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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538339/seven-tesla-mri-of-hippocampal-sclerosis-an-in-vivo-feasibility-study-with-histological-correlations
#1
Harald Stefanits, Elisabeth Springer, Ekaterina Pataraia, Christoph Baumgartner, Johannes A Hainfellner, Daniela Prayer, Christian Weisstanner, Thomas Czech, Siegfried Trattnig
INTRODUCTION: Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most frequent form of focal epilepsy in adults. Because approximately half of these patients develop drug resistance, epilepsy surgery designed to remove the epileptogenic zone is an excellent option in selected patients. Histopathological analyses of hippocampal specimens in TLE patients revealed 4 types of Ammon's horn sclerosis, which are correlated with long-term epileptological outcome. The aim of this study was the correlation of noninvasive, high-resolution, morphological magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at an ultra-high-field (7 T) of the hippocampus in TLE patients with histopathological findings...
May 23, 2017: Investigative Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529112/myeloid-differentiation-factor-88-is-up-regulated-in-epileptic-brain-and-contributes-to-experimental-seizures-in-rats
#2
Na Wang, Xiong Han, Haipeng Liu, Ting Zhao, Jie Li, Yan Feng, Xiujuan Mi, Yanke Zhang, Yanan Chen, Xuefeng Wang
Accumulating evidence supports that activation of inflammatory pathways is a crucial factor contributing to the pathogenesis of seizures. In particular, the activation of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) system exerts proconvulsant effects in a large variety of seizure models. Myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) is a critical adaptor protein in the signaling cascade elicited by IL-1β. The present study aimed to investigate the expression pattern of MyD88 in rat models of seizures and in patients with refractory temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), and to study the role of MyD88 in epileptic seizures...
May 18, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528573/a-sensitive-semi-quantitative-mammalian-two-hybrid-assay
#3
Elisabeth Riegel, Thomas Heimbucher, Thomas Höfer, Thomas Czerny
Protein-protein interactions critically determine the function of a protein within the cell. Several methods have been developed for the analysis of protein interactions, including two-hybrid assays in yeast and mammals. Mammalian two-hybrid systems provide the ideal physiological environment to study the interactions of mammalian proteins; however, these approaches are limited in sensitivity and their ability to quantify interaction strength. Here, we present an inducible mammalian two-hybrid (iM2H) system using the small-molecule dimerizer rapalog for recruitment of multiple transactivation domains into the M2H system...
May 1, 2017: BioTechniques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528003/acinetobacter-baumannii-k11-and-k83-capsular-polysaccharides-have-the-same-6-deoxy-l-talose-containing-pentasaccharide-k-units-but-different-linkages-between-the-k-units
#4
Johanna J Kenyon, Alexander S Shashkov, Sof'ya N Senchenkova, Mikhail M Shneider, Bin Liu, Anastasiya V Popova, Nikolay P Arbatsky, Konstantin A Miroshnikov, Lei Wang, Yuriy A Knirel, Ruth M Hall
Acinetobacter baumannii produces a variety of capsular polysaccharides (CPS) via genes located at the chromosomal K locus and some KL gene clusters include genes for the synthesis of specific sugars. The structures of K11 and K83 CPS produced by isolates LUH5545 and LUH5538, which carry related KL11a and KL83 gene clusters, respectively, were established by sugar analysis and one- and two-dimensional (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy. Both CPS contain L-rhamnose (L-Rha) and 6-deoxy-L-talose (L-6dTal), and both KL gene clusters include genes for dTDP-L-Rhap synthesis and a tle (talose epimerase) gene encoding an epimerase that converts dTDP-L-Rhap to dTDP-L-6dTalp...
May 17, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527108/increased-expression-of-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-transcripts-i-and-vi-camp-response-element-binding-and-glucocorticoid-receptor-in-the-cortex-of-patients-with-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#5
G A Martínez-Levy, L Rocha, F Rodríguez-Pineda, M A Alonso-Vanegas, A Nani, R M Buentello-García, M Briones-Velasco, D San-Juan, J Cienfuegos, C S Cruz-Fuentes
A body of evidence supports a relevant role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Magnetic resonance data reveal that the cerebral atrophy extends to regions that are functionally and anatomically connected with the hippocampus, especially the temporal cortex. We previously reported an increased expression of BDNF messenger for the exon VI in the hippocampus of temporal lobe epilepsy patients compared to an autopsy control group. Altered levels of this particular transcript were also associated with pre-surgical use of certain psychotropic...
