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Lipid membrane disease

Raquel Marin, Noemí Fabelo, Virginia Martín, Paula Garcia-Esparcia, Isidre Ferrer, David Quinto-Alemany, Mario Díaz
Lipid rafts are highly dynamic membrane microdomains intimately associated with cell signaling. Compelling evidence has demonstrated that alterations in lipid rafts are associated with neurodegenerative diseases such Alzheimer's disease, but at present, whether alterations in lipid raft microdomains occur in other types of dementia such dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) remains unknown. Our analyses reveal that lipid rafts from DLB exhibit aberrant lipid profiles including low levels of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (mainly docosahexaenoic acid), plasmalogens and cholesterol, and reduced unsaturation and peroxidability indexes...
September 6, 2016: Neurobiology of Aging
Mercedes Garcia-Gil, Elisabetta Albi
In the last 20 years it has been widely demonstrated that cell nucleus contains neutral and polar lipids localized in nuclear membranes, nucleoli, nuclear matrix and chromatin. Nuclear lipids may show specific organization forming nuclear lipid microdomains and have both structural and functional roles. Depending on their localization, nuclear lipids play different roles such as the regulation of nuclear membrane and nuclear matrix fluidity but they also can act as platforms for vitamin and hormone function, for active chromatin anchoring, and for the regulation of gene expression, DNA duplication and transcription...
October 20, 2016: Neurochemical Research
Yadveer Singh Grewal, Muhammad J A Shiddiky, Stephen M Mahler, Gerard A Cangelosi, Matt Trau
Rapid progress in disease biomarker discovery has increased the need for robust detection technologies. In the past several years, the designs of many immunoaffinity reagents have focused on lowering costs, improving specificity while also promoting stability. Antibody fragments (scFvs) have long been displayed on the surface of yeast and phage libraries for selection, however the stable production of such fragments presents challenges that hamper their widespread use in diagnostics. Membrane and cell wall proteins similarly suffer from stability problems when solubilized from their native environment...
October 20, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Marie-Laure Rives, Morena Shaw, Bin Zhu, Simon A Hinke, Alan Wickenden
In the liver, citrate is a key metabolic intermediate involved in the regulation of glycolysis and lipid synthesis and reduced expression of the hepatic citrate SLC13A5 transporter has been shown to improve metabolic outcomes in various animal models. Although inhibition of hepatic extracellular citrate uptake through SLC13A5 has been suggested as a potential therapeutic approach for Type-2 diabetes and/or fatty liver disease, so far, only a few SLC13A5 inhibitors have been identified. Moreover, their mechanism of action still remains unclear, potentially limiting their utility for in vivo proof-of-concept studies...
October 17, 2016: Molecular Pharmacology
Mika A Brown, Michael G Potroz, Seoh-Wei Teh, Nam-Joon Cho
Due to the global prevalence of Chlamydiae, exploring studies of diverse antichlamydial compounds is important in the development of effective treatment strategies and global infectious disease management. Chlamydiaceae is the most widely known bacterial family of the Chlamydiae order. Among the species in the family Chlamydiaceae, Chlamydia trachomatis and Chlamydia pneumoniae cause common human diseases, while Chlamydia abortus, Chlamydia psittaci, and Chlamydia suis represent zoonotic threats or are endemic in human food sources...
October 16, 2016: Microorganisms
Satoshi Umemura
Primary aldosteronism (PA) is a heterogeneous group of disorders including both sporadic and familial forms (familial hyperaldosteronism type I, II and III). PA is the most frequent endocrine cause of secondary hypertension and associated with a higher rate of cardiovascular complications, compared with essential hypertension.Here I review the recent progress in understanding of the genetic and molecular mechanisms leading to autonomous aldosterone production in PA.Systematic screening detects primary aldosteronism in 5 to 10% of all patients with hypertension and in approximately 20% of patients with resistant hypertension...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Robert Buresh, Kris Berg
Oxidative stress has been shown to play a role in the etiology of several chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, and cancer. Free radicals and, most prominently, the superoxide radical, result from oxidative metabolism and several enzyme-catalyzed reactions, and endogenous cellular antioxidants dismutate many reactive oxygen species (ROS). Under certain conditions, ROS production can outpace dismutation (e.g., long-term sedentariness and positive energy balance) and the result is oxidative stress, with proteins, lipids, and DNA the most common targets of radicals...
