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Epigenetics immune response

Magdalena Dryglewska, Bogdan Kolarz, Maria Majdan
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease that results in uncontrolled immune system activation and overproduction of autoantibodies. The pathogenesis of the disease is complex and not fully understood, nevertheless, genetic and environmental factors play an important role. So far, about 30 genes have been identified to be involved in the SLE pathomechanism. However, not all genetically predisposed individuals develop the disease. This phenomenon can be associated with epigenetic changes that occur under the influence of environmental factors...
2018: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Jebi Sudan, Meenakshi Raina, Ravinder Singh
Plants have evolved various defense mechanisms including morphological adaptations, cellular pathways, specific signalling molecules and inherent immunity to endure various abiotic stresses during different growth stages. Most of the defense mechanisms are controlled by stress-responsive genes by transcribing and translating specific genes. However, certain modifications of DNA and chromatin along with small RNA-based mechanisms have also been reported to regulate the expression of stress-responsive genes and constitute another line of defense for plants in their struggle against stresses...
March 2018: 3 Biotech
Andrew D Kelly, Jozef Madzo, Priyanka Madireddi, Patricia Kropf, Charly R Good, Jaroslav Jelinek, Jean-Pierre J Issa
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) often harbors mutations in epigenetic regulators, and also has frequent DNA hypermethylation, including the presence of CpG island methylator phenotypes (CIMPs). Although global hypomethylation is well known in cancer, the question of whether distinct demethylator phenotypes (DMPs) exist remains unanswered. Using Illumina 450k arrays for 194 patients from The Cancer Genome Atlas, we identified two distinct DMPs by hierarchical clustering: DMP.1 and DMP.2. DMP.1 cases harbored mutations in NPM1 (94%), FLT3 (71%) and DNMT3A (61%)...
March 7, 2018: Leukemia: Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
Liliya Tyutyunyk-Massey, Syed U Haqqani, Reshma Mandava, Kirubel Kentiba, Mallika Dammalapati, Nga Dao, Joshua Haueis, David Gewirtz, Joseph W Landry
Cancer chemotherapeutic drugs have greatly advanced our ability to successfully treat a variety of human malignancies. The different forms of stress produced by these agents in cancer cells result in both cell autonomous and cell nonautonomous effects. Desirable cell autonomous effects include reduced proliferative potential, cellular senescence, and cell death. More recently recognized cell nonautonomous effects, usually in the form of stimulating an antitumor immune response, have significant roles in therapeutic efficiency for a select number of chemotherapies...
2018: Advances in Cancer Research
David G Ashbrook, Benjamin Hing, Lindsay T Michalovicz, Kimberly A Kelly, Julie V Miller, Wilfred C de Vega, Diane B Miller, Gordon Broderick, James P O'Callaghan, Patrick O McGowan
BACKGROUND: Gulf War illness (GWI) is an archetypal, medically unexplained, chronic condition characterised by persistent sickness behaviour and neuroimmune and neuroinflammatory components. An estimated 25-32% of the over 900,000 veterans of the 1991 Gulf War fulfil the requirements of a GWI diagnosis. It has been hypothesised that the high physical and psychological stress of combat may have increased vulnerability to irreversible acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors leading to a priming of the neuroimmune system...
March 17, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Rebecca C Richmond, Gemma C Sharp, Georgia Herbert, Charlotte Atkinson, Caroline Taylor, Sohinee Bhattacharya, Doris Campbell, Marion Hall, Nabila Kazmi, Tom Gaunt, Wendy McArdle, Susan Ring, George Davey Smith, Andy Ness, Caroline L Relton
Background: It has been proposed that maternal folic-acid supplement use may alter the DNA-methylation patterns of the offspring during the in-utero period, which could influence development and later-life health outcomes. Evidence from human studies suggests a role for prenatal folate levels in influencing DNA methylation in early life, but this has not been extended to consider persistent effects into adulthood. Methods: To better elucidate the long-term impact of maternal folic acid in pregnancy on DNA methylation in offspring, we carried out an epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) nested within the Aberdeen Folic Acid Supplementation Trial (AFAST-a trial of two different doses: 0...
