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Lipid membrane disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911723/ribonucleoprotein-bodies-are-phased-in
#1
REVIEW
Aristeidis P Sfakianos, Alan J Whitmarsh, Mark P Ashe
Intracellular compartments are necessary for the regulation of many biochemical processes that ensure cell survival, growth and proliferation. Compartmentalisation is commonly achieved in organelles with defined lipid membranes, such as mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum or the Golgi apparatus. While these organelles are responsible for many localised biochemical processes, recent evidence points to another class of compartments that lack membrane boundaries. The structure and content of these bodies depend on their function and subcellular localisation, but they mainly incorporate proteins and RNA...
October 15, 2016: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911326/localization-and-processing-of%C3%A2-the%C3%A2-amyloid-%C3%AE-protein-precursor-in%C3%A2-mitochondria-associated-membranes
#2
Dolores Del Prete, Jan M Suski, Bénédicte Oulès, Delphine Debayle, Anne Sophie Gay, Sandra Lacas-Gervais, Renaud Bussiere, Charlotte Bauer, Paolo Pinton, Patrizia Paterlini-Bréchot, Mariusz R Wieckowski, Frédéric Checler, Mounia Chami
Alteration of mitochondria-associated membranes (MAMs) has been proposed to contribute to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We studied herein the subcellular distribution, the processing, and the protein interactome of the amyloid-β protein precursor (AβPP) and its proteolytic products in MAMs. We reveal that AβPP and its catabolites are present in MAMs in cellular models overexpressing wild type AβPP or AβPP harboring the double Swedish or London familial AD mutations, and in brains of transgenic mice model of AD...
November 26, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911022/membrane-defects-and-genetic-redundancy-are-we-at-a-turning-point-for-dyt1-dystonia
#3
REVIEW
Ana Cascalho, Julie Jacquemyn, Rose E Goodchild
Heterozygosity for a 3-base pair deletion (ΔGAG) in TOR1A/torsinA is one of the most common causes of hereditary dystonia. In this review, we highlight current understanding of how this mutation causes disease from research spanning structural biochemistry, cell science, neurobiology, and several model organisms. We now know that homozygosity for ΔGAG has the same effects as Tor1a(KO) , implicating a partial loss of function mechanism in the ΔGAG/+ disease state. In addition, torsinA loss specifically affects neurons in mice, even though the gene is broadly expressed, apparently because of differential expression of homologous torsinB...
December 2, 2016: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908272/exosome-encapsulated-micrornas-as-potential-circulating-biomarkers-in-colon-cancer
#4
Mina Hosseini, Sara Khatamianfar, Seyed Mahdi Hassanian, Reza Nedaeinia, Mojtaba Shafiee, Mina Maftouh, Majid Ghayour-Mobarhan, Soudabeh Shahid Sales, Amir Avan
Exosome-encapsulated microRNAs are being suggested as a new class novel biomarker and diagnostic and predictive markers in colorectal cancer. These particles are released from many cell types into the extracellular space upon fusion of multivesicular bodies (MVB) with the plasma membrane. They contain a wide variety of information, including proteins, lipids, RNAs, non-transcribed RNAs, microRNAs, which can be circulated in various body fluids (e.g., blood, salvia, ascites, urine). Exosomes can be taken up by neighboring or distant cells and thereby modulate the functional of recipient cells and play a key role in disease progression or facilitate metastasis in cancers...
December 1, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905373/-enteral-distress-syndrome-in-surgery-definition-pathogenesis-diagnosis
#5
A P Vlasov, V A Trofimov, T I Grigor'eva, V A Shibitov, P A Vlasov
It was performed a comprehensive experimental and clinical study of functional and metabolic status of the intestine in acute peritonitis, pancreatic necrosis, acute intestinal obstruction. We obtained objective data of impaired barrier function based on levels of toxins in arterial and mesenteric venous blood. Association of organ and organismic homeostatic changes was revealed. It was proved an important role of membrane-destabilizing processes in intestinal epithelium as a cause of enteral insufficiency...
