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Epigenetics immune response in cancer

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074529/epigenetic-mediated-immune-suppression-of-positive-co-stimulatory-molecules-in-chemoresistant-ovarian-cancer-cells
#1
Ercan Cacan
The immunological response against cancer is a critical balance between immune-activating and immune-suppressing mechanisms. Ovarian cancer creates a suppressive microenvironment to escape immune elimination; however, the molecular mechanisms are poorly understood, and it is unclear whether chemotherapeutic drugs exert an immunoreactive or immunosuppressive effect on the tumor microenvironment. 4-1BB ligand (4-1BBL/CD157) and OX-40 ligand (OX-40L/CD252) are important regulators of effector cytotoxic T-cells activity...
January 11, 2017: Cell Biology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057213/a-new-molecular-mechanism-underlying-the-antitumor-effect-of-dna-methylation-inhibitors-via-an-antiviral-immune-response
#2
Y Saito, T Nakaoka, H Saito
Chromatin remodeling mediated by DNA methylation and histone modifications play critical roles in the transcriptional regulation of protein-coding genes, noncoding RNAs such as microRNAs, and endogenous retroviruses (ERVs). Many studies have shown that aberrant DNA methylation and histone modifications are associated with the initiation and progression of various malignancies. Epigenetic silencing of tumor suppressor genes in cancer is generally mediated by DNA hypermethylation of CpG island promoters and histone modifications such as histone deacetylation, methylation of histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9), and trimethylation of H3K27...
2017: Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018344/adjunct-strategies-for-tuberculosis-vaccines-modulating-key-immune-cell-regulatory-mechanisms-to-potentiate-vaccination
#3
REVIEW
Lakshmi Jayashankar, Richard Hafner
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a global health threat of alarming proportions, resulting in 1.5 million deaths worldwide. The only available licensed vaccine, Bacillus Calmette-Guérin, does not confer lifelong protection against active TB. To date, development of an effective vaccine against TB has proven to be elusive, and devising newer approaches for improved vaccination outcomes is an essential goal. Insights gained over the last several years have revealed multiple mechanisms of immune manipulation by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) in infected macrophages and dendritic cells that support disease progression and block development of protective immunity...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000527/epigenetic-regulation-of-immune-checkpoints-another-target-for-cancer-immunotherapy
#4
Mahmoud A Ali, Marwa Matboli, Marwa Tarek, Maged Reda, Kamal M Kamal, Mahmoud Nouh, Ahmed M Ashry, Ahmed Fath El-Bab, Hend A Mesalam, Ayman El-Sayed Shafei, Omar Abdel-Rahman
Epigenetic changes in oncogenes and tumor-suppressor genes contribute to carcinogenesis. Understanding the epigenetic and genetic components of tumor immune evasion is crucial. Few cancer genetic mutations have been linked to direct correlations with immune evasion. Studies on the epigenetic modulation of the immune checkpoints have revealed a critical interaction between epigenetic and immune modulation. Epigenetic modifiers can activate many silenced genes. Some of them are immune checkpoints regulators that turn on immune responses and others turn them off resulting in immune evasion...
January 2017: Immunotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999745/microrna-155-deficiency-impairs-dendritic-cell-function-in-breast-cancer
#5
Junfeng Wang, Stephen Iwanowycz, Fang Yu, Xuemei Jia, Shuilong Leng, Yuzhen Wang, Wei Li, Shiang Huang, Walden Ai, Daping Fan
In antitumor immunity, dendritic cells (DCs) capture, process, and present tumor antigens to T cells, initiating a tumoricidal response. However, DCs are often dysfunctional due to their exposure to the tumor microenvironment (TME), leading to tumor escape from immune surveillance. Here, a vital role of microRNA-155 (miR-155) in regulating the function of DCs in breast cancer is reported. Host miR-155 deficiency enhanced breast cancer growth in mice, accompanied by reduced DCs in the tumors and draining lymph nodes...
2016: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982729/differential-dna-methylation-and-pm2-5-species-in-a-450k-epigenome-wide-association-study
#6
Lingzhen Dai, Amar Mehta, Irina Mordukhovich, Allan C Just, Jincheng Shen, Lifang Hou, Petros Koutrakis, David Sparrow, Pantel S Vokonas, Andrea A Baccarelli, Joel D Schwartz
Although there is growing evidence that exposure to ambient particulate matter is associated with global DNA methylation and gene-specific methylation, little is known regarding epigenome-wide changes in DNA methylation in relation to particles and, especially, particle components. Using the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip, we examined the relationship between one-year moving averages of PM2.5 species (Al, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Na, Ni, S, Si, V, and Zn) and DNA methylation at 484,613 CpG probes in a longitudinal cohort that included 646 subjects...
December 16, 2016: Epigenetics: Official Journal of the DNA Methylation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923508/surfacing-role-of-probiotics-in-cancer-prophylaxis-and-therapy-a-systematic-review
#7
REVIEW
Subramanyam Dasari, Chandrasekhar Kathera, Avilala Janardhan, Arthala Praveen Kumar, Buddolla Viswanath
Cancers figure among the most important causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Cancer and its associated infections are always complicated even when specific cancer regimens are available. It is well proved that Lactobacillus and other probiotic bacteria can modulate-ameliorate specific mechanisms against various infections including cancers. The present systematic review is intended to focus on the 'cellular and molecular mechanisms' of probiotic bacteria in the prevention and treatment of various cancers...
