVIEW
Elisabeth Hessmann, Steven A Johnsen, Jens T Siveke, Volker Ellenrieder
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) constitutes one of the most aggressive malignancies with a 5-year survival rate of <7%. Due to growing incidence, late diagnosis and insufficient treatment options, PDAC is predicted to soon become one of the leading causes of cancer-related death. Although intensified cytostatic combinations, particularly gemcitabine plus nab-paclitaxel and the folinic acid, fluorouracil, irinotecan, oxaliplatin (FOLFIRINOX) protocol, provide some improvement in efficacy and survival compared with gemcitabine alone, a breakthrough in the treatment of metastatic pancreatic cancer remains out of sight...
November 3, 2016: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810411/microbiome-driven-carcinogenesis-in-colorectal-cancer-models-and-mechanisms
#13
REVIEW
Xingmin Wang, Yonghong Yang, Mark M Huycke
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer death and archetype for cancer as a genetic disease. However, the mechanisms for genetic change and their interactions with environmental risk factors have been difficult to unravel. New hypotheses, models, and methods are being used to investigate a complex web of risk factors that includes the intestinal microbiome. Recent research has clarified how the microbiome can generate genomic change in CRC. Several phenotypes among a small group of selected commensals have helped us better understand how mutations and chromosomal instability (CIN) are induced in CRC (e...
October 31, 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798602/s-2-hydroxyglutarate-regulates-cd8-t-lymphocyte-fate
#14
Petros A Tyrakis, Asis Palazon, David Macias, Kian L Lee, Anthony T Phan, Pedro Veliça, Jia You, Grace S Chia, Jingwei Sim, Andrew Doedens, Alice Abelanet, Colin E Evans, John R Griffiths, Lorenz Poellinger, Ananda W Goldrath, Randall S Johnson
R-2-hydroxyglutarate accumulates to millimolar levels in cancers with gain-of-function isocitrate dehydrogenase 1/2 mutations. These levels of R-2-hydroxyglutarate affect 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases. Both R- and S-2-hydroxyglutarate, the other enantiomer of this metabolite, are detectible in healthy individuals, yet their physiological function remains elusive. Here we show that CD8(+) T-lymphocytes accumulate 2-hydroxyglutarate in response to T-cell receptor triggering. This increases to millimolar levels in physiological oxygen conditions, via a hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha-dependent mechanism...
October 26, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796306/structural-basis-of-checkpoint-blockade-by-monoclonal-antibodies-in-cancer-immunotherapy
#15
Ju Yeon Lee, Hyun Tae Lee, Woori Shin, Jongseok Chae, Jaemo Choi, Sung Hyun Kim, Heejin Lim, Tae Won Heo, Kyeong Young Park, Yeon Ji Lee, Seong Eon Ryu, Ji Young Son, Jee Un Lee, Yong-Seok Heo
Cancer cells express tumour-specific antigens derived via genetic and epigenetic alterations, which may be targeted by T-cell-mediated immune responses. However, cancer cells can avoid immune surveillance by suppressing immunity through activation of specific inhibitory signalling pathways, referred to as immune checkpoints. In recent years, the blockade of checkpoint molecules such as PD-1, PD-L1 and CTLA-4, with monoclonal antibodies has enabled the development of breakthrough therapies in oncology, and four therapeutic antibodies targeting these checkpoint molecules have been approved by the FDA for the treatment of several types of cancer...
October 31, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27778276/transcriptional-modulation-of-regulatory-t-cell-development-by-novel-regulators-nr4as
#16
Hee Yeon Won, Eun Sook Hwang
Regulatory T (Treg) cells with high expression of both CD25 and Foxp3 are developed in the thymus and also peripheral tissues. Treg cells suppress the activation and functions of effector T cells raised against specific antigens and are crucial for maintaining immune homeostasis. Treg cell development is associated with the induction of and epigenetic alterations of forkhead transcription factor Foxp3. Foxp3 expression is increased by the activation of several transcription factors including nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT), and Smad3 in response to various signals such as TGFβ, retinoic acid, and rapamycin...
October 25, 2016: Archives of Pharmacal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770445/understanding-the-epigenetic-regulation-of-tumours-and-their-microenvironments-opportunities-and-problems-for-epigenetic-therapy
#17
REVIEW
Man Liu, Jingying Zhou, Zhiwei Chen, Alfred Sze-Lok Cheng
The tumour microenvironment plays an instrumental role in cancer development, progression and treatment response/resistance. Accumulating evidence is underscoring the fundamental importance of epigenetic regulation in tumour immune evasion. Following many pioneering discoveries demonstrating malignant transformation through epigenetic anomalies ('epimutations'), there is also a growing emphasis on elucidating aberrant epigenetic mechanisms that reprogramme the milieu of tumour-associated immune and stromal cells towards an immunosuppressive state...
October 22, 2016: Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27769045/inducible-expression-of-cancer-testis-antigens-in-human-prostate-cancer
#18
Erika Heninger, Timothy E G Krueger, Stephanie M Thiede, Jamie M Sperger, Brianna L Byers, Madison R Kircher, David Kosoff, Bing Yang, David F Jarrard, Douglas G McNeel, Joshua M Lang
Immune tolerance to self-antigens can limit robust anti-tumor immune responses in the use of tumor vaccines. Expression of novel tumor associated antigens can improve immune recognition and lysis of tumor cells. The cancer-testis antigen (CTA) family of proteins has been hypothesized to be an ideal class of antigens due to tumor-restricted expression, a subset of which have been found to induce antibody responses in patients with prostate disease. We demonstrate that CTA expression is highly inducible in five different Prostate Cancer (PC) cell lines using a hypomethylating agent 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5AZA) and/or a histone deacetylase inhibitor LBH589...
October 17, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748045/a-phase-i-trial-of-panobinostat-lbh589-in-patients-with-metastatic-melanoma
#19
Nageatte Ibrahim, Elizabeth I Buchbinder, Scott R Granter, Scott J Rodig, Anita Giobbie-Hurder, Carla Becerra, Argyro Tsiaras, Evisa Gjini, David E Fisher, F Stephen Hodi
Epigenetic alterations by histone/protein deacetylases (HDACs) are one of the many mechanisms that cancer cells use to alter gene expression and promote growth. HDAC inhibitors have proven to be effective in the treatment of specific malignancies, particularly in combination with other anticancer agents. We conducted a phase I trial of panobinostat in patients with unresectable stage III or IV melanoma. Patients were treated with oral panobinostat at a dose of 30 mg daily on Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays (Arm A)...
November 2016: Cancer Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27723796/epigenetics-in-cancer-a-hematological-perspective
#20
Maximilian Stahl, Nathan Kohrman, Steven D Gore, Tae Kon Kim, Amer M Zeidan, Thomas Prebet
For several decades, we have known that epigenetic regulation is disrupted in cancer. Recently, an increasing body of data suggests epigenetics might be an intersection of current cancer research trends: next generation sequencing, immunology, metabolomics, and cell aging. The new emphasis on epigenetics is also related to the increasing production of drugs capable of interfering with epigenetic mechanisms and able to trigger clinical responses in even advanced phase patients. In this review, we will use myeloid malignancies as proof of concept examples of how epigenetic mechanisms can trigger or promote oncogenesis...
October 2016: PLoS Genetics
keyword
keyword
100234
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"