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Lipid membrane disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802158/lipidation-increases-antiviral-activities-of-coronavirus-fusion-inhibiting-peptides
#1
Jung-Eun Park, Tom Gallagher
Coronaviruses (CoVs) can cause life-threatening respiratory diseases. Their infectious entry requires viral spike (S) proteins, which attach to cell receptors, undergo proteolytic cleavage, and then refold in a process that catalyzes virus-cell membrane fusion. Fusion-inhibiting peptides bind to S proteins, interfere with refolding, and prevent infection. Here we conjugated fusion-inhibiting peptides to various lipids, expecting this to secure peptides onto cell membranes and thereby increase antiviral potencies...
August 9, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796901/from-peroxisomal-disorders-to-common-neurodegenerative-diseases-the-role-of-ether-phospholipids-in-the-nervous-system
#2
REVIEW
Fabian Dorninger, Sonja Forss-Petter, Johannes Berger
The emerging diverse roles of ether (phospho)lipids in nervous system development and function in health and disease are currently attracting growing interest. Plasmalogens, a subgroup of ether lipids, are important membrane components involved in vesicle fusion and membrane raft composition. They store polyunsaturated fatty acids and may serve as antioxidants. Ether lipid metabolites act as precursors for the formation of glycosyl-phosphatidyl-inositol (GPI) anchors; others, like platelet-activating factor, are implicated in signaling functions...
August 10, 2017: FEBS Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793795/lipid-droplet-biogenesis
#3
Tobias C Walther, Jeeyun Chung, Robert V Farese
Lipid droplets (LDs) are ubiquitous organelles that store neutral lipids for energy or membrane synthesis and act as hubs for metabolic processes. Cells generate LDs de novo, converting cells to emulsions with LDs constituting the dispersed oil phase in the aqueous cytoplasm. Here we review our current view of LD biogenesis. We present a model of LD formation from the ER in distinct steps and highlight the biology of proteins that govern this biophysical process. Areas of incomplete knowledge are identified, as are connections with physiology and diseases linked to alterations in LD biology...
August 9, 2017: Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793282/increased-risk-of-atherosclerosis-in-patients-with-sarcoidosis
#4
Elena Bargagli, Elisabetta Rosi, Massimo Pistolesi, Federico Lavorini, Luca Voltolini, Paola Rottoli
Sarcoidosis is a systemic granulomatous disease of unknown etiology. Recent studies demonstrated that its pathogenesis is related with enhanced oxidative stress (protein carbonylation and lipid peroxidation) and alterations in the circulating lipid profile. Alterations of lipid metabolism (including the reduction in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and apolipoprotein A1 concentrations) induce plasma membrane, bronchial and lung capillary endothelial cell damage in sarcoidosis patients. Dyslipidemia is associated with increased oxidative stress, diminished overall antioxidative protection and increased risk for atherosclerosis...
August 10, 2017: Pathobiology: Journal of Immunopathology, Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772148/a-type-ecg-and-egcg-dimers-inhibit-3t3-l1-differentiation-by-binding-to-cholesterol-in-lipid-rafts
#5
Wei Zhu, Xiangyi Deng, Jinming Peng, Bo Zou, Chunmei Li
The present study aimed to explore the underlying mechanisms of epicatechin-3-gallate-(4β→8, 2β→O→7)-epicatechin-3-gallate (A-type ECG dimer) and epigallocatechin-3-gallate-(4β→8, 2β→O→7)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (A-type EGCG dimer) involved in their strong inhibitory effects on 3T3-L1 preadipocytes differentiation. In the synthetic "lipid raft-like" liposome, A-type ECG and EGCG dimers incorporated into the liposome with high affinity and decreased the fluidity of the liposome. In 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, A-type ECG and EGCG dimers possibly bonded to lipid rafts cholesterol and disrupted the integrity of lipid rafts, thus exerting their notable inhibitory effects on 3T3-L1 preadipocytes differentiation by suppressing mitotic clonal expansion process and mRNA levels of PPARγ, C/EBPα and SREBP1C...
