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in-vivo dosimetry

Ji Woong Lee, Yong Jin Lee, Un Chol Shin, Suhng Wook Kim, Byung Il Kim, Kyo Chul Lee, Jung Young Kim, Ji-Ae Park
Improving the in vivo pharmacokinetics (PK) of positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracers is of critical importance to tumor diagnosis and therapy. In the case of peptide-based radiotracers, the modification and addition of a linker or spacer functional group often offer faster in vivo pharmacokinetic behavior. In this study, the authors introduced two new PEGlyated dimeric c(RGD-ACH-K) conjugates, in which an aminocyclohexane carboxylic acid (ACH) is inserted into the ring chain of the cyclic RGD peptides, with a common bifunctional chelator (DOTA or NOTA) used for labeling with radiometals (including (68)Ga and (64)Cu)...
October 2016: Cancer Biotherapy & Radiopharmaceuticals
Ken G Andersson, Maryam Oroujeni, Javad Garousi, Bogdan Mitran, Stefan Ståhl, Anna Orlova, John Löfblom, Vladimir Tolmachev
The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is overexpressed in a number of malignant tumors and is a molecular target for several specific anticancer antibodies and tyrosine kinase inhibitors. The overexpression of EGFR is a predictive biomarker for response to several therapy regimens. Radionuclide molecular imaging might enable detection of EGFR overexpression by a non-invasive procedure and could be used repeatedly. Affibody molecules are engineered scaffold proteins, which could be selected to have a high affinity and selectivity to predetermined targets...
October 5, 2016: International Journal of Oncology
A C Riegel, Y Chen, A Kapur, L Apicello, A Kuruvilla, A Rea, A Jamshidi, L Potters
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
A Petoukhova, I Rüssel, K van Wingerden, P Koper, A Marinelli, J van der Sijp, H Struikmans
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Pradeep K Garg, Stephen J Lokitz, Rachid Nazih, Sudha Garg
: The main focus of this study was to assess the in vivo distribution and radiation absorbed dose of (11)C-nicotine derived from the whole body Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging in humans. METHODS: After an initial Computed tomography (CT) attenuation scan, (11)C-nicotine was administered via an intravenous injection, and dynamic whole body PET scans were acquired in a 3-D mode on 11 normal healthy (5 male, 6 female) subjects. The first scan was acquired in a dynamic acquisition mode for 90 s with the brain in the field of view, followed by a series of whole body PET scans acquired over a 90 min time period...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
Lynn E Secondo, Nathan J Liu, Nastassja A Lewinski
Little consistency exists in the methodology for toxicological testing of aerosolized nanoparticles used in in vitro, air-interfaced culture (AIC) exposure systems for engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) risk-assessment, preventing inter-laboratory comparisons to identify dose thresholds for adverse effects. These inconsistencies result from heterogeneity in particle types, exposure durations, exposure systems, and dose metrics reported. We screened 10,241 studies in the literature for toxicological assessment of ENPs, resulting in 110 publications included after meeting eligibility criteria...
September 20, 2016: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
Grainne Manning, Ellina Macaeva, Matthaeus Majewski, Ralf Kriehuber, Kamil Brzóska, Michael Abend, Sven Doucha-Senf, Dominik Oskamp, Sonja Strunz, Roel Quintens, Matthias Port, Christophe Badie
PURPOSE: This collaboration of five established European gene expression labs investigated the potential impact of culture conditions on the transcriptional response of peripheral blood to radiation exposure. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Blood from one healthy donor was exposed ex vivo to a Cobalt 60 source to produce a calibration curve in addition to four unknown doses. After exposure, the blood samples were either diluted with RPMI medium or left untouched. After 24-h incubation at 37 °C the diluted blood samples were lysed, while the undiluted samples were mixed with the preservative RNALater and all samples were shipped frozen to the participating labs...