March 12, 2018: International Journal of Epidemiology
Jiang Li, Caili Li, Shanfa Lu
Cytosine DNA methylation is highly conserved epigenetic modification involved in a wide range of biological processes in eukaryotes. It was established and maintained by cytosine-5 DNA methyltransferases (C5-MTases) in plants. Through genome-wide identification, eight putative SmC5-MTase genes were identified from the genome of Salvia miltiorrhiza , a well-known traditional Chinese medicine material and an emerging model medicinal plant. Based on conserved domains and phylogenetic analysis, eight SmC5-MTase genes were divided into four subfamilies, including MET , CMT , DRM and DNMT2 ...
2018: PeerJ
Victoria Gröger, Holger Cynis
Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) are remnants of retroviral germ line infections of human ancestors and make up ~8% of the human genome. Under physiological conditions, these elements are frequently inactive or non-functional due to deactivating mutations and epigenetic control. However, they can be reactivated under certain pathological conditions and produce viral transcripts and proteins. Several disorders, like multiple sclerosis or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis are associated with increased HERV expression...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Peng Zhang, Qianjin Lu
Immunological tolerance loss is fundamental to the development of autoimmunity; however, the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Immune tolerance consists of central and peripheral tolerance. Central tolerance, which occurs in the thymus for T cells and bone marrow for B cells, is the primary way that the immune system discriminates self from non-self. Peripheral tolerance, which occurs in tissues and lymph nodes after lymphocyte maturation, controls self-reactive immune cells and prevents over-reactive immune responses to various environment factors...
March 5, 2018: Cellular & Molecular Immunology
David Bargiela, Stephen P Burr, Patrick F Chinnery
Alterations in mitochondrial metabolism influence cell differentiation and growth. This process is regulated by the activity of 2-oxoglutarate (2OG)-dependent dioxygenases (2OGDDs) - a diverse superfamily of oxygen-consuming enzymes - through modulation of the epigenetic landscape and transcriptional responses. Recent reports have described the role of mitochondrial metabolites in directing 2OGDD-driven cell-fate switches in stem cells (SCs), immune cells, and cancer cells. An understanding of the metabolic mechanisms underlying 2OGDD autoregulation is required for therapeutic targeting of this system...
February 28, 2018: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
Bruno K Rodiño-Janeiro, María Vicario, Carmen Alonso-Cotoner, Roberto Pascua-García, Javier Santos
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), one of the most frequent digestive disorders, is characterized by chronic and recurrent abdominal pain and altered bowel habit. The origin seems to be multifactorial and is still not well defined for the different subtypes. Genetic, epigenetic and sex-related modifications of the functioning of the nervous and immune-endocrine supersystems and regulation of brain-gut physiology and bile acid production and absorption are certainly involved. Acquired predisposition may act in conjunction with infectious, toxic, dietary and life event-related factors to enhance epithelial permeability and elicit mucosal microinflammation, immune activation and dysbiosis...
March 1, 2018: Advances in Therapy
Stephen Frenk, Jonathan Houseley
Ageing leads to dramatic changes in the physiology of many different tissues resulting in a spectrum of pathology. Nonetheless, many lines of evidence suggest that ageing is driven by highly conserved cell intrinsic processes, and a set of unifying hallmarks of ageing has been defined. Here, we survey reports of age-linked changes in basal gene expression across eukaryotes from yeast to human and identify six gene expression hallmarks of cellular ageing: downregulation of genes encoding mitochondrial proteins; downregulation of the protein synthesis machinery; dysregulation of immune system genes; reduced growth factor signalling; constitutive responses to stress and DNA damage; dysregulation of gene expression and mRNA processing...
February 28, 2018: Biogerontology
Amy J Osborne, Peter K Dearden
The Developmental Origins of Health and Disease hypothesis predicts that early-life environmental exposures can be detrimental to later-life health and that mismatch between the pre- and post-natal environment may contribute to the growing non-communicable disease epidemic. Within this is an increasingly recognized role for epigenetic mechanisms; for example, epigenetic modifications can be influenced by nutrition and can alter gene expression in mothers and offspring. Currently, there are few whole-genome transcriptional studies of response to nutritional alteration...
