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necrotising enterocolitis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222137/benefits-of-probiotics-in-preterm-neonates-in-low-income-and-medium-income-countries-a-systematic-review-of-randomised-controlled-trials
#1
Girish Deshpande, Gayatri Jape, Shripada Rao, Sanjay Patole
OBJECTIVE: Although there is an overall reduction in underfive mortality rate, the progress in reducing neonatal mortality rate has been very slow. Over the last 20 years, preterm births have steadily increased in low-income and medium-income countries (LMICs) particularly in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. Preterm birth is associated with increased mortality and morbidity, particularly in LMICs. Based on systematic reviews of randomised controlled trials (RCTs), many neonatal units in high-income countries have adopted probiotics as standard of care for preterm neonates...
December 7, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208662/antenatal-corticosteroids-in-impending-preterm-deliveries-before-25-weeks-gestation
#2
Mangesh Deshmukh, Sanjay Patole
Antenatal corticosteroid (ANC) use before 25 weeks' gestation is controversial. Our previous systematic review (eight observational studies, n=10 109) showed that ANC exposure was associated with significantly reduced mortality and severe intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH)/periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) in neonates born <25 weeks. We update our review by adding data (n=3334) from a recent study. We used Cochrane methodology and summarised the results using GRADE (The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation) guidelines...
December 5, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197867/topical-coconut-oil-in-very-preterm-infants-an-open-label-randomised-controlled-trial
#3
Tobias Strunk, Sameer Pupala, Julie Hibbert, Dorota Doherty, Sanjay Patole
BACKGROUND: The immature fragile skin of preterm infants represents an inadequate protective barrier. The emollient and anti-infective properties of coconut oil make it a potentially beneficial topical agent for this population. OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to evaluate feasibility, safety, and the effects of topical coconut oil on skin condition in very preterm infants. METHODS: An open-label randomised controlled trial in preterm infants <30 weeks' gestation was conducted...
December 1, 2017: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145693/early-erythropoiesis-stimulating-agents-in-preterm-or-low-birth-weight-infants
#4
REVIEW
Arne Ohlsson, Sanjay M Aher
BACKGROUND: Preterm infants have low plasma levels of erythropoietin (EPO), providing a rationale for the use of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) to prevent or treat anaemia and to provide neuro protection and protection against necrotising enterocolitis (NEC). Darbepoetin (Darbe) and EPO are currently available ESAs. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness and safety of ESAs (erythropoietin (EPO) and/or Darbe) initiated early (before eight days after birth) compared with placebo or no intervention in reducing red blood cell (RBC) transfusions, adverse neurological outcomes, and feeding intolerance including necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm and/or low birth weight infants...
November 16, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124056/microbial-therapeutics-designed-for-infant-health
#5
REVIEW
Claire Watkins, Catherine Stanton, C Anthony Ryan, R Paul Ross
Acknowledgment of the gut microbiome as a vital asset to health has led to multiple studies attempting to elucidate its mechanisms of action. During the first year of life, many factors can cause fluctuation in the developing gut microbiome. Host genetics, maternal health status, mode of delivery, gestational age, feeding regime, and perinatal antibiotic usage, are known factors which can influence the development of the infant gut microbiome. Thus, the microbiome of vaginally born, exclusively breastfed infants at term, with no previous exposure to antibiotics, either directly or indirectly from the mother, is to be considered the "gold standard...
2017: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096601/optimisation-of-16s-rrna-gut-microbiota-profiling-of-extremely-low-birth-weight-infants
#6
Cristina Alcon-Giner, Shabhonam Caim, Suparna Mitra, Jennifer Ketskemety, Udo Wegmann, John Wain, Gusztav Belteki, Paul Clarke, Lindsay J Hall
BACKGROUND: Infants born prematurely, particularly extremely low birth weight infants (ELBW) have altered gut microbial communities. Factors such as maternal health, gut immaturity, delivery mode, and antibiotic treatments are associated with microbiota disturbances, and are linked to an increased risk of certain diseases such as necrotising enterocolitis. Therefore, there is a requirement to optimally characterise microbial profiles in this at-risk cohort, via standardisation of methods, particularly for studying the influence of microbiota therapies (e...
November 2, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092912/one-year-outcomes-following-surgery-for-necrotising-enterocolitis-a-uk-wide-cohort-study
#7
Benjamin Saul Raywood Allin, Anna-May Long, Amit Gupta, Kokila Lakhoo, Marian Knight
OBJECTIVE: The objective was to describe outcomes and investigate factors affecting prognosis at 1 year post intervention for infants with surgical necrotising enterocolitis (NEC). DESIGN: Using the British Association of Paediatric Surgeons Congenital Anomalies Surveillance System, we conducted a prospective, multicentre cohort study of every infant reported to require surgical intervention for NEC in the UK and Ireland between 1 March 2013 and 28 February 2014...