December 2015: Sports Medicine—Open
Carlos Wong-Baeza, Albany Reséndiz-Mora, Luis Donis-Maturano, Isabel Wong-Baeza, Luz Zárate-Neira, Juan Carlos Yam-Puc, Juana Calderón-Amador, Yolanda Medina, Carlos Wong, Isabel Baeza, Leopoldo Flores-Romo
Anti-lipid IgG antibodies are produced in some mycobacterial infections and in certain autoimmune diseases [such as anti-phospholipid syndrome, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)]. However, few studies have addressed the B cell responses underlying the production of these immunoglobulins. Anti-lipid IgG antibodies are consistently found in a murine model resembling human lupus induced by chlorpromazine-stabilized non-bilayer phospholipid arrangements (NPA). NPA are transitory lipid associations found in the membranes of most cells; when NPA are stabilized they can become immunogenic and induce specific IgG antibodies, which appear to be involved in the development of the mouse model of lupus...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
Beatriz Rocha, Francisco J Blanco, Cristina Ruiz-Romero
Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) is a technique used to visualize the spatial distribution of biomolecules such as peptides, proteins, lipids or other organic compounds by their molecular masses. Among the different MSI strategies, MALDI-MSI provides a sensitive and label-free approach for imaging of a wide variety of protein or peptide biomarkers from the surface of tissue sections, being currently used in an increasing number of biomedical applications such as biomarker discovery and tissue classification...
October 11, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Benjamin E Brummel, Anthony R Braun, Jonathan N Sachs
Using molecular dynamics simulations, we have explored the effect of asymmetric lipids-specifically those that contain one polyunsaturated (PUFA) and one saturated fatty acid chain-on phase separation in heterogeneous membranes. These lipids are prevalent in neuronal membranes, particularly in synaptic membranes, where the Parkinson's Disease protein α-Synuclein (αS) is found. We have therefore explored the relationship between asymmetric, PUFA-containing lipids, and αS. The simulations show that asymmetric lipids partition to the liquid disordered (Ld) phase of canonical raft mixtures because of the highly disordered PUFA chain...
October 12, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Vera Schützhold, Jens Hahn, Katja Tummler, Edda Klipp
Lipid metabolism is essential for all major cell functions and has recently gained increasing attention in research and health studies. However, mathematical modeling by means of classical approaches such as stoichiometric networks and ordinary differential equation systems has not yet provided satisfactory insights, due to the complexity of lipid metabolism characterized by many different species with only slight differences and by promiscuous multifunctional enzymes. Here, we present an object-oriented stochastic model approach as a way to cope with the complex lipid metabolic network...
2016: Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences
Theyencheri Narayanan, Dhammika Weerakkody, Alexander G Karabadzhak, Michael Anderson, Oleg A Andreev, Yana K Reshetnyak
The pH (Low) Insertion Peptides (pHLIP® peptides) find application in studies of membrane-associated folding, since spontaneous insertion of these peptides is conveniently triggered by varying pH. Also, pHLIP® peptides have medical utility, since they can target acidic diseased tissues, such as tumors, and deliver therapeutic cargo molecules across membrane or target nanoparticles to cancer cells. Here we employed small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) to investigate WT pHLIP® peptide oligomeric state in solution at high concentrations and monitor changes in liposome structure upon peptide insertion into bilayer...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Bruce A Watkins, Jeffrey Kim, Hector Tamez, Julia Wenger, Ravi Thadhani, Allon N Friedman
Long chain (LC) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are major components of cell membrane phospholipids (PL) and serve as precursors for numerous bioactive lipid derivatives. Fatty acids (FA) are routinely analyzed in biological samples to assess composition of tissues, cells, and lipid fractions. In human studies, serum or plasma is often used because of their easy procurement. However, the lipid pool in serum and plasma is a mixture of triacylglycerol (TG), PL, cholesterol and its esters, and other components...