November 24, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903713/-trained-immunity-consequences-for-lymphoid-malignancies
#8
REVIEW
Wendy B C Stevens, Mihai G Netea, Arnon P Kater, Walter J F M van der Velden
In hematological malignancies complex interactions exist between the immune system, microorganisms and malignant cells. On one hand, microorganisms can induce cancer, as illustrated by specific infection-induced lymphoproliferative diseases such as Helicobacter pylori-associated gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. On the other hand, malignant cells create an immunosuppressive environment for their own benefit, but this also results in an increased risk of infections. Disrupted innate immunity contributes to the neoplastic transformation of blood cells by several mechanisms, including the uncontrolled clearance of microbial and autoantigens resulting in chronic immune stimulation and proliferation, chronic inflammation, and defective immune surveillance and anti-cancer immunity...
December 2016: Haematologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903272/inhibition-of-bromodomain-and-extra-terminal-bet-proteins-increases-nkg2d-ligand-mica-expression-and-sensitivity-to-nk-cell-mediated-cytotoxicity-in-multiple-myeloma-cells-role-of-cmyc-irf4-mir-125b-interplay
#9
Maria Pia Abruzzese, Maria Teresa Bilotta, Cinzia Fionda, Alessandra Zingoni, Alessandra Soriani, Elisabetta Vulpis, Cristiana Borrelli, Beatrice Zitti, Maria Teresa Petrucci, Maria Rosaria Ricciardi, Rosa Molfetta, Rossella Paolini, Angela Santoni, Marco Cippitelli
BACKGROUND: Anti-cancer immune responses may contribute to the control of tumors after conventional chemotherapy, and different observations have indicated that chemotherapeutic agents can induce immune responses resulting in cancer cell death and immune-stimulatory side effects. Increasing experimental and clinical evidence highlight the importance of natural killer (NK) cells in immune responses toward multiple myeloma (MM), and combination therapies able to enhance the activity of NK cells against MM are showing promise in treating this hematologic cancer...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Hematology & Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887656/looking-beyond-the-cancer-cell-for-effective-drug-combinations
#10
Jonathan R Dry, Mi Yang, Julio Saez-Rodriguez
Combinations of therapies are being actively pursued to expand therapeutic options and deal with cancer's pervasive resistance to treatment. Research efforts to discover effective combination treatments have focused on drugs targeting intracellular processes of the cancer cells and in particular on small molecules that target aberrant kinases. Accordingly, most of the computational methods used to study, predict, and develop drug combinations concentrate on these modes of action and signaling processes within the cancer cell...
November 25, 2016: Genome Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869795/cd68-macrosialin-not-just-a-histochemical-marker
#11
Dimitry A Chistiakov, Murry C Killingsworth, Veronika A Myasoedova, Alexander N Orekhov, Yuri V Bobryshev
CD68 is a heavily glycosylated glycoprotein that is highly expressed in macrophages and other mononuclear phagocytes. Traditionally, CD68 is exploited as a valuable cytochemical marker to immunostain monocyte/macrophages in the histochemical analysis of inflamed tissues, tumor tissues, and other immunohistopathological applications. CD68 alone or in combination with other cell markers of tumor-associated macrophages showed a good predictive value as a prognostic marker of survival in cancer patients. Lowression of CD68 was found in the lymphoid cells, non-hematopoietic cells (fibroblasts, endothelial cells, etc), and tumor cells...
November 21, 2016: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865897/enigmas-in-tumor-resistance-to-kinase-inhibitors-and-calculation-of-the-drug-resistance-index-for-cancer-dric
#12
REVIEW
C I Edvard Smith
Darwinian selection is also applicable when antibiotics, the immune system or other host factors shape the repertoire of microorganisms, and similarly, clonal selection is the hallmark of tumor evolution. The ongoing revolution in new anti-cancer treatment modalities, combined with an unprecedented precision in characterizing malignant clones at the level below one percent, profoundly improves the understanding of repertoire-tuning mechanisms. There is no fundamental difference between selection of the tumor cells in the presence, or absence, of therapy...
November 16, 2016: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865469/interplay-between-inflammation-and-epigenetic-changes-in-cancer
#13
A R Maiuri, H M O'Hagan
Immune responses can suppress tumorigenesis, but also contribute to cancer initiation and progression suggesting a complex interaction between the immune system and cancer. Epigenetic alterations, which are heritable changes in gene expression without changes to the DNA sequence, also play a role in carcinogenesis through silencing expression of tumor suppressor genes and activating oncogenic signaling. Interestingly, epithelial cells at sites of chronic inflammation undergo DNA methylation alterations that are similar to those present in cancer cells, suggesting that inflammation may initiate cancer-specific epigenetic changes in epithelial cells...