2016: Khirurgiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903801/inhibition-of-an-aquatic-rhabdovirus-demonstrates-promise-of-a-broad-spectrum-antiviral-for-use-in-aquaculture
#6
Bethany F Balmer, Rachel L Powers, Ting-Hu Zhang, Jihye Lee, Frederic Vigant, Benhur Lee, Michael E Jung, Maureen K Purcell, Kevin Snekvik, Hector C Aguilar
: Many enveloped viruses cause devastating disease in aquaculture, resulting in significant economic impact. LJ001 is a broad-spectrum antiviral compound that inhibits enveloped viral infections by specifically targeting phospholipids in the lipid bilayer via production of singlet oxygen ((1)O2). This stabilizes positive curvature and decreases membrane fluidity, which inhibits viral-cell membrane fusion during viral entry. Based on previous mammalian studies and the requirement of light for activation of LJ001, we hypothesized that LJ001 may be useful as a preventative and/or therapeutic agent for enveloped viral infections in aquaculture...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896850/zebrafish-larva-as-a-reliable-model-for-in-vivo-assessment-of-membrane-remodeling-involvement-in-the-hepatotoxicity-of-chemical-agents
#7
Normand Podechard, Martine Chevanne, Morgane Fernier, Arnaud Tête, Aurore Collin, Doris Cassio, Olivier Kah, Dominique Lagadic-Gossmann, Odile Sergent
The easy-to-use in vivo model, zebrafish larva, is being increasingly used to screen chemical-induced hepatotoxicity, with a good predictivity for various mechanisms of liver injury. However, nothing is known about its applicability in exploring the mechanism called membrane remodeling, depicted as changes in membrane fluidity or lipid raft properties. The aim of this study was, therefore, to substantiate the zebrafish larva as a suitable in vivo model in this context. Ethanol was chosen as a prototype toxicant because it is largely described, both in hepatocyte cultures and in rodents, as capable of inducing a membrane remodeling leading to hepatocyte death and liver injury...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896622/caveolin-proteins-a-molecular-insight-into-disease
#8
REVIEW
Hongli Yin, Tianyi Liu, Ying Zhang, Baofeng Yang
Caveolae are a kind of specific cystic structures of lipid rafts in the cytoplasmic membrane and are rich in cholesterol and sphingolipids. In recent years, many researchers have found that both caveolins and caveolae play a role in the development of various human diseases, including coronary heart disease, hypertension, and nervous system disorders. The specific mechanisms by which caveolins induce diseases have been a topic of interest. However, a number of detailed molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood...
November 28, 2016: Frontiers of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896592/why-have-clinical-trials-of-antioxidants-to-prevent-neurodegeneration-failed-a-cellular-investigation-of-novel-phenothiazine-type-antioxidants-reveals-competing-objectives-for-pharmaceutical-neuroprotection
#9
Maike J Ohlow, Selina Sohre, Matthias Granold, Mathias Schreckenberger, Bernd Moosmann
PURPOSE: Only a fraction of the currently established low-molecular weight antioxidants exhibit cytoprotective activity in living cells, which is considered a prerequisite for their potential clinical usefulness in Parkinson's disease or stroke. Post hoc structure-activity relationship analyses have predicted that increased lipophilicity and enhanced radical stabilization could contribute to such cytoprotective activity. METHODS: We have synthesized a series of novel phenothiazine-type antioxidants exhibiting systematic variation in their lipophilicity and radical stabilization...
November 28, 2016: Pharmaceutical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895822/linagliptin-alleviates-fatty-liver-disease-in-diabetic-db-db-mice
#10
Svetlana V Michurina, Irina Ju Ishenko, Vadim V Klimontov, Sergey A Archipov, Natalia E Myakina, Marina A Cherepanova, Eugenii L Zavjalov, Galina V Koncevaya, Vladimir I Konenkov
AIM: To study the effects of linagliptin on the structural signs of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in db/db mice. METHODS: Male diabetic db/db mice (BKS.Cg-Dock7(m+)/(+)Lepr(db)/J) aged 10 wk received the dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) inhibitor linagliptin (10 mg/kg) or saline as a placebo once per day by gavage for 8 wk. Intact db/db mice served as controls. Structural changes in the liver were analyzed from light and electron microscopic images of sections from intact, placebo-treated and linagliptin-treated animals...