November 1, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076668/efficacy-of-two-regimens-of-dexamethasone-for-management-of-preterm-labour-pilot-study
#8
Ahsan Rasool, Umer Farooq, Qurat-Ul-Ann Nazir, Hira Bahar Durani
BACKGROUND: Dexamethasone is widely used for prevention of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) and intra-ventricular haemorrhage (IVH) in preterm babies; decreasing the neonatal mortality rate. There is no consensus on the dose of corticosteroid administered to the mother expected to have a preterm baby. This study is conducted to compare the effectiveness of two popular regimens of dexamethasone administration in decreasing incidence of RDS, necrotizing enterocolitis, IVH and neonatal mortality rate...
July 2017: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064366/spot-protein-creatinine-ratio-and-spot-albumin-creatinine-ratio-in-the-assessment-of-pre-eclampsia-a-diagnostic-accuracy-study-with-decision-analytic-model-based-economic-evaluation-and-acceptability-analysis
#9
Jason Waugh, Richard Hooper, Edmund Lamb, Stephen Robson, Andrew Shennan, Fiona Milne, Christopher Price, Shakila Thangaratinam, Vladislav Berdunov, Jenn Bingham
BACKGROUND: The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidelines highlighted the need for 'large, high-quality prospective studies comparing the various methods of measuring proteinuria in women with new-onset hypertensive disorders during pregnancy'. OBJECTIVES: The primary objective was to evaluate quantitative assessments of spot protein-creatinine ratio (SPCR) and spot albumin-creatinine ratio (SACR) in predicting severe pre-eclampsia (PE) compared with 24-hour urine protein measurement...
October 2017: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063594/late-7-days-systemic-postnatal-corticosteroids-for-prevention-of-bronchopulmonary-dysplasia-in-preterm-infants
#10
REVIEW
Lex W Doyle, Jeanie L Cheong, Richard A Ehrenkranz, Henry L Halliday
BACKGROUND: Many preterm infants who survive go on to develop bronchopulmonary dysplasia, probably as the result of persistent inflammation in the lungs. Corticosteroids have powerful anti-inflammatory effects and have been used to treat individuals with established bronchopulmonary dysplasia. However, it is unclear whether any beneficial effects outweigh the adverse effects of these drugs. OBJECTIVES: To examine the relative benefits and adverse effects of late systemic postnatal corticosteroid treatment (> 7 days) for preterm infants with evolving or established bronchopulmonary dysplasia...
October 24, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035425/inhaled-versus-systemic-corticosteroids-for-the-treatment-of-bronchopulmonary-dysplasia-in-ventilated-very-low-birth-weight-preterm-infants
#11
REVIEW
Sachin S Shah, Arne Ohlsson, Henry L Halliday, Vibhuti S Shah
BACKGROUND: This is an update of a review published in 2012. A related review "Inhaled versus systemic corticosteroids for preventing bronchopulmonary dysplasia in ventilated very low birth weight preterm neonates" has been updated as well. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a serious and common problem among very low birth weight infants, despite the use of antenatal steroids and postnatal surfactant therapy to decrease the incidence and severity of respiratory distress syndrome. Due to their anti-inflammatory properties, corticosteroids have been widely used to treat or prevent BPD...
October 16, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022536/short-term-outcomes-of-inborn-v-outborn-very-low-birth-weight-neonates-1-500-g-in-the-neonatal-nursery-at-groote-schuur-hospital-cape-town-south-africa
#12
L Gibbs, L Tooke, M C Harrison
BACKGROUND: The Groote Schuur Hospital (GSH) neonatal nursery provides level 3 care for the Metro West Health District in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. Worldwide, very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) neonates delivered in level 3 neonatal units have better outcomes than those transported from other facilities. OBJECTIVES: To identify the characteristics and outcomes of VLBW neonates at GSH, with emphasis on differences between inborns and outborns. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study...
September 22, 2017: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988213/management-of-pneumatosis-intestinalis-in-children-over-the-age-of-6-months-a-conservative-approach
#13
Leel Nellihela, Mohamed Mutalib, David Thompson, Kammermeier Jochen, Manasvi Upadhyaya
BACKGROUND: Pneumatosis intestinalis (PI) is an uncommon and poorly understood condition. Although it can be an incidental finding in asymptomatic individuals, it can also be secondary to life-threatening bowel ischaemia and sepsis. In premature infants, it is a pathognomonic sign of necrotising enterocolitis. There is no consensus regarding management and long-term outcome of children with PI. AIM: Review of our experience of PI in children beyond the early infantile period...
October 7, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984754/late-presentation-of-necrotizing-enterocolitis-associated-with-rotavirus-infection-in-a-term-infant-with-hyperinsulinism-on-octreotide-therapy-a-case-report
#14
Abdulaziz A Alsaedi, Ayman A Bakkar, Naglaa M Kamal, Jwaher M Althobiti
RATIONALE: Congenital hyperinsulinism (CHI) is the most common cause of persistent hypoglycemia in infancy that can cause permanent brain damage. Consequently, optimal management is extremely important. Current pharmacologic and surgical treatment were available that included diazoxide and octreotides. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 4 month old Saudi male patient diagnosed at our hospital as CHI, treated with near total pancreatectomy and octreotide therapy of 30 mcg/kg/day presented with severe abdominal distension, vomiting and bloody diarrhea...
