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Epigenetics immune response

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726153/immunological-issues-after-stem-cell-based-%C3%AE-cell-replacement
#1
REVIEW
Valeria Sordi, Silvia Pellegrini, Lorenzo Piemonti
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Islet and pancreas transplantation prove that β cell replacement can cure the glycemic derangements in type 1 diabetes (T1D). Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) can differentiate into functional insulin-producing cells, able to restore normoglycemia in diabetic animal models. iPSCs in particular can be derived from the somatic cells of a person with T1D. This review aims to clarify if it is possible to transplant autologous iPSC-derived β cells without immunosuppression or which are the alternative approaches...
September 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721820/epigenetic-regulations-in-the-pathogenesis-of-periodontitis
#2
Yu Luo, Xian Peng, Dingyu Duan, Chengcheng Liu, Xin Xu, Xuedong Zhou
Periodontitis is a multifactorial infectious disease that affects a large population worldwide. It involves progressive alveolar bone loss, and if left untreated, can lead to the loosening and subsequent loss of teeth. Oral microorganisms and susceptible host have been proposed to be the prerequisite for the development of periodontitis. Aberrant host immune response is the key factor that leads to the destruction of periodontal tissues. Recently, the involvement of epigenetic modifications in the development of periodontitis has attracted increasing attentions...
July 18, 2017: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720596/elongator-regulates-hypocotyl-growth-in-darkness-and-during-photomorphogenesis
#3
Magdalena Woloszynska, Olimpia Gagliardi, Filip Vandenbussche, Steven De Groeve, Luis Alonso Baez, Pia Neyt, Sabine Le Gall, Jorge Fung, Paloma Mas, Dominique Van Der Straeten, Mieke Van Lijsebettens
Elongator promotes RNA polymerase II-mediated transcript elongation through epigenetic activities such as histone acetylation. Elongator regulates growth, development, immune response, sensitivity to drought and abscisic acid. We demonstrate that elo mutants exhibit defective hypocotyl elongation but have a normal apical hook in darkness and are hyposensitive to light during photomorphogenesis. These elo phenotypes are supported by transcriptome changes, i.e. downregulation of circadian clock components, positive regulators of skoto- or photomorphogenesis, hormonal pathways and cell wall biogenesis-related factors...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717181/discovery-of-novel-human-gene-regulatory-modules-from-gene-co-expression-and-promoter-motif-analysis
#4
Shisong Ma, Michael Snyder, Savithramma P Dinesh-Kumar
Deciphering gene regulatory networks requires identification of gene expression modules. We describe a novel bottom-up approach to identify gene modules regulated by cis-regulatory motifs from a human gene co-expression network. Target genes of a cis-regulatory motif were identified from the network via the motif's enrichment or biased distribution towards transcription start sites in the promoters of co-expressed genes. A gene sub-network containing the target genes was extracted and used to derive gene modules...
July 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714978/%C3%AE-ketoglutarate-orchestrates-macrophage-activation-through-metabolic-and-epigenetic-reprogramming
#5
Pu-Ste Liu, Haiping Wang, Xiaoyun Li, Tung Chao, Tony Teav, Stefan Christen, Giusy Di Conza, Wan-Chen Cheng, Chih-Hung Chou, Magdalena Vavakova, Charlotte Muret, Koen Debackere, Massimiliano Mazzone, Hsien-Da Huang, Sarah-Maria Fendt, Julijana Ivanisevic, Ping-Chih Ho
Glutamine metabolism provides synergistic support for macrophage activation and elicitation of desirable immune responses; however, the underlying mechanisms regulated by glutamine metabolism to orchestrate macrophage activation remain unclear. Here we show that the production of α-ketoglutarate (αKG) via glutaminolysis is important for alternative (M2) activation of macrophages, including engagement of fatty acid oxidation (FAO) and Jmjd3-dependent epigenetic reprogramming of M2 genes. This M2-promoting mechanism is further modulated by a high αKG/succinate ratio, whereas a low ratio strengthens the proinflammatory phenotype in classically activated (M1) macrophages...