November 15, 2016: World Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894594/alterations-of-golgi-organization-in-alzheimer-s-disease-a-cause-or-a-consequence
#11
REVIEW
Inmaculada Ayala, Antonino Colanzi
The Golgi apparatus is a central organelle of the secretory pathway involved in the post-translational modification and sorting of lipids and proteins. In mammalian cells, the Golgi apparatus is composed of stacks of cisternae organized in polarized manner, which are interconnected by membrane tubules to constitute the Golgi ribbon, located in the proximity of the centrosome. Besides the processing and transport of cargo, the Golgi complex is actively involved in the regulation of mitotic entry, cytoskeleton organization and dynamics, calcium homeostasis, and apoptosis, representing a signalling platform for the control of several cellular functions, including signalling initiated by receptors located at the plasma membrane...
November 19, 2016: Tissue & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893051/study-of-cholesterol-repletion-effect-on-nanomechanical-properties-of-human-umbilical-vein-endothelial-cell-via-rapid-broadband-atomic-force-microscopy
#12
Bo Yan, Juan Ren, Yue Liu, Huarong Huang, Xi Zheng, Qingze Zou
Abnormalities of blood cholesterol concentration are associated with increased risks for vascular disease, especially heart attacks and strokes. As one of the main lipid components of plasma membrane in mammalian cells, cholesterol has a major impact on the mechanical properties of endothelial cells. Although the effect of cholesterol depletion on cell mechanical properties has been studied, no results yet have been reported on quantitative investigation of cholesterol repletion effect. In this study, cholesterol repletion effect on nanomechanical properties of human umbilical vein endothelial cell (EA...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891320/the-association-of-vdac-with-cell-viability-of-pc12-model-of-huntington-s-disease
#13
Andonis Karachitos, Daria Grobys, Klaudia Kulczyńska, Adrian Sobusiak, Hanna Kmita
It is becoming increasingly apparent that mitochondria dysfunction plays an important role in the pathogenesis of Huntington's disease (HD), but the underlying mechanism is still elusive. Thus, there is a still need for further studies concerning the upstream events in the mitochondria dysfunction that could contribute to cell death observed in HD. Taking into account the fundamental role of the voltage-dependent anion-selective channel (VDAC) in mitochondria functioning, it is reasonable to consider the channel as a crucial element in HD etiology...
2016: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889944/intramembrane-proteases-as-drug-targets
#14
REVIEW
Steven H L Verhelst
Proteases are considered attractive drug targets. Various drugs targeting classical, soluble proteases have been approved for treatment of human disease. Intramembrane proteases (IMPs) are a more recently discovered group of proteolytic enzymes. They are embedded in lipid bilayers and their active sites are located in the plane of a membrane. All four mechanistic families of IMPs have been linked to disease, but currently, no drugs against IMPs have entered the market. In this review, I will outline the function of IMPs with a focus on the ones involved in human disease, which includes Alzheimer's disease, cancer, and infectious diseases by microorganisms...
November 27, 2016: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889637/cell-membrane-modulation-as-adjuvant-in-cancer-therapy
#15
REVIEW
Sara Zalba, Timo L M Ten Hagen
Cancer is a complex disease involving numerous biological processes, which can exist in parallel, can be complementary, or are engaged when needed and as such can replace each other. This redundancy in possibilities cancer cells have, are fundamental to failure of therapy. However, intrinsic features of tumor cells and tumors as a whole provide also opportunities for therapy. Here we discuss the unique and specific makeup and arrangement of cell membranes of tumor cells and how these may help treatment. Interestingly, knowledge on cell membranes and associated structures is present already for decades, while application of membrane modification and manipulation as part of cancer therapy is lagging...
