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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214381/the-value-of-reflectance-confocal-microscopy-in-diagnosis-of-flat-pigmented-facial-lesions-a-prospective-study
#1
E Wurm, G Pellacani, C Longo, H P Soyer, S Gonzalez, R Hofmann-Wellenhof, V Ahlgrimm-Siess, P Guitera, C Sinz, H Kittler
BACKGROUND: Flat pigmented facial lesions are difficult to diagnose even with dermatoscopy. It is controversial how additional information obtained by in vivo reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) impacts the diagnosis and management. OBJECTIVE: To examine what in vivo reflectance confocal microscopy of flat pigmented facial lesions adds to clinical examination using dermatoscopy including digital dermatoscopic monitoring. METHODS: We prospectively collected 70 cases of flat pigmented facial lesions and recorded diagnoses and management decisions by experts based on direct clinical examination aided by dermatoscopy including digital dermatoscopic monitoring and by remote experts who reviewed the corresponding confocal images...
February 18, 2017: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214380/application-of-the-mechpeff-model-to-predict-passive-effective-intestinal-permeability-in-the-different-regions-of-the-rodent-small-intestine-and-colon
#2
D Pade, M Jamei, A Rostami-Hodjegan, D B Turner
A major component of Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models is prediction of the rate and extent of absorption of orally dosed drugs for which knowledge of effective passive intestinal permeability (Peff ) is essential. Single pass intestinal perfusion (SPIP) studies are used to establish effective permeability in vivo but are difficult to perform in rodents while mechanistic models to predict drug Peff in rat and mouse have not been published. This work evaluates the predictive performance of the 'MechPeff' model to predict Peff in the rodent intestine based upon knowledge of regional gut physiology and drug-specific physicochemical parameters...
February 18, 2017: Biopharmaceutics & Drug Disposition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214373/improved-detection-of-zika-virus-rna-in-human-and-animal-specimens-by-a-novel-highly-sensitive-and-specific-real-time-rt-pcr-assay-targeting-the-5-untranslated-region-of-zika-virus
#3
Jasper Fuk-Woo Chan, Cyril Chik-Yan Yip, Kah-Meng Tee, Zheng Zhu, Jessica Oi-Ling Tsang, Kenn Ka-Heng Chik, Terance Gi-Wai Tsang, Chris Chung-Sing Chan, Vincent Kwok-Man Poon, Siddharth Sridhar, Feifei Yin, Ivan Fan-Ngai Hung, Sandy Ka-Yee Chau, Anna Jinxia Zhang, Kwok-Hung Chan, Kwok-Yung Yuen
OBJECTIVE AND METHOD: We developed and evaluated five novel real-time RT-PCR assays targeting conserved regions in the 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR), envelope (E'), non-structural protein 2A (NS2A), NS5, and 3'-UTR of the ZIKV genome. RESULTS: The ZIKV-5'-UTR assay exhibited the lowest in-vitro limit of detection (5-10 RNA copies/reaction and 3.0×10(-1) plaque-forming units/ml). Compared to the modified version of a widely adopted RT-PCR assay targeting the ZIKV-E gene, the ZIKV-5'-UTR assay showed better sensitivity in human clinical specimens, and representative mouse specimens, including many organs which are known to be involved in human ZIKV infection but difficult to obtain in clinical settings...
February 18, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214358/the-n-terminus-of-cgas-de-oligomerizes-the-cgas-dna-complex-and-lifts-the-dna-size-restriction-of-core-cgas-activity
#4
Arum Lee, Eun-Byeol Park, Janghyun Lee, Byong-Seok Choi, Suk-Jo Kang
Cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) is a DNA-sensing enzyme in the innate immune system. Recent studies using core-cGAS lacking the N-terminus investigated the mechanism for binding of double-stranded (ds) DNA and synthesis of 2',3'-cGAMP, a secondary messenger that ultimately induces type I interferons. However, the function of the N-terminus of cGAS remains largely unknown. Here, we found that the N-terminus enhanced the activity of core-cGAS in vivo. Importantly, the catalytic activity of core-cGAS decreased as the length of dsDNA increased, but the diminished activity was restored by addition of the N-terminus...