June 24, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767712/changes-in-lipid-membranes-may-trigger-amyloid-toxicity-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#6
Elizabeth Drolle, Alexander Negoda, Keely Hammond, Evgeny Pavlov, Zoya Leonenko
Amyloid-beta peptides (Aβ), implicated in Alzheimer's disease (AD), interact with the cellular membrane and induce amyloid toxicity. The composition of cellular membranes changes in aging and AD. We designed multi-component lipid models to mimic healthy and diseased states of the neuronal membrane. Using atomic force microscopy (AFM), Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) and black lipid membrane (BLM) techniques, we demonstrated that these model membranes differ in their nanoscale structure and physical properties, and interact differently with Aβ1-42...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766182/lipidomics-and-anti-trypanosomatid-chemotherapy
#7
REVIEW
Michael Biagiotti, Sedelia Dominguez, Nader Yamout, Rachel Zufferey
BACKGROUND: Trypanosomatids such as Leishmania, Trypanosoma brucei and Trypanosoma cruzi belong to the order Kinetoplastida and are the source of many significant human and animal diseases. Current treatment is unsatisfactory and is compromised by the rising appearance of drug resistant parasites. Novel and more effective chemotherapeutics are urgently needed to treat and prevent these devastating diseases, which relies on the identification of essential, parasite specific targets that are absent in the host...
December 2017: Clinical and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765557/the-voltage-dependent-anion-channels-vdac-of-mycobacterium-avium-phagosome-are-associated-with-bacterial-survival-and-lipid-export-in-macrophages
#8
Lia Danelishvili, Jessica J J Chinison, Tuan Pham, Rashmi Gupta, Luiz E Bermudez
Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis is associated with infection of immunocompromised individuals as well as patients with chronic lung disease. M. avium infects macrophages and actively interfere with the host killing machinery such as apoptosis and autophagy. Bacteria alter the normal endosomal trafficking, prevent the maturation of phagosomes and modify many signaling pathways inside of the macrophage by secreting effector molecules into the cytoplasm. To investigate whether M. avium needs to attach to the internal surface of the vacuole membrane before releasing efferent molecules, vacuole membrane proteins were purified and binding to the surface molecules present in intracellular bacteria was evaluated...
August 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764904/photosensitized-methyl-paraben-induces-apoptosis-via-caspase-dependent-pathway-under-ambient-uvb-exposure-in-human-skin-cells
#9
Divya Dubey, Deepti Chopra, Jyoti Singh, Ajeet K Srivastav, Smita Kumari, Ankit Verma, Ratan Singh Ray
Methyl paraben (MP), is a widely used preservative in pharmaceutical, food and cosmetic products. Its molecular mechanism under ambient ultraviolet radiation is not well understood. We investigated photosensitizing mechanism of MP under ambient UVB (0.6 mW/cm(2)) intensity. MP showed dose dependent decrease in cell viability of human keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT) by MTT and NRU assays. Study showed 40% reduction in antimicrobial activity of UVB irradiated MP through E. coli culture. Photosensitized MP (25 μg/ml) significantly enhanced lipid peroxidation, intracellular ROS generation and disrupted mitochondrial membrane integrity...
July 29, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760823/ascorbate-peroxidase-proximity-labeling-coupled-with-biochemical-fractionation-identifies-promoters-of-endoplasmic-reticulum-mitochondrial-contacts
#10
Il-Taeg Cho, Guillaume Adelmant, Youngshin Lim, Jarrod A Marto, Ginam Cho, Jeffrey A Golden
To maintain cellular homeostasis, subcellular organelles communicate with each other and form physical and functional networks through membrane contact sites (MCS) coupled by protein tethers. In particular, endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-mitochondria contacts (EMC) regulate diverse cellular activities such as metabolite exchange (Ca2+ and lipids), intracellular signaling, apoptosis and autophagy. The significance of EMCs have been highlighted by reports indicating that EMC dysregulation is linked to neurodegenerative diseases...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760435/nutrigenomics-of-%C3%AF-3-fatty-acids-regulators-of-the-master-transcription-factors
#11
REVIEW
Maricela Rodríguez-Cruz, Donovan Solís Serna
It is well known that ω-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) control some key molecular cell mechanisms, resulting in a beneficial role in inflammatory diseases. Such mechanisms are complex and reflect the diversity of their functions, mainly as modulators of the dynamic properties of membranes, regulators of gene expression, and precursors of active mediators. The aim of this review is to summarize the state of the art of the effects and mechanisms by which ω-3 LC-PUFAs such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C22:5 ω-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6 ω-3) regulate different metabolic processes to maintain homeostasis...