November 9, 2016: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884599/influence-of-sequence-and-lipid-type-on-membrane-perturbation-by-human-and-rat-amyloid-%C3%AE-peptide-1-42
#16
Anne M Brown, David R Bevan
The hallmark characteristics of plaque formation and neuronal cell death in Alzheimer's disease (AD) are caused principally by the amyloid β-peptide (Aβ). Aβ sequence and lipid composition are essential variables to consider when elucidating the impact of biological membranes on Aβ structure and the effect of Aβ on membrane integrity. Atomistic molecular dynamics simulations testing two Aβ sequences, human and rat Aβ (HAβ and RAβ, respectively), and five lipid types were performed to assess the effect of these variables on membrane perturbation and potential link to AD phenotype differences based on differences in sequence...
November 21, 2016: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883274/impact-of-the-chronic-omega-3-fatty-acids-supplementation-in-hemiparkinsonism-model-induced-by-6-hydroxydopamine-in-rats
#17
Alexandre Sales Barros, Rafael Yuri Gouveia Crispim, Juliana Cavalcante Uchoa, Ricardo Basto Souza, Jonatas Cavalcante Lemos, Gerardo Cristino Filho, Mirna Marques Bezerra, Thales Fontenele Moraes Pinheiro, Silvânia Maria Mendes de Vasconcelos, Danielle Silveira Macêdo, Glauce Socorro de Barros Viana, Lissiana Magna Vasconcelos Aguiar
Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by a progressive degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. The neuronal degeneration may result from the convergence of a number of different pathogenic factors, including apoptosis, excitotoxicity and oxidative stress. Many studies emphasize the importance of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs) in vital processes such as maintenance of the properties of cell membranes and the participation in signal transduction and biodynamic activity of neuronal membranes...
November 24, 2016: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880884/anti-atherosclerosis-and-cardio-protective-effects-of-the-angong-niuhuang-pill-on-a-high-fat-and-vitamin-d3-induced-rodent-model-of-atherosclerosis
#18
Wen-Juan Fu, Ting Lei, Zhen Yin, Jian-Hao Pan, Yu-Shuang Chai, Xiao-Yun Xu, Yi-Xi Yan, Zhi-Hua Wang, Jian Ke, Gang Wu, Ren-He Xu, Manish Paranjpe, Lintao Qu, Hong Nie
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The Angong Niuhuang Pill (ANP) is a well known Chinese traditional therapeutic for the treatment for diseases affecting the Central Nervous System (CNS). Components of the ANP formulation, including Bovis Calculus Sativus, Pulvis Bubali Comus Concentratus, Moschus, Margarita, Cinnabaris, Realgar, Coptidis Rhizoma, Scutellariae Radix, Gardeniae Fructus, Curcumae Radix, and Bomeolum Syntheticum, have been used for the treatment of stroke, encephalitis and emergency meningitis across Asia, especially in China for hundreds of years...
November 20, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877101/from-molecules-to-the-clinic-linking-schizophrenia-and-metabolic-syndrome-through-sphingolipids-metabolism
#19
REVIEW
Rolando I Castillo, Leonel E Rojo, Marcela Henriquez-Henriquez, Hernán Silva, Alejandro Maturana, María J Villar, Manuel Fuentes, Pablo A Gaspar
Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a prevalent and severe comorbidity observed in schizophrenia (SZ). The exact nature of this association is controversial and very often accredited to the effects of psychotropic medications and disease-induced life-style modifications, such as inactive lifestyle, poor dietary choices, and smoking. However, drug therapy and disease-induced lifestyle factors are likely not the only factors contributing to the observed converging nature of these conditions, since an increased prevalence of MS is also observed in first episode and drug-naïve psychosis populations...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875558/palmitoylated-app-forms-dimers-cleaved-by-bace1
#20
Raja Bhattacharyya, Rebecca H Fenn, Cory Barren, Rudolph E Tanzi, Dora M Kovacs
A major rate-limiting step for Aβ generation and deposition in Alzheimer's disease brains is BACE1-mediated cleavage (β-cleavage) of the amyloid precursor protein (APP). We previously reported that APP undergoes palmitoylation at two cysteine residues (Cys186 and Cys187) in the E1-ectodomain. 8-10% of total APP is palmitoylated in vitro and in vivo. Palmitoylated APP (palAPP) shows greater preference for β-cleavage than total APP in detergent resistant lipid rafts. Protein palmitoylation is known to promote protein dimerization...
2016: PloS One
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