October 2017: Environmental Epigenetics
Norbert Bannert, Henning Hofmann, Adriana Block, Oliver Hohn
Initial indications that retroviruses are connected to neoplastic transformation were seen more than a century ago. This concept has also been tested for endogenized retroviruses (ERVs) that are abundantly expressed in many transformed cells. In healthy cells, ERV expression is commonly prevented by DNA methylation and other epigenetic control mechanisms. ERVs are remnants of former exogenous forms that invaded the germ line of the host and have since been vertically transmitted. Several examples of ERV-induced genomic recombination events and dysregulation of cellular genes that contribute to tumor formation have been well documented...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Belinda van Zyl, Denise Tang, Nikola A Bowden
Ovarian cancer has poor survival rate due to a combination of diagnosis at advanced disease stages and disease recurrence as a result of platinum chemotherapy resistance. High grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC), the most common ovarian cancer subtype, is conventionally treated with surgery and paclitaxel/carboplatin combination chemotherapy. Initial response rates are 60-80%, but eventually the majority of patients become platinum resistant with subsequent relapses. Extensive research on individual biomarkers of platinum-resistance has revealed many potential targets for the development new treatments...
February 27, 2018: Endocrine-related Cancer
Miriam G Jasiulionis
Epigenetics refers to the study of mechanisms controlling the chromatin structure, which has fundamental role in the regulation of gene expression and genome stability. Epigenetic marks, such as DNA methylation and histone modifications, are established during embryonic development and epigenetic profiles are stably inherited during mitosis, ensuring cell differentiation and fate. Under the effect of intrinsic and extrinsic factors, such as metabolic profile, hormones, nutrition, drugs, smoke, and stress, epigenetic marks are actively modulated...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Emily Kim, Stefan Zschiedrich
von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease is an autosomal dominant syndrome caused by mutations in the VHL tumor-suppressor gene, leading to the dysregulation of many hypoxia-induced genes. Affected individuals are at increased risk of developing recurrent and bilateral kidney cysts and dysplastic lesions which may progress to clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). Following the eponymous VHL gene inactivation, ccRCCs evolve through additional genetic alterations, resulting in both intratumor and intertumor heterogeneity...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Debora Lee Oh, Petra Jerman, Sara Silvério Marques, Kadiatou Koita, Sukhdip Kaur Purewal Boparai, Nadine Burke Harris, Monica Bucci
BACKGROUND: Early detection of and intervention in childhood adversity has powerful potential to improve the health and well-being of children. A systematic review was conducted to better understand the pediatric health outcomes associated with childhood adversity. METHODS: PubMed, PsycArticles, and CINAHL were searched for relevant articles. Longitudinal studies examining various adverse childhood experiences and biological health outcomes occurring prior to age 20 were selected...
February 23, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
Gianluca Colella, Flavio Fazioli, Michele Gallo, Annarosaria De Chiara, Gaetano Apice, Carlo Ruosi, Amelia Cimmino, Filomena de Nigris
Cancer treatment is rapidly evolving toward personalized medicine, which takes into account the individual molecular and genetic variability of tumors. Sophisticated new in vitro disease models, such as three-dimensional cell cultures, may provide a tool for genetic, epigenetic, biomedical, and pharmacological research, and help determine the most promising individual treatment. Sarcomas, malignant neoplasms originating from mesenchymal cells, may have a multitude of genomic aberrations that give rise to more than 70 different histopathological subtypes...
February 21, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Miguel H Bronchud, Francesc Tresserra, Bernat Serra Zantop
Microenvironmental properties are thought to be responsible for feto-maternal tolerance. Speculatively, ectopic expression of placental gene programs might also be related to cancer cells' ability to escape from immune vigilance mechanisms during carcinogenesis and cancer progression. Recently, we published the first human genomic evidence of similar immune related gene expression profiles in both placenta (placenta and decidual tissue) and cancer (both primary and metastatic) in the same patient with lymph-node positive breast carcinoma during pregnancy...
January 19, 2018: Oncotarget
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