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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227909/neuromorphic-circuit-modeling-directional-selectivity-in-the-visual-cortex
#1
Saeid Barzegarjalali, Alice C Parker, Saeid Barzegarjalali, Alice C Parker, Alice C Parker, Saeid Barzegarjalali
We have designed a neuromorphic circuit that models directional selectivity in the visual cortex, where selected neurons fire depending on the direction of object motion, along with the size and orientation of the object. The neuromorphic circuit is biomimetic. It consists of neurons and synapses, and models biological mechanisms. Neurons (including the Axon Hillock and the Dendritic Arbor) are designed with CMOS technology and synapses (both excitatory and inhibitory) are designed with Carbon Nanotube Transistors...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226766/a-neuromorphic-circuit-mimicking-biological-short-term-memory
#2
Saeid Barzegarjalali, Alice C Parker, Saeid Barzegarjalali, Alice C Parker, Alice C Parker, Saeid Barzegarjalali
Research shows that the way we remember things for a few seconds is a different mechanism from the way we remember things for a longer time. Short-term memory is based on persistently firing neurons, whereas storing information for a longer time is based on strengthening the synapses or even forming new neural connections. Information about location and appearance of an object is segregated and processed by separate neurons. Furthermore neurons can continue firing using different mechanisms. Here, we have designed a biomimetic neuromorphic circuit that mimics short-term memory by firing neurons, using biological mechanisms to remember location and shape of an object...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225213/a-dual-organic-transistor-based-tactile-perception-system-with-signal-processing-functionality
#3
Yaping Zang, Hongguang Shen, Dazhen Huang, Chong-An Di, Daoben Zhu
Organic-device-based tactile-perception systems can open up new opportunities for the next generation of intelligent products. To meet the critical requirements of artificial perception systems, the efficient construction of organic smart elements with integrated sensing and signal processing functionalities is highly desired, but remains a challenge. This study presents a dual-organic-transistor-based tactile-perception element (DOT-TPE) with biomimetic functionality by the construction of organic synaptic transistors with integrated sensing transistors...
February 22, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225178/biomimetic-total-synthesis-of-%C3%A2-verrubenzospirolactone
#4
Hiu C Lam, Henry P Pepper, Christopher J Sumby, Jonathan H George
A five-step total synthesis of (±)-verrubenzospirolactone has been achieved using a biomimetic, intramolecular Diels-Alder reaction of a 2H-chromene to form two rings and four stereocenters in the final step. This Diels-Alder reaction occurs spontaneously at 30 °C "on-water", and thus suggests that it is likely to be non-enzymatic in nature. The structure of (±)-verrubenzospirolactone was also used to inspire a quadruple cascade reaction to generate seven stereocenters, four rings, three C-C bonds, and two C-O bonds in one step...
February 22, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223209/langmuir-schaefer-film-deposition-onto-honeycomb-porous-films-for-retinal-tissue-engineering
#5
Maria Teresa Calejo, Tanja Ilmarinen, Elina Vuorimaa-Laukkanen, Elina Talvitie, Hanna M Hakola, Heli Skottman, Minna Kellomäki
: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of vision loss in senior citizens in the developed world. The disease is characterised by the degeneration of a specific cell layer at the back of the eye - the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), which is essential in retinal function. The most promising therapeutic option to restore the lost vision is considered to be RPE cell transplantation. This work focuses on the development of biodegradable biomaterials with similar properties to the native Bruch's membrane as carriers for RPE cells...
February 18, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223166/efficacy-of-photochemical-internalisation-using-disulfonated-chlorin-and-porphyrin-photosensitisers-an-in-vitro-study-in-2d-and-3d-prostate-cancer-models
#6
Alejandra Martinez de Pinillos Bayona, Josephine H Woodhams, Hayley Pye, Rifat A Hamoudi, Caroline M Moore, Alexander J MacRobert
This study shows the therapeutic outcome of Photochemical Internalisation (PCI) in prostate cancer in vitro surpasses that of Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) and could improve prostate PDT in the clinic, whilst avoiding chemotherapeutics side effects. In addition, the study assesses the potential of PCI with two different photosensitisers (TPCS2a and TPPS2a) in prostate cancer cells (human PC3 and rat MatLyLu) using standard 2D monolayer culture and 3D biomimetic model. Photosensitisers were used alone for photodynamic therapy (PDT) or with the cytotoxin saporin (PCI)...
