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Linoleic acid nutrition

Katrin Ochsenreither, Claudia Glück, Timo Stressler, Lutz Fischer, Christoph Syldatk
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) of the ω-3 and ω-6 class (e.g., α-linolenic acid, linoleic acid) are essential for maintaining biofunctions in mammalians like humans. Due to the fact that humans cannot synthesize these essential fatty acids, they must be taken up from different food sources. Classical sources for these fatty acids are porcine liver and fish oil. However, microbial lipids or single cell oils, produced by oleaginous microorganisms such as algae, fungi and bacteria, are a promising source as well...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Gema Flores, Gracia Patricia Blanch, María Luisa Ruiz Del Castillo
BACKGROUND: The nutritional effects of both table olives and olive oil are attributed not only to their fatty acids but also to antioxidant phenolics such as phenolic acids. Delays in oil processing usually result in undesirable oxidation and hydrolysis processes leading to formation of free fatty acids. These alterations create the need to process oil immediately after olive harvest. However, phenolic content decreases drastically during olive storage resulting in lower quality oil. In the present study we propose postharvest methyl jasmonate treatment as a mean to avoid changes in fatty acid composition and losses of phenolic acids during olive storage...
October 18, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Zachary L Demorest, Andrew Coffman, Nicholas J Baltes, Thomas J Stoddard, Benjamin M Clasen, Song Luo, Adam Retterath, Ann Yabandith, Maria Elena Gamo, Jeff Bissen, Luc Mathis, Daniel F Voytas, Feng Zhang
BACKGROUND: The ability to modulate levels of individual fatty acids within soybean oil has potential to increase shelf-life and frying stability and to improve nutritional characteristics. Commodity soybean oil contains high levels of polyunsaturated linoleic and linolenic acid, which contribute to oxidative instability - a problem that has been addressed through partial hydrogenation. However, partial hydrogenation increases levels of trans-fatty acids, which have been associated with cardiovascular disease...
October 13, 2016: BMC Plant Biology
Kandikere R Sridhar, Dorathy D Anita, Sudeep D Ghate
This study compares the composition of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) in seeds of Sesbania speciosa (dry and mature) after processing (uncooked and cooked) and extraction (hot and cold). Among PUFA, oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids were common to uncooked and cooked dry seeds which were high on cold extraction. Only two fatty acid ratios were favorable in hot extraction [(C14:0 + C15:0 + (C16:0 / C18:0) and C18:1 / C18:2]. Cold extraction yielded docosahexaenoic acid in uncooked as well as cooked dry seeds and all fatty acid ratios were nutritionally favorable...
October 3, 2016: Recent Patents on Food, Nutrition & Agriculture
Aynur Kurt, Hülya Torun, Nesrin Colak, Gerald Seiler, Sema Hayirlioglu-Ayaz, Faik Ahmet Ayaz
BACKGROUND: The hybrid grape cultivar Isabel (Vitis labrusca x V. vinifera) is widely grown in the Black Sea region of Turkey and constitutes an important part of the diet of its inhabitants. Phenological and ampelographical studies of the grape have previously been performed, but there are no data concerning nutrient composition. Its nutrient content needs to be investigated to ascertain its potential economic and nutritional uses in the region. RESULTS: The concentrations (range, g kg(-1) fresh weight) of major soluble sugars (fructose; 2...
October 3, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
M Mele, N P P Macciotta, A Cecchinato, G Conte, S Schiavon, G Bittante
We investigated the potential of using multivariate factor analysis to extract metabolic information from data on the quantity and quality of milk produced under different management systems. We collected data from individual milk samples taken from 1,158 Brown Swiss cows farmed in 85 traditional or modern herds in Trento Province (Italy). Factor analysis was carried out on 47 individual fatty acids, milk yield, and 5 compositional milk traits (fat, protein, casein, and lactose contents, somatic cell score)...
September 21, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
Aline D Gomes, Carlos E Tolussi, Iola G Boëchat, Marcelo L M Pompêo, Maíra P T Cortez, Renato M Honji, Renata G Moreira
Eutrophication results in a deficiency of n-3 LC-PUFA (long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids) in aquatic food chains, affecting fish nutrition and physiology. The trophic transfer of FA (fatty acids) to fish species of different feeding habits was investigated in two reservoirs in southeast Brazil-the mesotrophic Ponte Nova Reservoir (PN) and the hypereutrophic Billings Reservoir (Bil). Total FA profile of stomach contents and adipose tissue, triacylglycerols (TAG), and phospholipids (PL) from liver and muscle of the omnivorous Astyanax fasciatus and the carnivorous Hoplias malabaricus were analyzed by gas chromatography...