October 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970315/mode-of-delivery-and-outcomes-of-infants-with-gastroschisis-a-meta-analysis-of-observational-studies
#15
Dina W Kirollos, Mohamed E Abdel-Latif
BACKGROUND: There is controversy among the literature for electing caesarean section (CS) delivery for infants with gastroschisis in an attempt to reduce mortality and morbidity. OBJECTIVE: This meta-analysis investigates whether there is enough evidence to support CS delivery over vaginal delivery. DATA SOURCES: We conducted our search in April 2017. We searched Cochrane, Medline, Premedline, Embase, CINAHL, GoogleScholar and Web of Science...
September 28, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968486/protein-hydrolysate-versus-standard-formula-for-preterm-infants
#16
REVIEW
Derek Hang Cheong Ng, Joel Klassen, Nicholas D Embleton, William McGuire
BACKGROUND: When human milk is not available for feeding preterm infants, protein hydrolysate rather than standard cow's milk formulas (with intact proteins) are often used because they are perceived as being tolerated better and less likely to lead to complications. However, protein hydrolysate formulas are more expensive than standard formulas, and concern exists that their use in practice is not supported by high-quality evidence. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effect of feeding preterm infants with hydrolysed formula (versus standard cow's milk formulas) on the risk of feed intolerance, necrotising enterocolitis, and other morbidity and mortality in preterm infants...
October 2, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960442/arterial-catheterisation-in-neonates-can-result-in-severe-ischaemic-complications-but-does-not-impair-long-term-extremity-function
#17
Philipp Deindl, Thomas Waldhör, Lukas Unterasinger, Angelika Berger, Maike Keck
AIM: We evaluated the incidence of arterial catheterisation and analysed the risk factors and the extent and outcome of ischaemic complications in neonates. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of 1,506 neonates admitted to two, 10-bed neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) at the Medical University of Vienna, Austria, between 1 January 2011 and 31 December 2014. Medical charts, daily reports and photo documentation were reviewed for arterial catheterisation and ischaemic complications...
September 28, 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28955060/pentoxifylline-and-pentaglobin-adjuvant-therapies-for-neonatal-nosocomial-sepsis-in-neonates-less-than-1500g-weight
#18
Sahin Hamilcikan, Emrah Can, Ovgu Buke, Can Polat, Esra Ozcan
OBJECTIVE: To compare different support therapies in very low birth-weight preterm neonates with nosocomial sepsis. METHODS: This clinical pilot study was conducted at the Bagcilar Research and Training Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey, from September 2015 to November 2016. Preterm infants appropriately sized for a gestational age of < 32 weeks and < 1,500g were included in the study. Pentaglobin was initiated on the day of diagnosis of nosocomial sepsis to very low birth-weight preterm neonates as a support therapy in addition to antibiotics: 5 ml/kg per day of pentaglobin was infused over a four-hour period on three consecutive days...
October 2017: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921627/preterm-infants-with-necrotising-enterocolitis-demonstrate-individual-and-unbalanced-gut-microbiota
#19
Tarek Itani, Carole Ayoub Moubareck, Imad Melki, Clotilde Rousseau, Irène Mangin, Marie-José Butel, Dolla Karam-Sarkis
AIM: This Lebanese study tested the hypothesis that differences would exist in the gut microbiota of preterm infants with and without necrotising enterocolitis (NEC), as reported in Western countries. METHODS: This study compared 11 infants with NEC and 11 controls, all born at 27-35 weeks, in three neonatal intensive care units between January 2013 and March 2015. Faecal samples were collected at key time points, and microbiota was analysed by culture, quantitative PCR (qPCR) and temperature temporal gel electrophoresis (TTGE)...
September 16, 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921175/routine-gastric-residual-volume-measurement-and-energy-target-achievement-in-the-picu-a-comparison-study
#20
Lyvonne N Tume, Anna Bickerdike, Lynne Latten, Simon Davies, Madeleine H Lefèvre, Gaëlle W Nicolas, Frédéric V Valla
Critically ill children frequently fail to achieve adequate energy intake, and some care practices, such as the measurement of gastric residual volume (GRV), may contribute to this problem. We compared outcomes in two similar European Paediatric Intensive Care Units (PICUs): one which routinely measures GRV (PICU-GRV) to one unit that does not (PICU-noGRV). An observational pilot comparison study was undertaken. Eighty-seven children were included in the study, 42 (PICU-GRV) and 45 (PICU-noGRV). There were no significant differences in the percentage of energy targets achieved in the first 4 days of PICU admission although PICU-noGRV showed more consistent delivery of median (and IQR) energy targets and less under and over feeding for PICU-GRV and PICU-noGRV: day 1 37 (14-72) vs 44 (0-100), day 2 97 (53-126) vs 100 (100-100), day 3 84 (45-112) vs 100 (100-100) and day 4 101 (63-124) vs 100 (100-100)...
December 2017: European Journal of Pediatrics
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