July 17, 2017: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714605/epigenetic-alterations-and-prenatal-maternal-depression
#6
REVIEW
Zsofia Nemoda, Moshe Szyf
Major depressive disorder of the mother affects 6 to 17% of pregnancies worldwide and can lead to negative outcomes, such as preterm delivery and later mental health problems of the child. It has been proposed that developmental programming has long-lasting effects in the offspring that might be mediated by epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation. Altered stress regulation or impaired immunological function of the mother can potentially affect DNA methylation processes of the fetus, changing gene expression levels in utero...
July 17, 2017: Birth defects research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713342/nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAbp50-and-hdac1-interaction-is-implicated-in-the-host-tolerance-to-infection-mediated-by-the-bacterial-quorum-sensing-signal-2-aminoacetophenone
#7
Arunava Bandyopadhaya, Amy Tsurumi, Laurence G Rahme
Some bacterial quorum sensing (QS) small molecules are important mediators of inter-kingdom signaling and impact host immunity. The QS regulated small volatile molecule 2-aminoacetophenone (2-AA), which has been proposed as a biomarker of Pseudomonas aeruginosa colonization in chronically infected human tissues, is critically involved in "host tolerance training" that involves a distinct molecular mechanism of host chromatin regulation through histone deacetylase (HDAC)1. 2-AA's epigenetic reprogramming action enables host tolerance to high bacterial burden and permits long-term presence of P...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706011/increased-ifn-%C3%AE-t-cells-are-responsible-for-the-clinical-responses-of-low-dose-dna-demethylating-agent-decitabine-anti-tumor-therapy
#8
Xiang Li, Yan Zhang, Meixia Chen, Qian Mei, Yang Liu, Kai-Chao Feng, Hejin Jia, Liang Dong, Lu Shi, Lin Liu, Jing Nie, Weidong Han
Low-dose DNA demethylating agent decitabine therapy is effective in a subgroup of cancer patients. It remains largely elusive for the biomarker to predict therapeutic response and the underlying anti-tumor mechanisms, especially the impact on host anti-tumor immunity.<br />Experimental Design: The influence of low-dose decitabine on T cells was detected both in vitro and in vivo Moreover, a test cohort and a validation cohort of advanced solid tumor patients with low-dose decitabine-based treatment were involved...
July 13, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704530/a-complex-association-between-dna-methylation-and-gene-expression-in-human-placenta-at-first-and-third-trimesters
#9
Yen Ching Lim, Jie Li, Yiyun Ni, Qi Liang, Junjiao Zhang, George S H Yeo, Jianxin Lyu, Shengnan Jin, Chunming Ding
The human placenta is a maternal-fetal organ essential for normal fetal development and maternal health. During pregnancy, the placenta undergoes many structural and functional changes in response to fetal needs and environmental exposures. Previous studies have demonstrated widespread epigenetic and gene expression changes from early to late pregnancy. However, on the global level, how DNA methylation changes impact on gene expression in human placenta is not yet well understood. We performed DNA methylome analysis by reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (RRBS) and gene expression analysis by RNA-Seq for both first and third trimester human placenta tissues...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702031/alloantigen-induced-regulatory-t-cells-generated-in-presence-of-vitamin-c-display-enhanced-stability-of-foxp3-expression-and-promote-skin-allograft-acceptance
#10
Eirini Nikolouli, Matthias Hardtke-Wolenski, Martin Hapke, Michael Beckstette, Robert Geffers, Stefan Floess, Elmar Jaeckel, Jochen Huehn
Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are critical for the maintenance of immune homeostasis and self-tolerance and can be therapeutically used for prevention of unwanted immune responses such as allotransplant rejection. Tregs are characterized by expression of the transcription factor Foxp3, and recent work suggests that epigenetic imprinting of Foxp3 and other Treg-specific epigenetic signatures genes is crucial for the stabilization of both Foxp3 expression and immunosuppressive properties within Tregs. Lately, vitamin C was reported to enhance the activity of enzymes of the ten-eleven translocation family, thereby fostering the demethylation of Foxp3 and other Treg-specific epigenetic signatures genes in developing Tregs...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698603/identification-of-differentially-methylated-brca1-and-crisp2-dna-regions-as-blood-surrogate-markers-for-cardiovascular-disease
#11
Geoffrey Istas, Ken Declerck, Maria Pudenz, Katarzyna Szarc Vel Szic, Veronica Lendinez-Tortajada, Montserrat Leon-Latre, Karen Heyninck, Guy Haegeman, Jose A Casasnovas, Maria Tellez-Plaza, Clarissa Gerhauser, Christian Heiss, Ana Rodriguez-Mateos, Wim Vanden Berghe
Genome-wide Illumina InfiniumMethylation 450 K DNA methylation analysis was performed on blood samples from clinical atherosclerosis patients (n = 8) and healthy donors (n = 8) in the LVAD study (NCT02174133, NCT01799005). Multiple differentially methylated regions (DMR) could be identified in atherosclerosis patients, related to epigenetic control of cell adhesion, chemotaxis, cytoskeletal reorganisations, cell proliferation, cell death, estrogen receptor pathways and phagocytic immune responses...
