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Lipid membrane disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319895/impact-of-high-cholesterol-and-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-on-metabolic-diseases-an-updated-mini-review
#1
REVIEW
Erdi Sozen, Nesrin Kartal Ozer
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the major site of protein folding and calcium storage. Beside the role of ER in protein homeostasis, it controls the cholesterol production and lipid-membrane biosynthesis as well as surviving and cell death signaling mechanisms in the cell. It is well-documented that elevated plasma cholesterol induces adverse effects in cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), liver disorders, such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), non-alcoholic steatosis hepatitis (NASH), and metabolic diseases which are associated with oxidative and ER stress...
March 6, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319616/dna-probes-for-monitoring-dynamic-and-transient-molecular-encounters-on-live-cell-membranes
#2
Mingxu You, Yifan Lyu, Da Han, Liping Qiu, Qiaoling Liu, Tao Chen, Cuichen Sam Wu, Lu Peng, Liqin Zhang, Gang Bao, Weihong Tan
Cells interact with the extracellular environment through molecules expressed on the membrane. Disruption of these membrane-bound interactions (or encounters) can result in disease progression. Advances in super-resolution microscopy have allowed membrane encounters to be examined, however, these methods cannot image entire membranes and cannot provide information on the dynamic interactions between membrane-bound molecules. Here, we show a novel DNA probe that can transduce transient membrane encounter events into readable cumulative fluorescence signals...
March 20, 2017: Nature Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317755/dnp-and-atp-induced-alteration-in-disease-development-of-phomopsis-longanae-chi-inoculated-longan-fruit-by-acting-on-energy-status-and-reactive-oxygen-species-production-scavenging-system
#3
Yifen Lin, Mengyin Chen, Hetong Lin, Yen-Con Hung, Yixiong Lin, Yihui Chen, Hui Wang, John Shi
As compared with P. longanae-inoculated longans, DNP treatment for P. longanae-inoculated longans exhibited higher fruit disease index and pericarp browning index, lower ATP amount and energy charge level, lower activities of SOD, CAT and APX, lower amounts of AsA and GSH, lower levels of DPPH radical scavenging activity and reducing power, higher O2(-) generating rate and MDA amount. However, supply of ATP for P. longanae-inoculated longans showed the contrary effects. These results gave convincing evidence that DNP treatment for accelerating pericarp browning and disease development of harvested longans caused by P...
August 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317069/deciphering-the-role-of-ectosomes-in-cancer-development-and-progression-focus-on-the-proteome
#4
REVIEW
Magdalena Surman, Ewa Stępień, Dorota Hoja-Łukowicz, Małgorzata Przybyło
Ectosomes are small heterogeneous membrane vesicles generated by budding from the plasma membrane in a variety of cell types and, more frequently, in tumor cells. They are shed into the extracellular space and are proposed as a novel form of intracellular communication in which information is transmitted from the originating cell to recipient cells without direct cell-to-cell contact. This review focuses on a single population of extracellular vesicles-ectosomes. We summarize recent studies of tumor-derived ectosomes which examine their biogenesis and protein cargo, and their influence on different aspects of cancer progression...
March 19, 2017: Clinical & Experimental Metastasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315822/protective-effect-of-zerumbone-reduces-lipopolysaccharide-induced-acute-lung-injury-via-antioxidative-enzymes-and-nrf2-ho-1-pathway
#5
Wai-Shing Leung, Ming-Ling Yang, Shiuan-Shinn Lee, Chi-Wen Kuo, Yung-Chyuan Ho, Rosa Huang-Liu, Hui-Wen Lin, Yu-Hsiang Kuan
Acute lung injury (ALI) is a serious disease with high morbidity and mortality rate. Although there are effective strategies for treatment of ALI; a widely accepted specific pharmacotherapy has not yet established. Zerumbone, the major active phytochemical compound from Zingiber zerumbet Smith, exhibits various beneficial biological and pharmacological activities, such as antioxidation, anti-inflammation, immunomodulation, and anti-cancer. We aimed to study the potential protective effects and mechanisms of zerumbone in mouse model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALI...