October 2016: Lipids
Carolina V Toledo, Carolina Barroetaveña, Ângela Fernandes, Lillian Barros, Isabel C F R Ferreira
This study addresses issues regarding chemical and bioactive properties of nine wild edible mushrooms from native Nothofagus forest from Patagonia, Argentina. Macronutrients, sugars, fatty acids, tocopherols, organic acids, phenolic compounds and antioxidant properties were determined. Protein was found in high levels and varied between 3.35 g/100 g dw in Cyttaria hariotii and 22.29 g/100 g dw in Lepista nuda. All of them presented mannitol and trehalose as main sugars. Mannitol was significantly higher in Ramaria patagonica, although absent in Fistulina endoxantha, whereas trehalose predominated in Aleurodiscus vitellinus, Hydropus dusenii, Cortinarius magellanicus, C...
2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Bhagwat Nawade, Tejas C Bosamia, Radhakrishnan Thankappan, Arulthambi L Rathnakumar, Abhay Kumar, Jentilal R Dobaria, Rahul Kundu, Gyan P Mishra
In peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.), the customization of fatty acid profile is an evolving area to fulfill the nutritional needs in the modern market. A total of 174 peanut genotypes, including 167 Indian cultivars, 6 advanced breeding lines and "SunOleic95R"-a double mutant line, were investigated using AS-PCRs, CAPS and gene sequencing for the ahFAD2 allele polymorphism, along with its fatty acid compositions. Of these, 80 genotypes were found having substitution (448G>A) mutation only in ahFAD2A gene, while none recorded 1-bp insertion (441_442insA) mutation in ahFAD2B gene...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
G Maulucci, O Cohen, B Daniel, A Sansone, P I Petropoulou, S Filou, A Spyridonidis, G Pani, M De Spirito, C Chatgilialoglu, C Ferreri, K E Kypreos, S Sasson
Metabolic homeostasis of fatty acids is complex and well-regulated in all organisms. The biosynthesis of saturated fatty acids (SFA) in mammals provides substrates for β-oxidation and ATP production. Monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) are products of desaturases that introduce a methylene group in cis geometry in SFA. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-6 and n-3 PUFA) are products of elongation and desaturation of the essential linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid, respectively. The liver processes dietary fatty acids and exports them in lipoproteins for distribution and storage in peripheral tissues...
September 5, 2016: Free Radical Research
Taisa M Venäläinen, Anna M Viitasalo, Ursula S Schwab, Aino-Maija Eloranta, Eero A Haapala, Henna P Jalkanen, Vanessa Df de Mello, David E Laaksonen, Virpi I Lindi, Jyrki J Ågren, Timo A Lakka
BACKGROUND: Evidence on the effects of lifestyle interventions on plasma fatty acid composition in children is limited. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the effects of a dietary and physical activity intervention on plasma fatty acid composition of cholesteryl esters (CEs) and phospholipids and estimated desaturase and elongase activities in children. DESIGN: We conducted a 2-y controlled dietary and physical activity intervention based on Finnish nutrition and physical activity recommendations in a population sample of 506 children aged 6-8 y...
October 2016: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Nobuyuki Sakayori, Hisanori Tokuda, Kaichi Yoshizaki, Hiroshi Kawashima, Sheila M Innis, Hiroshi Shibata, Noriko Osumi
Omega-6 (n-6) and omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are essential nutrients for normal brain development. The principal dietary n-6 and n-3 PUFAs are linoleic acid (LA) and α-linolenic acid (ALA), respectively, We have previously shown that maternal dietary imbalance between these PUFAs, i.e., rich in LA and poor in ALA, affected brain development and increased anxiety-related behavior in the mouse offspring. Here we further addressed sex difference in anxiety-related behavior in the offspring exposed to maternal LA:ALA imbalance...
2016: Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
Manpreet S Mundi, Bradley R Salonen, Sara Bonnes
Since the first intravenous nutrition support attempt with olive oil in the 17th century, intravenous fat emulsions (IVFEs) have evolved to become an integral component in the management of patients receiving home parenteral nutrition (HPN). IVFEs serve as a calorie source and provide essential fatty acids (linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid) in patients unable to achieve adequate intake of these fatty acids through alternative means. However, IVFE use is also associated with multiple complications, including increased infection risk, liver disease, and systemic proinflammatory states...
October 2016: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
T L Schumacher, T L Burrows, M E Rollo, L G Wood, R Callister, C E Collins
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Limited dietary intake tools have been validated specifically for hyperlipidaemic adults. The Australian Eating Survey (AES) Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) was adapted to include foods with cardio-protective properties (CVD-AES). The aims were to estimate dietary fatty acid (FA) intakes derived from the CVD-AES and AES and compare them with red blood cell (RBC) membrane FA content. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Dietary intake was measured using the semi-quantitative 120-item AES and 177-item CVD-AES...