May 19, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521596/overcoming-the-current-issues-surrounding-device-leads-reducing-the-complications-during-extraction
#6
Maria Grazia Bongiorni, Luca Segreti, Andrea Di Cori, Giulio Zucchelli, Luca Paperini, Stefano Viani, Ezio Soldati
The implantation rate of of Cardiac implantable Elecrtonical Devices has consistently increased in the last 20 years, so as related complication rates. According, devices infections and malfunctions required the development of appropriate strategies. The most relevant issue is the removal of pacing and ICD leads, which, few months after implantation, tend to develop intravascular fibrosis, often making extraction a challenging and risky procedure. Areas Covered: TLE scenario is constantly evolving. Transvenous lead extraction (TLE) is a key procedure in lead management strategies...
May 18, 2017: Expert Review of Medical Devices
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521116/efficacy-of-anticonvulsant-substances-in-the-6hz-seizure-test-comparison-of-two-rodent-species
#7
Elise Esneault, Guillaume Peyon, Vincent Castagné
Usually performed in the mouse, the 6Hz seizure test is used for screening potential new anticonvulsant substances against complex partial seizures. Nevertheless, advanced models of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) are more often performed in rats, so that possible species-related differences may complicate the development of anticonvulsant substances. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the feasibility of adapting the 6Hz test in the rat. We first compared the effects of increasing current intensities for inducing seizures in the mouse and in the rat...
May 10, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515708/disrupted-structural-and-functional-networks-and-their-correlation-with-alertness-in-right-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-a-graph-theory-study
#8
Wenyu Jiang, Jianping Li, Xuemei Chen, Wei Ye, Jinou Zheng
Previous studies have shown that temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) involves abnormal structural or functional connectivity in specific brain areas. However, limited comprehensive studies have been conducted on TLE associated changes in the topological organization of structural and functional networks. Additionally, epilepsy is associated with impairment in alertness, a fundamental component of attention. In this study, structural networks were constructed using diffusion tensor imaging tractography, and functional networks were obtained from resting-state functional MRI temporal series correlations in 20 right temporal lobe epilepsy (rTLE) patients and 19 healthy controls...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515267/presurgical-thalamic-hubness-predicts-surgical-outcome-in-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#9
Xiaosong He, Gaelle E Doucet, Dorian Pustina, Michael R Sperling, Ashwini D Sharan, Joseph I Tracy
OBJECTIVE: To characterize the presurgical brain functional architecture presented in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) using graph theoretical measures of resting-state fMRI data and to test its association with surgical outcome. METHODS: Fifty-six unilateral patients with TLE, who subsequently underwent anterior temporal lobectomy and were classified as obtaining a seizure-free (Engel class I, n = 35) vs not seizure-free (Engel classes II-IV, n = 21) outcome at 1 year after surgery, and 28 matched healthy controls were enrolled...
May 17, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510375/the-effect-of-irradiation-distance-on-light-transmittance-and-vickers-hardness-ratio-of-two-bulk-fill-resin-based-composites
#10
Zahra Almuallem, Sinead McDonnell, Antoniella Busuttil-Naudi, Ario Santini
The aims of this study were to assess the light energy transmission and Vickers hardness (VH) ratio of two bulk-fill resin-based composites (RBCs) (Tetric EvoCeram and Filtek) cured at different distances between the light curing unit's (LCU) tip and the surface of the restoration (T-S) using either a Bluephase G2, Bluephase® 'turbo tip' or Bluephase Style LCU. Samples were cured from the top at T-S distances of 2mm, 6mm and 10mm for 20 seconds. A MARC-Resin-Calibrator™ recorded the transmitted irradiance reaching the bottom of the sample, in real time...