March 15, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315462/implications-of-cerebrovascular-atp-binding-cassette-transporter-g1-abcg1-and-apolipoprotein-m-in-cholesterol-transport-at-the-blood-brain-barrier
#6
Alexandra Carmen Kober, Anil Paul Chirackal Manavalan, Carmen Tam-Amersdorfer, Andreas Holmér, Ahmed Saeed, Elham Fanaee Danesh, Martina Zandl, Nicole Maria Albrecher, Ingemar Björkhem, Gerhard M Kostner, Björn Dahlbäck, Ute Panzenboeck
Impaired cholesterol/lipoprotein metabolism is linked to neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Cerebral cholesterol homeostasis is maintained by the highly efficient blood-brain barrier (BBB) and flux of the oxysterols 24(S)-hydroxycholesterol and 27-hydroxycholesterol, potent liver-X-receptor (LXR) activators. HDL and their apolipoproteins are crucial for cerebral lipid transfer, and loss of ATP binding cassette transporters (ABC)G1 and G4 results in toxic accumulation of oxysterols in the brain...
March 14, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315304/sphingosine-1-phosphate-a-double-edged-sword-in-the-brain
#7
REVIEW
Indulekha Karunakaran, Gerhild van Echten-Deckert
The physiological functions of sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) and its pathological roles in various diseases are increasingly being elucidated. Particularly, a growing body of literature has implicated S1P in the pathogenesis of brain related disorders. With the deciphering of more intricate aspects of S1P signalling, there is also a need to reconsider the notion of S1P only as a determinant of cell survival and proliferation. Further the concept of 'S1P-ceramide' balance as the controlling switch of cellular fate and functions needs to be refined...
March 14, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314735/non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-and-its-relationship-with-cardiovascular-disease-and-other-extrahepatic-diseases
#8
REVIEW
Leon A Adams, Quentin M Anstee, Herbert Tilg, Giovanni Targher
Key physiological functions of the liver, including glucose and lipid metabolism, become disturbed in the setting of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and may be associated with a systemic inflammatory 'milieu' initiated in part by liver-secreted cytokines and molecules. Consequently, the pathophysiological effects of NAFLD extend beyond the liver with a large body of clinical evidence demonstrating NAFLD to be independently associated with both prevalent and incident cardiovascular disease (CVD), chronic kidney disease (CKD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)...
March 17, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314621/docosahexaenoic-acid-dha-an-essential-nutrient-and-a-nutraceutical-for-brain-health-and-diseases
#9
REVIEW
Grace Y Sun, Agnes Simonyi, Kevin L Fritsche, Dennis Y Chuang, Mark Hannink, Zezong Gu, C Michael Greenlief, Jeffrey K Yao, James C Lee, David Q Beversdorf
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) enriched in phospholipids in the brain and retina, is known to play multi-functional roles in brain health and diseases. While arachidonic acid (AA) is released from membrane phospholipids by cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2), DHA is linked to action of the Ca(2+)-independent iPLA2. DHA undergoes enzymatic conversion by 15-lipoxygenase (Alox 15) to form oxylipins including resolvins and neuroprotectins, which are powerful lipid mediators. DHA can also undergo non-enzymatic conversion by reacting with oxygen free radicals (ROS), which cause the production of 4-hydoxyhexenal (4-HHE), an aldehyde derivative which can form adducts with DNA, proteins and lipids...
March 10, 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300784/the-molecular-basis-of-toxins-interactions-with-intracellular-signaling-via-discrete-portals
#10
REVIEW
Adi Lahiani, Ephraim Yavin, Philip Lazarovici
An understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which microbial, plant or animal-secreted toxins exert their action provides the most important element for assessment of human health risks and opens new insights into therapies addressing a plethora of pathologies, ranging from neurological disorders to cancer, using toxinomimetic agents. Recently, molecular and cellular biology dissecting tools have provided a wealth of information on the action of these diverse toxins, yet, an integrated framework to explain their selective toxicity is still lacking...