August 10, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Tianya Wang, Jiewen Xing, Xinye Liu, Zhenshan Liu, Yingyin Yao, Zhaorong Hu, Huiru Peng, Mingming Xin, Dao-Xiu Zhou, Yirong Zhang, Zhongfu Ni
Seed oils are important natural resources used in the processing and preparation of food. Histone modifications represent key epigenetic mechanisms that regulate gene expression, plant growth and development. However, histone modification events during fatty acid (FA) biosynthesis are not well understood. Here, we demonstrate that a mutation of the histone acetyltransferase GCN5 can decrease the ratio of α-linolenic acid (ALA) to linoleic acid (LA) in seed oil. Using RNA-Seq and ChIP assays, we identified FAD3, LACS2, LPP3 and PLAIIIβ as the targets of GCN5...
August 8, 2016: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Mélanie H Thomas, Sandra Pelleieux, Nicolas Vitale, Jean Luc Olivier
Alzheimer's disease and associated diseases constitute a major public health concern worldwide. Nutrition-based, preventive strategies could possibly be effective in delaying the occurrence of these diseases and lower their prevalence. Arachidonic acid is the second major polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) and several studies support its involvement in Alzheimer's disease. The objective of this review is to examine how dietary arachidonic acid contributes to Alzheimer's disease mechanisms and therefore to its prevention...
July 26, 2016: Biochimie
Oksana Maksymchuk, Angela Shysh, Mykola Chashchyn, Olexyi Moibenko
Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are used for the treatment and prevention of numerous pathologies in humans. As recently found, PUFAs play significantly protective roles in liver, cardiovascular system and kidney. They also are widely used in total parenteral nutrition. We evaluated the effect of omega-3 PUFA consumption on liver fatty acid composition and the expression of CYP2E1, one of the key enzymes in detoxification and prooxidant systems of liver cells. To estimate the oxidative stress in liver tissue, the antioxidant status and the level of lipid peroxidation were determined in a rodent model...
July 21, 2016: International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research. Journal International de Vitaminologie et de Nutrition
Alice T Epitropoulos, Eric D Donnenfeld, Zubin A Shah, Edward J Holland, Michael Gross, William J Faulkner, Cynthia Matossian, Stephen S Lane, Melissa Toyos, Frank A Bucci, Henry D Perry
PURPOSE: To assess the effect of oral re-esterified omega-3 fatty acids on tear osmolarity, matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), tear break-up time (TBUT), Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI), fluorescein corneal staining, Schirmer score, meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) stage and omega-3 index in subjects with dry eyes and confirmed MGD. METHODS: This was a multicenter, prospective, interventional, placebo-controlled, double-masked study. Subjects were randomized to receive 4 softgels containing a total of 1680 mg of eicosapentaenoic acid/560 mg of docosahexaenoic acid or a control of 3136 mg of linoleic acid, daily for 12 weeks...
September 2016: Cornea
Nita G Forouhi, Fumiaki Imamura, Stephen J Sharp, Albert Koulman, Matthias B Schulze, Jusheng Zheng, Zheng Ye, Ivonne Sluijs, Marcela Guevara, José María Huerta, Janine Kröger, Laura Yun Wang, Keith Summerhill, Julian L Griffin, Edith J M Feskens, Aurélie Affret, Pilar Amiano, Heiner Boeing, Courtney Dow, Guy Fagherazzi, Paul W Franks, Carlos Gonzalez, Rudolf Kaaks, Timothy J Key, Kay Tee Khaw, Tilman Kühn, Lotte Maxild Mortensen, Peter M Nilsson, Kim Overvad, Valeria Pala, Domenico Palli, Salvatore Panico, J Ramón Quirós, Miguel Rodriguez-Barranco, Olov Rolandsson, Carlotta Sacerdote, Augustin Scalbert, Nadia Slimani, Annemieke M W Spijkerman, Anne Tjonneland, Maria-Jose Tormo, Rosario Tumino, Daphne L van der A, Yvonne T van der Schouw, Claudia Langenberg, Elio Riboli, Nicholas J Wareham
BACKGROUND: Whether and how n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are related to type 2 diabetes (T2D) is debated. Objectively measured plasma PUFAs can help to clarify these associations. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Plasma phospholipid PUFAs were measured by gas chromatography among 12,132 incident T2D cases and 15,919 subcohort participants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-InterAct study across eight European countries...
July 2016: PLoS Medicine
Wan Shen, Michael K McIntosh
Obesity is the most widespread nutritional disease in the United States. Developing effective and safe strategies to manage excess body weight is therefore of paramount importance. One potential strategy to reduce obesity is to consume conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplements containing isomers cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12, or trans-10, cis-12 alone. Proposed antiobesity mechanisms of CLA include regulation of (a) adipogenesis, (b) lipid metabolism, (c) inflammation, (d) adipocyte apoptosis, (e) browning or beiging of adipose tissue, and (f) energy metabolism...
July 17, 2016: Annual Review of Nutrition
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