September 14, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Biology
Simone U Dalm, Ingrid L Bakker, Erik de Blois, Gabriela N Doeswijk, Mark W Konijnenberg, Francesca Orlandi, Donato Barbato, Mattia Tedesco, Theodosia Maina, Berthold A Nock, Marion de Jong
INTRODUCTION: Since overexpression of the gastrin releasing peptide receptor (GRPR) has been reported on various cancer types, e.g. prostate cancer and breast cancer, targeting this receptor with radioligands might have significant impact on staging and treatment of GRPR-expressing tumors. NeoBOMB1 is a novel DOTA-coupled GRPR antagonist with high affinity for GRPR and excellent in vivo stability. The purpose of this preclinical study was to further explore the use of NeoBOMB1 for theranostic application by determining the biodistribution of (68)Ga-NeoBOMB1 and (177)Lu-NeoBOMB1...
September 8, 2016: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
Dorthe Skovgaard, Morten Persson, Malene Brandt-Larsen, Camilla Christensen, Jacob Madsen, Thomas Levin Klausen, Soeren Holm, Flemming Littrup Andersen, Annika Loft, Anne Kiil Berthelsen, Helle Pappot, Klaus Brasso, Niels Kroman, Liselotte Hoejgaard, Andreas Kjaer
INTRODUCTION: Overexpression of urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptors (uPAR) represents an established biomarker for aggressiveness in most common malignant diseases, including breast (BC), prostate (PC) and urinary bladder cancer (UBC) and is therefore an important target for new cancer therapeutic and diagnostic strategies. In the study, uPAR Positron Emission Tomography (PET) imaging using a (68)Ga-labelled version of the uPAR targeting peptide (AE105) was investigated in a group of patients with BC, PC and UBC...
September 8, 2016: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
Liang-Ting Lin, Chun-Yuan Chang, Chih-Hsien Chang, Hsin-Ell Wang, Shih-Hwa Chiou, Ren-Shyan Liu, Te-Wei Lee, Yi-Jang Lee
Human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is usually treated by surgical resection with adjuvant radio-chemotherapy. In this study, we examined whether the radiopharmaceutical 188Re-liposome could suppress the growth of HNSCC followed by an investigation of molecular mechanisms. The orthotopic HNSCC tumor model was established by human hypopharyngeal FaDu carcinoma cells harboring multiple reporter genes. The drug targeting and therapeutic efficacy of 188Re-liposome were examined using in vivo imaging, bio-distribution, pharmacokinetics, and dosimetry...
August 29, 2016: Oncotarget
Coralie Le Deroff, Anne-Marie Frelin-Labalme, Xavier Ledoux
OBJECTIVES: Small animal image guided irradiators have recently been developed to mimic the delivery techniques of clinical radiotherapy. A dosimeter adapted to millimetric beams of medium energy X-rays is then required. This work presents the characterization of a dosimeter prototype for this particular application. METHODS: A scintillating optical fiber dosimeter (called DosiRat) has been implemented to perform real-time dose measurements with the dedicated small animal X-Rad 225Cx irradiator...
August 24, 2016: British Journal of Radiology
Kyo Kobayashi, Ruhong Dong, Roberto Javier Nicolalde, Benjamin B Williams, Gaixin Du, Harold M Swartz, Ann Barry Flood
Testing and verification are an integral part of any cycle to design, manufacture and improve a novel device intended for use in humans. In the case of testing Dartmouth's electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) in vivo tooth dosimetry device, in vitro studies are needed throughout its development to test its performance, i.e. to verify its current capability for assessing dose in individuals potentially exposed to ionizing radiation. Since the EPR device uses the enamel of human teeth to assess dose, models that include human teeth have been an integral mechanism to carry out in vitro studies during development and testing its ability to meet performance standards for its ultimate intended in vivo use...
August 22, 2016: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Haixia Qiu, Michele M Kim, Rozhin Penjweini, Timothy C Zhu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 1, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Optics
Xiaoyun Zhou, Philip H Elsinga, Shivashankar Khanapur, Rudi A J O Dierckx, Erik F J de Vries, Johan R de Jong
PURPOSE: [(11)C]Preladenant was developed as a novel adenosine A2A receptor PET radioligand. The aim of this study was to determine the radiation dosimetry of [(11)C]preladenant and to investigate whether dosimetry estimation based on organ harvesting can be replaced by positron emission tomography (PET)/x-ray computed tomography (CT) imaging in rats. PROCEDURES: Male Wistar rats (n = 35) were i.v. injected with [(11)C]preladenant. The tracer biodistribution was determined by organ harvesting at 1, 5, 15, 30, 60, and 90 min post injection...