September 2017: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759727/the-beneficial-effects-of-resveratrol-on-the-steatosis-and-mitochondrial-oxidative-stress-in-hepg2-cells
#12
Magdalena Izdebska, Iwona Piątkowska-Chmiel, Agnieszka Korolczuk, Mariola Herbet, Monika Gawrońska-Grzywacz, Renata Gieroba, Marcin Sysa, Klaudia Czajkowska-Bania, Marcelina Cygal, Agnieszka Korga, Jarosław Dudka
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is currently one of the most common chronic liver diseases, especially in developed countries. One group of substances with a potential use in the treatment of NAFLD are plant polyphenols, represented by resveratrol. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of resveratrol on steatosis and oxidative stress in HepG2 cells. The steatosis of cells was carried out using free fatty acids: oleic or palmitic acid and their mixtures. Steatosis was visualized using the intracellular lipid staining by Nile Red dye with a fluorescence microscope...
July 31, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758160/sphingomyelin-encrypts-tissue-factor-atp-induced-activation-of-a-smase-leads-to-tissue-factor-decryption-and-microvesicle-shedding
#13
Jue Wang, Usha R Pendurthi, L Vijaya Mohan Rao
A majority of tissue factor (TF) on cell surfaces exists in an encrypted state with minimal to no procoagulant activity. At present, it is unclear whether limited availability of phosphatidylserine (PS) and/or a specific membrane lipid in the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane contributes to TF encryption. Sphingomyelin (SM) is a major phospholipid in the outer leaflet, and SM metabolism is shown to be altered in many disease settings that cause thrombotic disorders. The present study is carried out to investigate the effect of SM metabolism on TF activity and TF(+) microvesicles (MVs) release...
May 23, 2017: Blood Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758153/cell-plasma-membrane-cholesterol-as-a-diagnostic
#14
Li Li, Binyu Lu, Dechen Jiang, Minchul Shin, Thomas Kelley, James D Burgess
Cholesterol is a tightly regulated major structural component of the cell plasma membrane (PM) where it forms stoichiometric complexes with phospholipids and sphingolipids. The amount of cholesterol in the PM exhibits a regulatory role in basal activity of several biomolecular processes by direct binding to proteins and by indirect local environmental effects within the PM that are also coupled to overall cellular cholesterol homeostasis. The term "active cholesterol" refers to PM cholesterol not complexed to lipids, a cholesterol state that arises above a threshold mole fraction of cholesterol in the PM...
April 2017: Curr Opin Electrochem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754950/development-of-hydroxybenzoic-based-platforms-as-a-solution-to-deliver-dietary-antioxidants-to-mitochondria
#15
José Teixeira, Catarina Oliveira, Ricardo Amorim, Fernando Cagide, Jorge Garrido, José A Ribeiro, Carlos M Pereira, António F Silva, Paula B Andrade, Paulo J Oliveira, Fernanda Borges
Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction have been associated with metabolic and age-related diseases. Thus, the prevention of mitochondrial oxidative damage is nowadays a recognized pharmacological strategy to delay disease progression. Epidemiological studies suggested an association between the consumption of polyphenol-rich diet and the prevention of different pathologies, including diseases with a mitochondrial etiology. The development of mitochondrial-targeted antioxidants based on dietary antioxidants may decrease mitochondrial oxidative damage...