February 18, 2017: FEBS Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214331/pomc-maintains-tumor-initiating-properties-of-tumor-tissue-derived-long-term-cultured-breast-cancer-stem-cells
#5
Xiaoti Lin, Weiyu Chen, Fengqin Wei, Binhua P Zhou, Mien-Chie Hung, Xiaoming Xie
The identification and understanding of the molecular network of cancer stem cells (CSCs) have had a profound impact on our view of carcinogenesis and treatment strategy. Unfortunately, a major problem is that serial passages of CSCs from clinical solid tumor specimens currently are not available in any lab, and thus, reported data are difficult to confirm and intensively interrogated. Here, we have generated two tumor tissue-derived breast CSC (BCSC) lines that showed prolonged maintenance over 20 serial passages in vitro, while retaining their tumor-initiating biological properties...
February 18, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214230/synthesis-and-cytotoxic-activities-of-goniothalamins-and-derivatives
#6
Anja Weber, Katja Döhl, Julia Sachs, Anja C M Nordschild, Dennis Schröder, Andrea Kulik, Thomas Fischer, Lutz Schmitt, Nicole Teusch, Jörg Pietruszka
Substituted goniothalamins containing cyclopropane-groups were efficiently prepared in high yields and good selectivity. Antiproliferative activity was measured on three human cancer cell lines (A549, MCF-7, HBL-100), to show which of the structural elements of goniothalamins is mandatory for cytotoxicity. We found that the configuration of the stereogenic centre of the δ-lactone plays an important role for cytotoxicity. In our studies only (R)-configured goniothalamins showed antiproliferative activity, whereby (R)-configuration accords to natural goniothalamin (R)-1...
February 6, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214171/g-protein-based-elisa-as-a-potency-test-for-rabies-vaccines
#7
Martine Chabaud-Riou, Nadège Moreno, Fabien Guinchard, Marie Claire Nicolai, Elisabeth Niogret-Siohan, Nicolas Sève, Catherine Manin, Françoise Guinet-Morlot, Patrice Riou
The NIH test is currently used to assess the potency of rabies vaccine, a key criterion for vaccine release. This test is based on mice immunization followed by intracerebral viral challenge. As part of global efforts to reduce animal experimentation and in the framework of the development of Sanofi Pasteur next generation, highly-purified vaccine, produced without any material of human or animal origin, we developed an ELISA as an alternative to the NIH test. This ELISA is based on monoclonal antibodies recognizing specifically the native form of the viral G-protein, the major antigen that induces neutralizing antibody response to rabies virus...
February 14, 2017: Biologicals: Journal of the International Association of Biological Standardization
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214146/impact-of-anti-tnf-therapy-on-nk-cells-function-and-on-immunosurveillance-against-b-cell-lymphomas
#8
Gaetane Nocturne, Saida Boudaoud, Bineta Ly, Juliette Pascaud, Audrey Paoletti, Xavier Mariette
OBJECTIVES: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is associated with an increased risk of lymphoma linked to activity of the disease. Immunosuppressive drugs have been suspected to induce an additional risk. Since, NK cells have been recently shown to participate to anti-lymphoma immunosurveillance, we aimed to assess if anti-TNF might impact their anti-lymphoma activity. METHODS: NK cells have been assessed ex vivo in patients with RA treated with methotrexate (MTX) with or without anti-TNF...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214127/functionalized-superparamagnetic-iron-oxide-nanoparticles-provide-highly-efficient-iron-labeling-in-macrophages-for-magnetic-resonance-based-detection-in-vivo
#9
Jack Sharkey, Philip J Starkey Lewis, Michael Barrow, Salamah M Alwahsh, June Noble, Eilidh Livingstone, Ross J Lennen, Maurits A Jansen, Jaime Garcia Carrion, Neill Liptrott, Shareen Forbes, Dave J Adams, Amy E Chadwick, Stuart J Forbes, Patricia Murray, Matthew J Rosseinsky, Christopher E Goldring, B Kevin Park
BACKGROUND AIMS: Tracking cells during regenerative cytotherapy is crucial for monitoring their safety and efficacy. Macrophages are an emerging cell-based regenerative therapy for liver disease and can be readily labeled for medical imaging. A reliable, clinically applicable cell-tracking agent would be a powerful tool to study cell biodistribution. METHODS: Using a recently described chemical design, we set out to functionalize, optimize and characterize a new set of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) to efficiently label macrophages for magnetic resonance imaging-based cell tracking in vivo...