December 2016: European Journal of Prosthodontics and Restorative Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506440/the-wistar-audiogenic-rat-war-strain-and-its-contributions-to-epileptology-and-related-comorbidities-history-and-perspectives
#11
Norberto Garcia-Cairasco, Eduardo H L Umeoka, José A Cortes de Oliveira
In the context of modeling epilepsy and neuropsychiatric comorbidities, we review the Wistar Audiogenic Rat (WAR), first introduced to the neuroscience international community more than 25years ago. The WAR strain is a genetically selected reflex model susceptible to audiogenic seizures (AS), acutely mimicking brainstem-dependent tonic-clonic seizures and chronically (by audiogenic kindling), temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Seminal neuroethological, electrophysiological, cellular, and molecular protocols support the WAR strain as a suitable and reliable animal model to study the complexity and emergent functions typical of epileptogenic networks...
May 11, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500925/revisiting-racial-disparities-in-access-to-surgical-management-of-drug-resistant-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-post-implementation-of-affordable-care-act
#12
Kanika Sharma, Piyush Kalakoti, Miriam Henry, Vikas Mishra, Rosario Maria Riel-Romero, Christina Notarianni, Anil Nanda, Hai Sun
OBJECTIVES: Prior to enactment of the Affordable Care Act(ACA), several reports demonstrated remarkable racial disparities in access to surgical care for epileptic patients. Implementation of ACA provided healthcare access to 7-16 million uninsured Americans. The current study investigates racial disparity post ACA era in (1) access to surgical management of drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy (DRTLE); (2) short-term outcomes in the surgical cohort. PATIENT AND METHODS: Adult patients with DRTLE registered in the National Inpatient Sample (2012-2013) were identified...
May 2, 2017: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495374/metyrapone-prevents-brain-damage-induced-by-status-epilepticus-in-the-rat-lithium-pilocarpine-model
#13
Luis García-García, Ahmed A Shiha, Rubén Fernández de la Rosa, Mercedes Delgado, Ágata Silván, Pablo Bascuñana, Jens P Bankstahl, Francisca Gomez, Miguel A Pozo
The status epilepticus (SE) induced by lithium-pilocarpine is a well characterized rodent model of the human temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) which is accompanied by severe brain damage. Stress and glucocorticoids markedly contribute to exacerbate neuronal damage induced by seizures but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Herein we sought to investigate whether a single administration of metyrapone (150 mg/kg, i.p.), an 11β-hydroxylase inhibitor, enzyme involved in the peripheral and central synthesis of corticosteroids, had neuroprotective properties in this model...
May 8, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491003/theta-rhythmopathy-as-a-cause-of-cognitive-disability-in-tle
#14
Tristan Shuman, Benjamin Amendolara, Peyman Golshani
Memory difficulties are commonly associated with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and cause significant disability. This article reviews the role of altered hippocampal theta oscillations and theta-gamma coupling as potential causes of memory disturbance in temporal lobe epilepsy, dissecting the potential mechanisms underlying these changes in large-scale neuronal synchronization. We discuss development of treatments for cognitive dysfunction directed at restoring theta rhythmicity and future directions for research...
March 2017: Epilepsy Currents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481152/aspirin-attenuates-spontaneous-recurrent-seizures-in-the-chronically-epileptic-mice
#15
Kun Zhu, Ming Hu, Bo Yuan, Jian-Xin Liu, Yong Liu
OBJECTIVE: Neuroinflammatory processes are pathologic hallmarks of both experimental and human epilepsy, and could be implicated in the neuronal hyperexcitability. Aspirin represents one of the non-selective nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs with fewer side effects in long-term application. This study was carried out to assess the anti-epileptic effects of aspirin when administered during the chronic stage of temporal lobe epilepsy [TLE] in mice. The alteration of hippocampal neurogenesis was also examined for raising a possible mechanism underlying the protective effect of anti-inflammatory treatment in the TLE...