February 18, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221348/self-assembly-of-nanoparticles-into-biomimetic-capsid-like-nanoshells
#7
Ming Yang, Henry Chan, Gongpu Zhao, Joong Hwan Bahng, Peijun Zhang, Petr Král, Nicholas A Kotov
Nanoscale compartments are one of the foundational elements of living systems. Capsids, carboxysomes, exosomes, vacuoles and other nanoshells easily self-assemble from biomolecules such as lipids or proteins, but not from inorganic nanomaterials because of difficulties with the replication of spherical tiling. Here we show that stabilizer-free polydispersed inorganic nanoparticles (NPs) can spontaneously organize into porous nanoshells. The association of water-soluble CdS NPs into self-limited spherical capsules is the result of scale-modified electrostatic, dispersion and other colloidal forces...
March 2017: Nature Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221007/ionic-colloidal-molding-as-a-biomimetic-scaffolding-strategy-for-uniform-bone-tissue-regeneration
#8
Jian Zhang, Jinpeng Jia, Jimin P Kim, Hong Shen, Fei Yang, Qiang Zhang, Meng Xu, Wenzhi Bi, Xing Wang, Jian Yang, Decheng Wu
Inspired by the highly ordered nanostructure of bone, nanodopant composite biomaterials are gaining special attention for their ability to guide bone tissue regeneration through structural and biological cues. However, bone malformation in orthopedic surgery is a lingering issue, partly due to the high surface energy of traditional nanoparticles contributing to aggregation and inhomogeneity. Recently, carboxyl-functionalized synthetic polymers have been shown to mimic the carboxyl-rich surface motifs of non-collagenous proteins in stabilizing hydroxyapatite and directing intrafibrillar mineralization in-vitro...
February 21, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220995/development-of-hydrogels-for-regenerative-engineering
#9
REVIEW
Xiaofei Guan, Meltem Avci-Adali, Emine Alarçin, Hao Cheng, Sara Saheb Kashaf, Yuxiao Li, Aditya Chawla, Hae Lin Jang, Ali Khademhosseini
The aim of regenerative engineering is to restore complex tissues and biological systems through convergence in the fields of advanced biomaterials, stem cell science, and developmental biology. Hydrogels are one of the most attractive biomaterials for regenerative engineering, since they can be engineered into tissue mimetic 3D scaffolds to support cell growth due to their similarity to native extracellular matrix. Advanced nano- and micro-technologies have dramatically increased the ability to control properties and functionalities of hydrogel materials by facilitating biomimetic fabrication of more sophisticated compositions and architectures, thus extending our understanding of cell-matrix interactions at the nanoscale...
February 21, 2017: Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220172/mechanistic-insights-into-biomimetic-carbonic-anhydrase-action-catalyzed-by-doped-carbon-nanotubes-and-graphene
#10
Manju Verma, Parag A Deshpande
Electronic structural analyses of hydrogen terminated metal doped carbon nanotube/graphene (M-CNT/Gr, MN3-CNT/Gr, M = Ru/Rh) and ruthenium cluster decorated carbon nanotube/graphene (Ru4-CNT/Gr) were carried out for examining the biomimetic catalytic activity towards CO2 hydration reaction. The carbonic anhydrase action was followed for the reaction of CO2 with H2O resulting in a bicarbonate ion and a proton. All the catalysts were found to be active for CO2 hydration and the mechanism proved them to be biomimetic...