February 15, 2017: Cytotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214075/asymmetric-total-synthesis-of-tetrahydroprotoberberine-derivatives-and-evaluation-of-their-binding-affinities-at-dopamine-receptors
#10
David Y W Lee, Jing Liu, Shuzhen Zhang, Peng Huang, Lee-Yuan Liu-Chen
Cocaine addiction remains a serious challenge for clinical and medical research because there is no effective pharmacological treatment. l-THP, a natural product isolated from Corydalis yanhusuo W.T. Wang, is one of the most frequently used traditional herbs to treat drug addiction in China. Our laboratory first reported that its demethylated metabolites l-ICP, l-CD, and l-CP had high affinity at dopamine D1, D2, and D5 receptors. Here we report the chemical synthesis of these metabolites and other derivatives and their binding affinities at dopamine receptors...
January 31, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214044/enhancement-of-antigen-specific-cd4-and-cd8-t-cell-responses-using-a-self-assembled-biologic-nanolipoprotein-particle-vaccine
#11
Dina Weilhammer, Alexis D Dunkle, Craig D Blanchette, Nicholas O Fischer, Michele Corzett, Doerte Lehmann, Tyler Boone, Paul Hoeprich, Adam Driks, Amy Rasley
To address the need for vaccine platforms that induce robust cell-mediated immunity, we investigated the potential of utilizing self-assembling biologic nanolipoprotein particles (NLPs) as an antigen and adjuvant delivery system to induce antigen-specific murine T cell responses. We utilized OT-I and OT-II TCR-transgenic mice to investigate the effects of NLP-mediated delivery of the model antigen ovalbumin (OVA) on T cell activation. Delivery of OVA with the TLR4 agonist monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA) in the context of NLPs significantly enhanced the activation of both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells in vitro compared to co-administration of free OVA and MPLA...
February 14, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214023/using-aequorin-probes-to-measure-ca-2-in-intracellular-organelles
#12
REVIEW
María Teresa Alonso, Macarena Rodríguez-Prados, Paloma Navas-Navarro, Jonathan Rojo-Ruiz, Javier García-Sancho
Aequorins are excellent tools for measuring intra-organellar Ca(2+) and assessing its role in physiological and pathological functions. Here we review targeting strategies to express aequorins in various organelles. We address critical topics such as probe affinity tuning as well as normalization and calibration of the signal. We also focus on bioluminescent Ca(2+) imaging in nucleus or mitochondria of living cells. Finally, recent advances with a new chimeric GFP-aequorin protein (GAP), which can be used either as luminescent or fluorescent Ca(2+) probe, are presented...
January 16, 2017: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214022/circulating-il-6-upregulates-il-10-production-in-splenic-cd4-t-cells-and-limits-acute-kidney-injury-induced-lung-inflammation
#13
Ana Andres-Hernando, Kayo Okamura, Rhea Bhargava, Carol M Kiekhaefer, Danielle Soranno, Lara A Kirkbride-Romeo, Hyo-Wook Gil, Chris Altmann, Sarah Faubel
Although it is well established that acute kidney injury (AKI) is a proinflammatory state, little is known about the endogenous counter-inflammatory response. IL-6 is traditionally considered a pro-inflammatory cytokine that is elevated in the serum in both human and murine AKI. However, IL-6 is known to have anti-inflammatory effects. Here we sought to investigate the role of IL-6 in the counter-inflammatory response after AKI, particularly in regard to the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. Ischemic AKI was induced by bilateral renal pedicle clamping...
February 14, 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213970/efficacy-and-safety-of-immuno-magnetically-sorted-smooth-muscle-progenitor-cells-derived-from-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-for-restoring-urethral-sphincter-function
#14
Yanhui Li, Morgaine Green, Yan Wen, Yi Wei, Prachi Wani, Zhe Wang, Renee Reijo Pera, Bertha Chen
Human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs)-based cell therapy holds promise for treating stress urinary incontinence (SUI). However, safety concerns, especially tumorgenic potential of residual undifferentiated cells in hiPSC derivatives, are major barriers for its clinical translation. An efficient, fast and clinical-scale strategy for purifying committed cells is also required. Our previous studies demonstrated the regenerative effects of hiPSC-derived smooth muscle progenitor cells (pSMCs) on the injured urethral sphincter in SUI, but the differentiation protocol required fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) which is not practical for autologous clinical applications...
February 18, 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213953/the-effects-of-acl-graft-placement-on-in-vivo-knee-function-and-cartilage-thickness-distributions
#15
REVIEW
Louis E DeFrate
Injuries to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) frequently lead to early-onset osteoarthritis. Despite advancement in surgical techniques, ACL reconstruction has a limited ability to prevent these degenerative changes. While previous studies have investigated knee function after ACL reconstruction, in vivo investigations of the effects of graft placement on in vivo joint function and cartilage health are limited. This review presents a series of studies that used novel imaging and 3D modeling techniques to determine the in vivo placement of the ACL graft on the femur using two different ACL reconstruction techniques...