August 26, 2016: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Maeve Long, Jeremy C Simpson
The Golgi complex is the central unit of the secretory pathway, modifying, processing and sorting proteins and lipids to their correct cellular localisation. Changes to proteins at the Golgi complex can have deleterious effects on the function of this organelle, impeding trafficking routes through it, potentially resulting in disease. It is emerging that several Rho GTPase proteins, namely Cdc42, RhoBTB3, RhoA and RhoD are at least in part localised to the Golgi complex, and a number of studies have shown that dysregulation of their levels or activity can be associated with cellular changes which ultimately drive cancer progression...
September 28, 2016: Tissue & Cell
E M Fozo, E A Rucks
In order to survive environmental stressors, including those induced by growth in the human host, bacterial pathogens will adjust their membrane physiology accordingly. These physiological changes also include the use of host-derived lipids to alter their own membranes and feed central metabolic pathways. Within the host, the pathogen is exposed to many stressful stimuli. A resulting adaptation is for pathogens to scavenge the host environment for readily available lipid sources. The pathogen takes advantage of these host-derived lipids to increase or decrease the rigidity of their own membranes, to provide themselves with valuable precursors to feed central metabolic pathways, or to impact host signalling and processes...
2016: Advances in Microbial Physiology
Carlos Fernández-Viadero, Magdalena Jiménez-Sanz, Anzu Fernández-Pérez, Rosario Verduga Vélez, Dámaso Crespo Santiago
Brain ageing leads to a series of changes that reduce the processes of adaptation and response. These transformations can end in cognitive impairment and/or dementia. Although the cause of these changes is diverse, inflammation and oxidative stress explain some of the pathophysiological mechanisms of these anomalies of brain functioning. Neuroinflammation triggers neuronal injury through the presence of inflammatory cytokines and the activation of microglia through membrane receptors and nuclear activation factors...
June 2016: Revista Española de Geriatría y Gerontología
M-L Liu, K J Williams, V P Werth
During apoptosis or activation, cells can release a subcellular structure, called a membrane microvesicle (also known as microparticle) into the extracellular environment. Microvesicles bud-off as a portion of cell membrane with its associated proteins and lipids surrounding a cytosolic core that contains intracellular proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids (DNA, RNA, siRNA, microRNA, lncRNA). Biologically active molecules on the microvesicle surface and encapsulated within can act on recipient cells as a novel mode of intercellular communication...
2016: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
Miguel A Martín-Acebes, Ángela Vázquez-Calvo, Juan-Carlos Saiz
Flaviviruses are emerging arthropod-borne pathogens that cause life-threatening diseases such as yellow fever, dengue, West Nile encephalitis, tick-borne encephalitis, Kyasanur Forest disease, tick-borne encephalitis, or Zika disease. This viral genus groups >50 viral species of small enveloped plus strand RNA virus that are phylogenetically closely related to hepatitis C virus. Importantly, the flavivirus life cycle is intimately associated to host cell lipids. Along this line, flaviviruses rearrange intracellular membranes from the endoplasmic-reticulum of the infected cells to develop adequate platforms for viral replication and particle biogenesis...
October 1, 2016: Progress in Lipid Research
María José Hernández-Corbacho, Mohamed F Salama, Daniel Canals, Can E Senkal, Lina M Obeid
Sphingolipids are bioactive lipids found in cell membranes that exert a critical role in signal transduction. In recent years, it has become apparent that sphingolipids participate in growth, senescence, differentiation and apoptosis. The anabolism and catabolism of sphingolipids occur in discrete subcellular locations and consist of a strictly regulated and interconnected network, with ceramide as the central hub. Altered sphingolipid metabolism is linked to several human diseases. Hence, an advanced knowledge of how and where sphingolipids are metabolized is of paramount importance in order to understand the role of sphingolipids in cellular functions...
September 30, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Lu Ying, Huanhu Zhu
Fatty acids and fatty acid-derived lipids (FAs/FADLs) play essential roles in many living organisms, including contributions to membrane structure and signaling transduction. Aberrant metabolism of FAs/FADLs often causes diseases and health problems. However, the detailed mechanistic studies of specific FAs/FADLs in vivo are limited. C. elegans has been an effective model system for FA/ FADL studies due to its powerful genetics and conserved lipid biosynthetic pathways. The recently developed high-throughput analytic tools also enable sophisticated profiling of lipids molecules in C...
2016: Worm
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