July 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695282/host-genetic-variation-and-hiv-disease-from-mapping-to-mechanism
#12
REVIEW
Vivek Naranbhai, Mary Carrington
This review aims to provide a summary of current knowledge of host genetic effects on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease. Mapping of simple single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) has been largely successful in HIV, but more complex genetic associations involving haplotypic or epigenetic variation, for example, remain elusive. Mechanistic insights explaining SNP associations are incomplete, but continue to be forthcoming. The number of robust immunogenetic correlates of HIV is modest and their discovery mostly predates the genome-wide era...
July 10, 2017: Immunogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694812/induction-of-innate-immune-memory-by-engineered-nanoparticles-a-hypothesis-that-may-become-true
#13
Paola Italiani, Diana Boraschi
Innate immune memory is the capacity of cells of the innate immune system, such as monocytes and macrophages, to react differently to an inflammatory or infectious challenge if previously exposed to the same or to another agent. Innate immune memory is a protective mechanism, based on epigenetic reprogramming, that ensures effective protection while limiting side effects of tissue damage, by controlling innate/inflammatory responses to repeated stimulations. Engineered nanoparticles (NPs) are novel challenges for our innate immune system, and their ability to induce inflammatory activation, thereby posing health risks, is currently being investigated with controversial results...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691928/mutations-in-5-methylcytosine-oxidase-tet2-and-rhoa-cooperatively-disrupt-t-cell-homeostasis
#14
Shengbing Zang, Jia Li, Haiyan Yang, Hongxiang Zeng, Wei Han, Jixiang Zhang, Minjung Lee, Margie Moczygemba, Sevinj Isgandarova, Yaling Yang, Yubin Zhou, Anjana Rao, M James You, Deqiang Sun, Yun Huang
Angioimmunoblastic T cell lymphoma (AITL) represents a distinct, aggressive form of peripheral T cell lymphoma with a dismal prognosis. Recent exome sequencing in patients with AITL has revealed the frequent coexistence of somatic mutations in the Rho GTPase RhoA (RhoAG17V) and loss-of-function mutations in the 5-methylcytosine oxidase TET2. Here, we have demonstrated that TET2 loss and RhoAG17V expression in mature murine T cells cooperatively cause abnormal CD4+ T cell proliferation and differentiation by perturbing FoxO1 gene expression, phosphorylation, and subcellular localization, an abnormality that is also detected in human primary AITL tumor samples...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683298/metabolic-regulation-of-t-cell-longevity-and-function-in-tumor-immunotherapy
#15
REVIEW
Rigel J Kishton, Madhusudhanan Sukumar, Nicholas P Restifo
Cancer immunotherapy is an increasingly successful strategy for the treatment of patients who have advanced or conventional therapy-resistant cancers. T cells are key mediators of tumor destruction and their specificity for tumor-expressed antigens is of paramount importance, but other T cell-intrinsic qualities, such as durability, longevity, and functionality also play important roles in determining the efficacy of immunotherapy. The cellular energetic pathways that are utilized by T cells play a key role in regulating each of these qualities...