July 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747762/molecular-mechanisms-of-charcot-marie-tooth-neuropathy-linked-to-mutations-in-human-myelin-protein-p2
#16
Salla Ruskamo, Tuomo Nieminen, Cecilie K Kristiansen, Guro H Vatne, Anne Baumann, Erik I Hallin, Arne Raasakka, Päivi Joensuu, Ulrich Bergmann, Ilpo Vattulainen, Petri Kursula
Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease is one of the most common inherited neuropathies. Recently, three CMT1-associated point mutations (I43N, T51P, and I52T) were discovered in the abundant peripheral myelin protein P2. These mutations trigger abnormal myelin structure, leading to reduced nerve conduction velocity, muscle weakness, and distal limb atrophy. P2 is a myelin-specific protein expressed by Schwann cells that binds to fatty acids and membranes, contributing to peripheral myelin lipid homeostasis. We studied the molecular basis of the P2 patient mutations...
July 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747541/obesity-a-serious-etiologic-factor-for-male-subfertility-in-modern-society
#17
Yue Liu, Zhide Ding
Obesity, defined as excessive accumulation of fat in adipose tissue, is a metabolic disorder resulting from behavioral, environmental and heritable causes. Such malfunction increases the risk of developing hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, respiratory problems, osteoarthritis and cancer. Meanwhile, the negative impact of obesity on male reproduction is gradually being recognized. According to clinical investigations and animal experiments, obesity is correlated with reductions in sperm concentration and motility, increases in sperm DNA damage and changes in reproductive hormonal levels...
July 26, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747506/hcv-induces-the-localization-of-lipid-rafts-to-autophagosomes-for-its-rna-replication
#18
Ja Yeon Kim, Linya Wang, Jiyoung Lee, Jing-Hsiung James Ou
Autophagy plays important roles in maintaining cellular homeostasis. It uses double- or multiple- membrane vesicles termed autophagosomes to remove protein aggregates and damaged organelles from the cytoplasm for recycling. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) has been shown to induce autophagy to enhance its own replication. Here we describe a procedure that combines membrane flotation and affinity chromatography for the purification of autophagosomes from cells that harbor a HCV subgenomic RNA replicon. The purified autophagosomes had double- or multiple- membrane structures with a diameter ranging from 200 nm to 600 nm...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744995/idiopathic-sudden-sensorineural-hearing-loss-and-m%C3%A3-ni%C3%A3-re-syndrome-the-role-of-cerebral-venous-drainage
#19
Marco Matteo Ciccone, Pietro Scicchitano, Michele Gesualdo, Francesca Cortese, Annapaola Zito, Fabio Manca, Barbara Boninfante, Pasquale Recchia, Domenico Leogrande, Domenico Viola, Marialessia Damiani, Valeria Gambacorta, Antonio Piccolo, Vincenzo De Ceglie, Nicola Quaranta
AIM: to evaluate the influence of cerebral venous drainage on the pathogenesis of idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (ISSHL) and Ménière syndrome (MD). METHODS: we enrolled 59 consecutive patients (32 males, mean age 53.05+15.37 years): 40 ISSHL and 19 MD. All underwent physical examination, biochemical evaluation (glycemic and lipid profile, viral serology, C reactive protein, etc), audiometric (tonal, vocal, vestibular evoked myogenic potentials and auditory brainstem response test) and impedentiometric examination...
July 26, 2017: Clinical Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744197/neuronal-cholesterol-accumulation-induced-by-cyp46a1-down-regulation-in-mouse-hippocampus-disrupts-brain-lipid-homeostasis
#20
Sophie Ayciriex, Fathia Djelti, Sandro Alves, Anne Regazzetti, Mathieu Gaudin, Jennifer Varin, Dominique Langui, Ivan Bièche, Eloise Hudry, Delphine Dargère, Patrick Aubourg, Nicolas Auzeil, Olivier Laprévote, Nathalie Cartier
Impairment in cholesterol metabolism is associated with many neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the lipid alterations underlying neurodegeneration and the connection between altered cholesterol levels and AD remains not fully understood. We recently showed that cholesterol accumulation in hippocampal neurons, induced by silencing Cyp46a1 gene expression, leads to neurodegeneration with a progressive neuronal loss associated with AD-like phenotype in wild-type mice. We used a targeted and non-targeted lipidomics approach by liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry to further characterize lipid modifications associated to neurodegeneration and cholesterol accumulation induced by CYP46A1 inhibition...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
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