2016: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863852/the-rag-recombinase-beyond-breaking
#14
Chloé Lescale, Ludovic Deriano
DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are commonly seen as lesions that threaten genome integrity and contribute to cancer and aging processes. However, in the context of antigen receptor gene assembly, known as V(D)J recombination, DSBs are obligatory intermediates that allow the establishment of genetic diversity and adaptive immunity. V(D)J recombination is initiated when the lymphoid-restricted recombination-activating genes RAG1 and RAG2 are expressed and form a site-specific endonuclease (the RAG nuclease or RAG recombinase)...
November 15, 2016: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862100/role-of-epigenetic-modification-and-immunomodulation-in-a-murine-prostate-cancer-model
#15
Jay E Sulek, Samuel P Robinson, Albert A Petrossian, Shaoqing Zhou, Ekaterine Goliadze, Masoud H Manjili, Amir Toor, Georgi Guruli
INTRODUCTION: Decreased expression of highly immunogenic cancer-testis antigens (CTA) might help tumor to achieve low immunogenicity, escape immune surveillance and grow unimpeded. Our aim was to evaluate CTA expression in tumor and normal tissues and to investigate possible means of improving the immune response in a murine prostate cancer (CaP) model by using the combination of epigenetic modifier 5-azacitidine (5-AzaC) and immunomodulator lenalidomide. No study to date has examined the effect of this combination on the prostate cancer or its impact on antigen-presenting cells (APC)...
November 8, 2016: Prostate
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854240/the-impact-of-chemotherapy-radiation-and-epigenetic-modifiers-in-cancer-cell-expression-of-immune-inhibitory-and-stimulatory-molecules-and-anti-tumor-efficacy
#16
REVIEW
Jessica Ann Chacon, Keith Schutsky, Daniel J Powell
Genomic destabilizers, such as radiation and chemotherapy, and epigenetic modifiers are used for the treatment of cancer due to their apoptotic effects on the aberrant cells. However, these therapies may also induce widespread changes within the immune system and cancer cells, which may enable tumors to avoid immune surveillance and escape from host anti-tumor immunity. Genomic destabilizers can induce immunogenic death of tumor cells, but also induce upregulation of immune inhibitory ligands on drug-resistant cells, resulting in tumor progression...
November 14, 2016: Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835705/dna-methylation-mediated-downregulation-of-defb1-in-prostate-cancer-cells
#17
Jaehyouk Lee, Jun Hyun Han, Ara Jang, Jin Wook Kim, Soon Auck Hong, Soon Chul Myung
Epigenetic aberrations play crucial roles in prostate cancer (PCa) development and progression. The DEFB1 gene, which encodes human ß-defensin-1 (HBD-1), contributes to innate immune responses and functions as a potential tumor suppressor in urological cancers. We investigated whether differential DNA methylation at the low CpG-content promoter (LCP) of DEFB1 was associated with transcriptional regulation of DEFB1 in PCa cells. To identify distinct CpG loci within the DEFB1 LCP related to the epigenetic regulation of DEFB1, we performed an in vitro methylated reporter assay followed by bisulfite sequencing of the DEFB1 promoter fragment...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826838/the-role-of-dna-methylation-in-cancer
#18
Ranjani Lakshminarasimhan, Gangning Liang
The malignant transformation of normal cells is driven by both genetic and epigenetic changes. With the advent of next-generation sequencing and large-scale multinational consortium studies, it has become possible to profile the genomes and epigenomes of thousands of primary tumors from nearly every cancer type. From these genome-wide studies, it became clear that the dynamic regulation of DNA methylation is a critical epigenetic mechanism of cancer initiation, maintenance, and progression. Proper control of DNA methylation is not only crucial for regulating gene transcription, but its broader consequences include maintaining the integrity of the genome and modulating immune response...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811314/epigenetic-treatment-of-pancreatic-cancer-is-there-a-therapeutic-perspective-on-the-horizon
#19
REVIEW
Elisabeth Hessmann, Steven A Johnsen, Jens T Siveke, Volker Ellenrieder
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) constitutes one of the most aggressive malignancies with a 5-year survival rate of <7%. Due to growing incidence, late diagnosis and insufficient treatment options, PDAC is predicted to soon become one of the leading causes of cancer-related death. Although intensified cytostatic combinations, particularly gemcitabine plus nab-paclitaxel and the folinic acid, fluorouracil, irinotecan, oxaliplatin (FOLFIRINOX) protocol, provide some improvement in efficacy and survival compared with gemcitabine alone, a breakthrough in the treatment of metastatic pancreatic cancer remains out of sight...
January 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810411/microbiome-driven-carcinogenesis-in-colorectal-cancer-models-and-mechanisms
#20
REVIEW
Xingmin Wang, Yonghong Yang, Mark M Huycke
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer death and archetype for cancer as a genetic disease. However, the mechanisms for genetic change and their interactions with environmental risk factors have been difficult to unravel. New hypotheses, models, and methods are being used to investigate a complex web of risk factors that includes the intestinal microbiome. Recent research has clarified how the microbiome can generate genomic change in CRC. Several phenotypes among a small group of selected commensals have helped us better understand how mutations and chromosomal instability (CIN) are induced in CRC (e...
October 31, 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
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