July 5, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678605/the-early-pregnancy-placenta-foreshadows-dna-methylation-alterations-of-solid-tumors
#16
Akpéli V Nordor, Djamel Nehar-Belaid, Sophie Richon, David Klatzmann, Dominique Bellet, Virginie Dangles-Marie, Thierry Fournier, Martin J Aryee
The placenta relies on phenotypes that are characteristic of cancer to successfully implant the embryo in the uterus during early pregnancy. Notably, it has to invade its host tissues, promote angiogenesis-while surviving hypoxia-, and escape the immune system. Similarities in DNA methylation patterns between the placenta and cancers suggest that common epigenetic mechanisms may be involved in regulating these behaviors. We show here that megabase-scale patterns of hypomethylation distinguish first from third trimester chorionic villi in the placenta, and that these patterns mirror those that distinguish many tumors from corresponding normal tissues...
July 5, 2017: Epigenetics: Official Journal of the DNA Methylation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673822/discovery-of-novel-long-non-coding-rnas-induced-by-subgroup-j-avian-leukosis-virus-infection-in-chicken
#17
Lingling Qiu, Zhiteng Li, Guobin Chang, Yulin Bi, Xiangping Liu, Lu Xu, Yang Zhang, Wenming Zhao, Qi Xu, Guohong Chen
Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) is an avian oncogenic retrovirus that has led to severe economic losses in the poultry industry in China in recent decades. Here, using high throughput transcriptome sequencing of HD11 and CEF cells infected with ALV-J, a set of 4804 novel long non-coding transcripts and numerous differentially expressed long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) were identified. We also found that they share relatively shorter transcripts and fewer exon numbers compared to mRNA. Correlation analysis suggested that many lncRNAs may activate gene expression in an enhancer-like manner other than through transcriptional regulation...
June 30, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671573/histone-deacetylase-inhibitors-as-anticancer-drugs
#18
REVIEW
Tomas Eckschlager, Johana Plch, Marie Stiborova, Jan Hrabeta
Carcinogenesis cannot be explained only by genetic alterations, but also involves epigenetic processes. Modification of histones by acetylation plays a key role in epigenetic regulation of gene expression and is controlled by the balance between histone deacetylases (HDAC) and histone acetyltransferases (HAT). HDAC inhibitors induce cancer cell cycle arrest, differentiation and cell death, reduce angiogenesis and modulate immune response. Mechanisms of anticancer effects of HDAC inhibitors are not uniform; they may be different and depend on the cancer type, HDAC inhibitors, doses, etc...
July 1, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666525/untangling-genetic-risk-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#19
REVIEW
Anna A Pimenova, Towfique Raj, Alison M Goate
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a genetically heterogeneous neurodegenerative disorder caused by fully penetrant single gene mutations in a minority of cases, while the majority of cases are sporadic or show modest familial clustering. These cases are of late onset and likely result from the interaction of many genes and the environment. More than 30 loci have been implicated in AD by a combination of linkage, genome-wide association, and whole genome/exome sequencing. We have learned from these studies that perturbations in endolysosomal, lipid metabolism, and immune response pathways substantially contribute to sporadic AD pathogenesis...
May 22, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664328/timeline-of-intergenerational-child-maltreatment-the-mind-brain-body-interplay
#20
REVIEW
Marija Mitkovic Voncina, Milica Pejovic Milovancevic, Vanja Mandic Maravic, Dusica Lecic Tosevski
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Still obscure mechanisms of intergenerational child maltreatment (ITCM) have been investigated partially, from various psychological and biological perspectives and from various time perspectives. This review is aimed at integrating the findings on different temporal ITCM pathways, emphasizing the mind-brain-body interplay. RECENT FINDINGS: Psychological mediators of ITCM involve attachment, mentalization, dissociation, social information processing, personality traits, and psychiatric disorders...
August 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
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