August 18, 2016: Molecular Imaging and Biology: MIB: the Official Publication of the Academy of Molecular Imaging
Minoru Miyake, Yasuhiro Nakai, Ichiro Yamaguchi, Hiroshi Hirata, Naoki Kunugita, Benjamin B Williams, Harold M Swartz
The aim of this study was to make direct measurements of the possible radiation-induced EPR signals in the teeth of volunteers who were residents in Fukushima within 80 km distance from the Fukushima Nuclear Power plant at the time of the disaster, and continued to live there for at least 3 month after the disaster. Thirty four volunteers were enrolled in this study. These measurements were made using a portable L-band EPR spectrometer, which was originally developed in the EPR Center at Dartmouth. All measurements were performed using surface loop resonators that have been specifically designed for the upper incisor teeth...
August 13, 2016: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Rogier Lange, Rob Ter Heine, Russ Ff Knapp, John M H de Klerk, Haiko J Bloemendal, N Harry Hendrikse
Therapeutic phosphonate-based radiopharmaceuticals radiolabeled with beta, alpha and conversion electron emitting radioisotopes have been investigated for the targeted treatment of painful bone metastases for >35years. We performed a systematic literature search and focused on the pharmaceutical development, preclinical research and early human studies of these radiopharmaceuticals. The characteristics of an ideal bone-targeting therapeutic radiopharmaceutical are presented and compliance with these criteria by the compounds discussed is verified...
October 2016: Bone
Christopher G England, Emily B Ehlerding, Reinier Hernandez, Brian T Rekoske, Stephen A Graves, Haiyan Sun, Glenn Liu, Douglas G McNeel, Todd E Barnhart, Weibo Cai
: Pembrolizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody targeting programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) found on T and pro-B cells. Pembrolizumab prevents PD-1 ligation by both PD-L1 and PD-L2, preventing the immune dysregulation that otherwise occurs when T-cells encounter cells expressing these ligands. Clinically, PD-1 blockade elicits potent anti-tumor immune responses and antibodies blocking PD-1 ligation, including pembrolizumab, have recently received federal drug administration approval for the treatment of advanced melanoma, renal cell cancer, and non-small cell lung cancer...
August 4, 2016: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
Junwang Guo, Jierui Zou, Guofu Dong, Lei Ma, Jianbo Cong, Kai Fan, Guoshan Yang, Ke Wu
In vivo electron paramagnetic resonance tooth dosimetry could be a practical and ideal tool for quick mass triage of victims in the rescue following a disaster event involving irradiation radiation. Magnetic field modulation is an important issue to improve the sensitivity of X-band in vivo tooth dosimetry. We designed a couple of trapezoidal modulation coil sets fixed on the magnet poles that could be used to apply sufficient magnet field modulation into the detection aperture of the resonant cavity. Measurements of irradiated teeth with such coil sets demonstrated significant radiation-induced signals...
July 29, 2016: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Céline M Desmet, Philippe Levêque, Bernard Gallez
In vivo electron paramagnetic resonance biodosimetry on tooth enamel is likely to be an important technology for triage of overexposed individuals after a major radiological incident. The accuracy and robustness of the technique relies on various properties of the enamel such as the geometry of the tooth, the presence of restorations, whitening treatments or exposition to sunlight. Those factors are reviewed, and their influence on dosimetry specifically for triage purposes is discussed.
July 29, 2016: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
M Ramírez, N Martínez, J Marcazzó, P Molina, D Feld, M Santiago
Fiberoptic dosimetry (FOD) is an experimental technique suitable for in-vivo, real time dosimetry in radiotherapy treatments. FOD relies on using a small scintillator coupled to one end of a long optical fiber. The scintillator is placed at the point where the dose rate is to be determined whereas a light detector at the other end of the fiber measures the intensity of the radioluminescence emitted by the scintillator. One of the problems hampering the straightforward application of this technique in clinics is the presence of Cherenkov radiation generated in the fiber by the ionizing radiation, which adds to the scintillating light and introduces a bias in the dose measurement...
October 2016: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
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