May 7, 2017: Neurological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480502/enriched-environment-attenuates-behavioral-seizures%C3%A2-and-depression-in-chronic%C3%A2-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#16
Marigowda Vrinda, Arun Sasidharan, Sahajan Aparna, Bettadapura N Srikumar, Bindu M Kutty, Byrathnahalli S Shankaranarayana Rao
OBJECTIVE: Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is commonly associated with depression, anxiety, and cognitive impairment. Despite significant progress in our understanding of the pathophysiology of TLE, it remains the most common form of refractory epilepsy. Enriched environment (EE) has a beneficial effect in many neuropsychiatric disorders. However, the effect of EE on cognitive changes in chronic TLE has not been evaluated. Accordingly, the present study evaluated the effects of EE on chronic epilepsy-induced alterations in cognitive functions, electrophysiology, and cellular changes in the hippocampus...
May 8, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479741/effect-of-naringenin-a-naturally-occurring-flavanone-against-pilocarpine-induced-status-epilepticus-and-oxidative-stress-in-mice
#17
Sheeba Shakeel, Muneeb U Rehman, Nahida Tabassum, Umar Amin, Manzoor Ur Rahman Mir
BACKGROUND: Epilepsy is a disorder of the central nervous system characterized by recurrent seizures. It is a very common disease in which approximately 30% of patients do not respond favourably to treatment with anticonvulsants. Oxidative stress is associated with neuronal damage arising from epileptic seizures. The present study investigated the effects of naringenin in pilocarpine-induced epilepsy in mice. Naringenin, one of the most frequently occurring flavanone in citrus fruits, was evaluated for its shielding effect against the pilocarpine induced behavioural, oxidative and histopathological alterations in rodent model of epilepsy...
January 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472735/p38-mapk-pathway-mediates-cognitive-damage-in-pentylenetetrazole-induced-epilepsy-via-apoptosis-cascade
#18
Qi Huang, Xixia Liu, Yuan Wu, Yuhan Liao, Yiqing Huang, Xing Wei, Meigang Ma
OBJECTIVE: Our group has previously reported the role of P38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway in the memory impairment of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-kindled rats. However, any contribution of p38 MAPK pathways to the cognitive dysfunction of PTZ-kindled rats remains unclear. The objective of this study is to verify the relationship between p38 MAPK pathway and cognitive function of epileptic rats, and discuss probable mechanisms. METHODS: Thirty male SD rats were divided into three groups, namely, PTZ, inhibitor, and sham groups...
April 20, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469582/exploring-the-intersections-of-trauma-structural-adversity-and-psychosis-among-a-primarily-african-american-sample-a-mixed-methods-analysis
#19
Cherise Rosen, Nev Jones, Eleanor Longden, Kayla A Chase, Mona Shattell, Jennifer K Melbourne, Sarah K Keedy, Rajiv P Sharma
Traumatic life events (TLEs) have been associated with multiple psychiatric diagnoses, including anxiety disorders, major depression, PTSD, and psychosis. To advance our understanding of the complex interactions between forms of adversity as they manifest across the lifespan, psychosis, and symptom content, we undertook a mixed-methods investigation of TLEs and psychosis. Our research explored the association between cumulative exposures, type of TLE, and proximity to the traumatic event and psychosis; the association between TLEs and clinical symptomology including specific types of delusions and/or hallucinations; and how qualitative data further inform understanding of complex relationships and patterns of past trauma and symptoms as they unfold over time...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460319/altered-mt1-and-mt2-melatonin-receptors-expression-in-the-hippocampus-of-pilocarpine-induced-epileptic-rats
#20
Anna Karynna Alves de Alencar Rocha, Eliangela de Lima, Fernanda Amaral, Rafael Peres, José Cipolla-Neto, Débora Amado
Clinical and experimental findings show that melatonin may be used as an adjuvant to the treatment of epilepsy-related complications by alleviates sleep disturbances, circadian alterations and attenuates seizures alone or in combination with AEDs. In addition, it has been observed that there is a circadian component on seizures, which cause changes in circadian system and in melatonin production. Nevertheless, the dynamic changes of the melatoninergic system, especially with regard to its membrane receptors (MT1 and MT2) in the natural course of TLE remain largely unknown...
April 28, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
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