March 16, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300073/actin-binding-protein-coronin-1a-controls-osteoclastic-bone-resorption-by-regulating-lysosomal-secretion-of-cathepsin-k
#11
Saori Ohmae, Naruto Noma, Masayasu Toyomoto, Masahiro Shinohara, Masatoshi Takeiri, Hiroaki Fuji, Kenji Takemoto, Keiko Iwaisako, Tomoko Fujita, Norihiko Takeda, Makoto Kawatani, Mineyoshi Aoyama, Masatoshi Hagiwara, Yasushi Ishihama, Masataka Asagiri
Osteoclasts degrade bone matrix proteins via the secretion of lysosomal enzymes. However, the precise mechanisms by which lysosomal components are transported and fused to the bone-apposed plasma membrane, termed ruffled border membrane, remain elusive. Here, we identified coronin 1A as a negative regulator of exocytotic release of cathepsin K, one of the most important bone-degrading enzymes in osteoclasts. The modulation of coronin 1A expression did not alter osteoclast differentiation and extracellular acidification, but strongly affected the secretion of cathepsin K and osteoclast bone-resorption activity, suggesting the coronin 1A-mediated regulation of lysosomal trafficking and protease exocytosis...
March 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299641/the-phospholipid-composition-of-the-human-entorhinal-cortex-remains-relatively-stable-over-80%C3%A2-years-of-adult-aging
#12
Sarah E Hancock, Michael G Friedrich, Todd W Mitchell, Roger J W Truscott, Paul L Else
Membrane lipid composition is altered in the brain during the pathogenesis of several age-related neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease. The entorhinal cortex is one of the first regions of the brain to display the neuropathology typical of Alzheimer's disease, yet little is known about the changes that occur in membrane lipids within this brain region during normal aging (i.e., in the absence of dementia). In the present study, the phospholipid composition of mitochondrial and microsomal membranes from human entorhinal cortex was examined for any changes over the adult lifespan (18-98 years)...
February 2017: Geroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298083/alpha-synuclein-disease-mutations-are-structurally-defective-and-locally-affect-membrane-binding
#13
Marta Robotta, Julia Cattani, Juliana Cristina Martins, Vinod Subramaniam, Malte Drescher
The intrinsically disordered human protein alpha-Synuclein (αS) has a prominent role in Parkinson's disease (PD) pathology. Several familial variants of αS are correlated with inherited PD. Disease mutations have been shown to have an impact on lipid membrane binding. Here, using electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy in combination with site-directed spin labeling, we show that familial PD-associated variants are structurally defective in membrane binding and alter the local binding properties of the protein...
March 20, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296542/the-autophagy-machinery-restrains-inkt-cell-activation-through-cd1d1-internalization
#14
Christian W Keller, Monica Loi, Svenja Ewert, Isaak Quast, Romina Theiler, Monique Gannagé, Christian Münz, Gennaro De Libero, Stefan Freigang, Jan D Lünemann
Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells are innate T cells with powerful immune regulatory functions that recognize glycolipid antigens presented by the CD1D protein. While iNKT-cell-activating glycolipids are currently being explored for their efficacy to improve immunotherapy against infectious diseases and cancer, little is known about the mechanisms that control CD1D antigen presentation and iNKT cell activation in vivo. CD1D molecules survey endocytic pathways to bind lipid antigens in MHC class II containing compartments (MIICs) before recycling to the plasma membrane...
March 15, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294977/phosphoinositides-major-actors-in-membrane-trafficking-and-lipid-signaling-pathways
#15
REVIEW
Johan-Owen De Craene, Dimitri L Bertazzi, Séverine Bär, Sylvie Friant
Phosphoinositides are lipids involved in the vesicular transport of proteins and lipids between the different compartments of eukaryotic cells. They act by recruiting and/or activating effector proteins and thus are involved in regulating various cellular functions, such as vesicular budding, membrane fusion and cytoskeleton dynamics. Although detected in small concentrations in membranes, their role is essential to cell function, since imbalance in their concentrations is a hallmark of many cancers. Their synthesis involves phosphorylating/dephosphorylating positions D3, D4 and/or D5 of their inositol ring by specific lipid kinases and phosphatases...