February 18, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213952/down-regulation-of-kiaa1199-cemip-by-mir-216a-suppresses-tumor-invasion-and-metastasis-in-colorectal-cancer
#16
Dejun Zhang, Lei Zhao, Qiong Shen, Qing Lv, Min Jin, Hong Ma, Xiu Nie, Xiumei Zheng, Shaoyi Huang, Pengfei Zhou, Gang Wu, Tao Zhang
Colorectal cancer is one of the major causes of death from cancer. Metastasis is the leading cause of treatment failure, in which cancer stem cells and circulating tumor cells play crucial roles. Identifying the involved metastatic biomarkers and clarifying the regulation mechanisms are of great importance for targeting tumor metastasis. In the current research, we discovered that KIAA1199, a cell-migration inducing protein, showed higher expression in CD44+ cancer cells from metastatic compared with the paired primary tissues, and was upregulated in colorectal cancer and positively correlated with numbers and mesenchymal phenotype of circulating tumor cells, and predicted shorter progress-free survival...
February 18, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213947/select-noxious-stimuli-induce-changes-on-corneal-nerve-morphology
#17
Deborah M Hegarty, Sam M Hermes, Katherine Yang, Sue A Aicher
The surface of the cornea contains the highest density of nociceptive nerves of any tissue in the body. These nerves are responsive to a variety of modalities of noxious stimuli and can signal pain even when activated by low threshold stimulation. Injury of corneal nerves can lead to altered nerve morphology, including neuropathic changes which can be associated with chronic pain. Emerging technologies that allow imaging of corneal nerves in vivo are spawning questions regarding the relationship between corneal nerve density, morphology and function...
February 18, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213939/protective-antibodies-against-clostridium-difficile-are-present-in-intravenous-immunoglobulin-and-are-retained-in-humans-following-its-administration
#18
Ola H Negm, Brendon MacKenzie, Mohamed R Hamed, Omar Aj Ahmad, Clifford C Shone, David P Humphreys, K Ravi Acharya, Christine E Loscher, Izabela Marszalowska, Mark Lynch, Mark H Wilcox, Tanya M Monaghan
The prevalence of serum antibodies against C. difficile (CD) toxins A and B in healthy populations have prompted interest in evaluating the therapeutic activity of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) in individuals experiencing severe or recurrent C. difficile infection (CDI). Despite some promising case reports, a definitive clinical role for IVIg in CDI remains unclear. Contradictory results may be attributed to a lack of consensus regarding optimal dose, timing of administration and patient selection as well as variability in specific antibody content between commercial preparations...
February 18, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213929/exploration-of-the-brn4-regulated-genes-enhancing-adult-hippocampal-neurogenesis-by-rna-sequencing
#19
Jingjing Guo, Xiang Cheng, Lei Zhang, Linmei Wang, Yongxin Mao, Guixiang Tian, Wenhao Xu, Yuhao Wu, Zhi Ma, Jianbing Qin, Meiling Tian, Guohua Jin, Wei Shi, Xinhua Zhang
Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is essential for learning and memory, and its dysfunction is involved in neurodegenerative diseases. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying adult hippocampal neurogenesis are still largely unknown. Our previous studies indicated that the transcription factor Brn4 was upregulated and promoted neuronal differentiation of neural stem cells (NSCs) in the surgically denervated hippocampus in rats. In this study, we use high-throughput RNA sequencing to explore the molecular mechanisms underlying the enhancement of adult hippocampal neurogenesis induced by lentivirus-mediated Brn4 overexpression in vivo...
February 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213891/opioids-and-the-immune-system-friend-or-foe
#20
REVIEW
Lisanne Mirja Plein, Heike L Rittner
Systemically administered opioids are among the most powerful analgesics for treating severe pain. Several negative side-effects (respiratory depression, addiction, nausea, confusion) and the risk of opioid-induced hyperalgesia accompany opioid administration. One other side effect is the potential of opioids to suppress the immune response and thereby to increase the vulnerability for infections. Several studies have investigated the link between opioids and immunosuppression in vitro, in vivo as well as in patients with divergent results: Exogenous opioids such as morphine and fentanyl can impair macrophage and natural killer cell as well as T cell function and weaken the gut barrier in vitro and in animal studies...
February 18, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
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