February 21, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219782/characterization-of-phospholipid-nitroxidation-by-lc-ms-in-biomimetic-models-and-in-h9c2-myoblast-using-a-lipidomic-approach
#11
Tânia Melo, Pedro Domingues, Teresa M Ribeiro-Rodrigues, Henrique Girão, Marcela A Segundo, M Rosário M Domingues
Under nitroxidative stress conditions, lipids are prone to be modified by reaction with reactive nitrogen species (RNS) and different modifications were reported to occur in fatty acids. However, in the case of phospholipids (PL) studied under nitroxidative stress conditions, only nitroalkene derivatives of phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), were reported when using both in vitro biomimetic conditions and in vivo model system of type 1 diabetes mellitus. Therefore, in order to further explore other nitroxidative modifications of PL, a biomimetic model of nitroxidation combined with liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (MS) and MS/MS approaches were used to characterize the nitrated and nitroxidized derivatives of PCs and PEs...
February 17, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219008/nanoroughness-strongly-impacts-lipid-mobility-in-supported-membranes
#12
Florence Sarah Blachon, Frederic F Harb, Bogdan Munteanu, Agnès Piednoir, Remy Fulcrand, Thierry Charitat, Giovanna Fragneto, Olivier Pierre-Louis, Bernard Tinland, Jean-Paul Rieu
In vivo lipid membranes interact with rough supramolecular structures such as protein clusters and fibrils. How these features whose size ranges from a few nanometers to a few tens of nanometers impact lipid and protein mobility is still investigated. Here, we study supported phospholipid bilayers, a unique biomimetic model, deposited on etched surfaces bearing nanometric corrugations. Surface roughness and mean curvature are carefully characterized by AFM imaging using ultrasharp tips. Neutron specular reflectivity supplements this surface characterization, and indicates that the bilayers follow the large scale corrugations of the substrate...
February 20, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218503/long-term-tissue-culture-of-adult-brain-and-spleen-slices-on-nanostructured-scaffolds
#13
Sonja Kallendrusch, Felicitas Merz, Ingo Bechmann, Stefan G Mayr, Mareike Zink
Long-term tissue culture of adult mammalian organs is a highly promising approach to bridge the gap between single cell cultures and animal experiments, and bears the potential to reduce in vivo studies. Novel biomimetic materials open up new possibilities to maintain the complex tissue structure in vitro; however, survival times of adult tissues ex vivo are still limited to a few days with established state-of-the-art techniques. Here, it is demonstrated that TiO2 nanotube scaffolds with specific tissue-tailored characteristics can serve as superior substrates for long-term adult brain and spleen tissue culture...
February 20, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218353/biomimetic-principles-to-develop-blood-compatible-surfaces
#14
Vladislav Semak, Michael B Fischer, Viktoria Weber
Functionalized biomaterial surface patterns capable of resisting nonspecific adsorption while retaining their bioactivity are crucial in the advancement of biomedical technologies, but currently available biomaterials intended for use in whole blood frequently suffer from nonspecific adsorption of proteins and cells, leading to a loss of activity over time. In this review, we address two concepts for the design and modification of blood compatible biomaterial surfaces, zwitterionic modification and surface functionalization with glycans - both of which are inspired by the membrane structure of mammalian cells - and discuss their potential for biomedical applications...
February 13, 2017: International Journal of Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217747/insights-into-photosystem-ii-from-isomorphous-difference-fourier-maps-of-femtosecond-x-ray-diffraction-data-and-quantum-mechanics-molecular-mechanics-structural-models
#15
REVIEW
Jimin Wang, Mikhail Askerka, Gary W Brudvig, Victor S Batista
Understanding structure-function relations in photosystem II (PSII) is important for the development of biomimetic photocatalytic systems. X-ray crystallography, computational modeling, and spectroscopy have played central roles in elucidating the structure and function of PSII. Recent breakthroughs in femtosecond X-ray crystallography offer the possibility of collecting diffraction data from the X-ray free electron laser (XFEL) before radiation damage of the sample, thereby overcoming the main challenge of conventional X-ray diffraction methods...