March 15, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293177/mscs-derived-exosomes-and-neuroinflammation-neurogenesis-and-therapy-of-traumatic-brain-injury
#16
REVIEW
Yongxiang Yang, Yuqin Ye, Xinhong Su, Jun He, Wei Bai, Xiaosheng He
Exosomes are endosomal origin membrane-enclosed small vesicles (30-100 nm) that contain various molecular constituents including proteins, lipids, mRNAs and microRNAs. Accumulating studies demonstrated that exosomes initiated and regulated neuroinflammation, modified neurogenic niches and neurogenesis, and were even of potential significance in treating some neurological diseases. These tiny extracellular vesicles (EVs) can derive from some kinds of multipotent cells such as mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) that have been confirmed to be a potentially promising therapy for traumatic brain injury (TBI) in experimental models and in preclinical studies...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290516/antagonizing-effects-of-membrane-acting-androgens-on-the-eicosanoid-receptor-oxer1-in-prostate-cancer
#17
Konstantina Kalyvianaki, Veronika Gebhart, Nikolaos Peroulis, Christina Panagiotopoulou, Fotini Kiagiadaki, Iosif Pediaditakis, Michalis Aivaliotis, Eleni Moustou, Maria Tzardi, George Notas, Elias Castanas, Marilena Kampa
Accumulating evidence during the last decades revealed that androgen can exert membrane initiated actions that involve signaling via specific kinases and the modulation of significant cellular processes, important for prostate cancer cell growth and metastasis. Results of the present work clearly show that androgens can specifically act at the membrane level via the GPCR oxoeicosanoid receptor 1 (OXER1) in prostate cancer cells. In fact, OXER1 expression parallels that of membrane androgen binding in prostate cancer cell lines and tumor specimens, while in silico docking simulation of OXER1 showed that testosterone could bind to OXER1 within the same grove as 5-OxoETE, the natural ligand of OXER1...
March 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287262/synthetic-glycopolymers-for-highly-efficient-differentiation-of-embryonic-stem-cells-into-neurons-lipo-or-not
#18
Qi Liu, Zhonglin Lyu, You Yu, Zhen-Ao Zhao, Shijun Hu, Lin Yuan, Gaojian Chen, Hong Chen
To realize the potential application of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, it is a prerequisite to develop an effective strategy for the neural differentiation of ESCs so as to obtain adequate amount of neurons. Considering the efficacy of glycosaminoglycans (GAG) and their disadvantages (e.g. structure heterogeneity, impurity), GAG-mimicking glycopolymers (designed polymers containing functional units similar to natural GAG) with or without phospholipid groups were synthesized in the present work and their ability to promote neural differentiation of mouse ESCs (mESCs) was investigated...
March 13, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284957/proteolytic-activity-in-the-meibomian-gland-implications-to-health-and-disease
#19
REVIEW
Pablo Argüeso
The function of the meibomian gland in the upper and lower eyelids is critical to maintaining homeostasis at the ocular surface. Highly specialized meibocytes within the gland must differentiate and accumulate intracellular lipid droplets that are released into the tear film following rupture of the cell membrane. Proteases and their inhibitors have been recognized as key players in remodeling extracellular matrices and promoting the normal integrity of glandular tissue. They modulate a wide range of biological processes, such as cell proliferation and differentiation, and can contribute to disease when aberrantly expressed...
March 8, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284721/the-hydroxylated-form-of-docosahexaenoic-acid-dha-h-modifies-the-brain-lipid-composition-in-a-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease-improving-behavioral-motor-function-and-survival
#20
Raheem J Mohaibes, María A Fiol-deRoque, Manuel Torres, Margarita Ordinas, David J López, José A Castro, Pablo V Escribá, Xavier Busquets
We have compared the effect of the commonly used ω-3 fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid ethyl ester (DHA-EE), and of its 2-hydroxylated DHA form (DHA-H), on brain lipid composition, behavior and lifespan in a new human transgenic Drosophila melanogaster model of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The transgenic flies expressed human Aβ42 and tau, and the overexpression of these human transgenes in the CNS of these flies produced progressive defects in motor function (antigeotaxic behavior) while reducing the animal's lifespan...
March 8, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
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