February 10, 2017: ACS Energy Lett
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215942/how-to-identify-and-eliminate-compounds-with-a-risk-of-high-clinical-dose-during-the-early-phase-of-lead-optimisation-in-drug-discovery
#16
Simon Teague, Klara Valko
An alternative approach has been developed to estimate the clinical dose of new drug molecules at an early stage in the drug discovery process. This approach has been compared to traditional methods using the clinical dose as indicated on the drug label of 136 marketed drugs. At the early stages of drug discovery only in silico predictions or some initial in vitro screening data are normally available, typically parameters such as affinity/potency (pXC50)from isolated enzymes or receptors, measured albumin and phospholipid binding using biomimetic HPLC measurements, and in vitro clearance using P450 enzymes or liver microsomes...
February 12, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214952/novel-potential-scaffold-for-periodontal-tissue-engineering
#17
Raquel Osorio, Camilo Andrés Alfonso-Rodríguez, Estrella Osorio, Antonio L Medina-Castillo, Miguel Alaminos, Manuel Toledano-Osorio, Manuel Toledano
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study is characterization of novel calcium and zinc-loaded electrospun matrices to be used for periodontal regeneration. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A polymethylmetacrylate-based membrane was calcium or zinc loaded. Matrices were characterized morphologically by atomic force and scanning electron microscopy and mechanically probed by a nanoindenter. Biomimetic calcium phosphate precipitation on polymeric tissues was assessed. Cell viability tests were performed using oral mucosa fibroblasts...
February 18, 2017: Clinical Oral Investigations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212012/-meyeniins-a-c-novel-hexahydroimidazo-1-5-c-thiazole-derivatives-from-the-tubers-of-lepidium-meyenii-complete-structural-elucidation-by-biomimetic-synthesis-and-racemic-crystallization
#18
Min Zhou, Hang-Ying Ma, Zhi-Hua Liu, Guang-Yu Yang, Gang Du, Yan-Qing Ye, Gan-Peng Li, Qiu-Fen Hu
(+)-Meyeniins A-C (1-3), a novel class of sulfur-containing hexahydroimidazo[1,5-c]thiazole derivatives, were isolated from the tubers of Lepidium meyenii cultivated in Lijiang, Yunnan Province, China. Guided by their biosynthetic hypothesis, a stereocontrolled biomimetic synthesis of meyeniins A-C and their individual enantiomers was efficiently accomplished by a combination of a condensation reaction and Edman degradation. The formation of high-quality crystals for X-ray crystallography occurred much more readily from a racemic mixture of (±)-meyeniin A than with the single enantiomer alone in this case...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212005/stimuli-responsive-polymersomes-for-biomedical-applications
#19
Xiuli Hu, Yuqi Zhang, Zhigang Xie, Xiabin Jing, Adriano Bellotti, Zhen Gu
Polymersomes, the structural analogues of liposomes, are hollow structures enclosed by a bilayer membrane made from amphiphilic copolymers. Polymersomes have been proposed to mimic the structure and properties of cellular membranes and viral capsids. Excellent robustness and stability, chemical versatility for tunable membrane properties and surface functionalization make polymersomes attractive candidates for drug delivery, diagnostic imaging, nanoreactor vessels, and artificial organelles. In further biomimetic strategies, stimuli-responsive polymersomes that can recognize various external physical or internal biological environmental stimuli and conduct "on demand" release in dose-, spatial-, and temporal-controlled fashions have been widely developed...
February 17, 2017: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211933/enhanced-bone-tissue-regeneration-using-a-3d-printed-microstructure-incorporated-with-a-hybrid-nano-hydrogel
#20
Dong Nyoung Heo, Nathan J Castro, Se-Jun Lee, Hanaul Noh, Wei Zhu, Lijie Grace Zhang
Three-dimensional (3D) functional constructs with biomimetic mechanical and chemical properties are ideal for various regenerative medicine applications. These properties of 3D fabricated constructs mainly depend on the intrinsic characteristics of the materials and fabrication method. In this respect, the current use of hydrogels for musculoskeletal tissue repair is not ideal due to the lack of suitable mechanical properties, as well as the high biomimetic requirement for success. To overcome this limitation, we developed a novel functionalized hydrogel with bioactive gold nanoparticles (GNPs), reinforcing a 3D printed microstructure via fused deposition modeling (FDM) for bone tissue regeneration...
February 17, 2017: Nanoscale
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