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Li-Ping Wang, Su-Jing Fan, Shu-Min Li, Xiao-Jun Wang, Na Sun
The purpose of the present study is to explore the effect of aliskiren on the proliferation of cardiac fibroblasts (CFs) in AGT-REN double transgenic hypertensive (dTH) mice. The cultured CFs from AGT-REN dTH mice were divided into AGT-REN group (dTH) and aliskiren group (ALIS). Cultured CFs from C57B6 mice were served as control (WT). The effect of different concentration of aliskiren (1 × 10(-6), 1 × 10(-7), 1 × 10(-8), 1 × 10(-9) mol/L) on CFs proliferation was determined by MTT assay. After treatment with 1 × 10(-7) mol/L aliskiren for 24 h, α-SMA, collagen I, III and NADPH oxidase (NOX) protein expression in CFs of AGT-REN dTH mice were detected by Western blot...
October 25, 2016: Sheng Li Xue Bao: [Acta Physiologica Sinica]
Minoru Tanaka, Justin M Roberts, Hyuk-Soo Seo, Amanda Souza, Joshiawa Paulk, Thomas G Scott, Stephen L DeAngelo, Sirano Dhe-Paganon, James E Bradner
Cellular signaling is often propagated by multivalent interactions. Multivalency creates avidity, allowing stable biophysical recognition. Multivalency is an attractive strategy for achieving potent binding to protein targets, as the affinity of bivalent ligands is often greater than the sum of monovalent affinities. The bromodomain and extraterminal domain (BET) family of transcriptional coactivators features tandem bromodomains through which BET proteins bind acetylated histones and transcription factors...
October 24, 2016: Nature Chemical Biology
Dmitry M Korzhnev, Dante Neculai, Sirano Dhe-Paganon, Cheryl H Arrowsmith, Irina Bezsonova
HLTF is a SWI2/SNF2-family ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling enzyme that acts in the error-free branch of DNA damage tolerance (DDT), a cellular mechanism that enables replication of damaged DNA while leaving damage repair for a later time. Human HLTF and a closely related protein SHPRH, as well as their yeast homologue Rad5, are multi-functional enzymes that share E3 ubiquitin-ligase activity required for activation of the error-free DDT. HLTF and Rad5 also function as ATP-dependent dsDNA translocases and possess replication fork reversal activities...
October 22, 2016: Journal of Biomolecular NMR
Kartiga Natarajan, Koteswara R Gottipati, Kiflu Berhane, Buka Samten, Usha Pendurthi, Vijay Boggaram
BACKGROUND: Persistant inflammatory responses to infectious agents and other components in organic dust underlie lung injury and development of respiratory diseases. Organic dust components responsible for eliciting inflammation and the mechanisms by which they cause lung inflammation are not fully understood. We studied the mechanisms by which protease activities in poultry dust extracts and intracellular oxidant stress induce inflammatory gene expression in A549 and Beas2B lung epithelial cells...
October 22, 2016: Respiratory Research
Valentina Longobardi, Angela Salzano, Giuseppe Campanile, Raffaele Marrone, Francesco Palumbo, Milena Vitiello, Gianluigi Zullo, Bianca Gasparrini
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of carnitine supplementation of semen extender on fertility parameters of frozen-thawed buffalo sperm. Buffalo semen was cryopreserved in BioXcell containing 0 (control group), 2.5 and 7.5-mM carnitine. After thawing, viability, motility, membrane integrity and capacitation status (assessed by localization of phosphotyrosine-containing proteins and chlortetracycline, chlortetracycline assay) were evaluated. Furthermore, total antioxidant capacity, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lipid peroxidation levels, as well as adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content and phospholipids concentration were assessed...
September 20, 2016: Theriogenology
Yohannes W Woldeamanuel, Meabh O'Hare, Danielle D DeSouza, Robert P Cowan
Transient headache exacerbation during IV dihydroergotamine (DHE) therapy of migraine may prompt clinicians to prematurely discontinue DHE therapy, potentially depriving patients of the full benefit of DHE infusion. In a recent Neurology® article, Eller et al. evaluated whether or not worsening headache during DHE infusion was associated with suboptimal medium-term headache outcomes.
October 18, 2016: Neurology
Yuanting Cui, Li Li, Peng Gao, Liqun Ma, Daoyan Liu, Zhiming Zhu
OBJECTIVE: Obesity is global healthy problem. Uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) mainly expresses on brown adipose tissue (BAT), uncouples energy substrate oxidation from mitochondrial ATP production and results in the loss of potential energy as heat. Transient receptor potential vanilloid subfamily, member 1 (TRPV1) is the heat-gated cation ion channel. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vivo role of TRPV1 and UCP1 co-action in obesity. DESIGN AND METHOD: We generated and characterized UCP1 mice lacking TRPV1 activity (TRPV1/UCP1 mice)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Arif U Hasan, Koji Ohmori, Takeshi Hashimoto, Kazuyo Kamitori, Fuminori Yamaguchi, Kumi Konishi, Takahisa Noma, Junsuke Igarashi, Tetsuo Yamashita, Katsuya Hirano, Masaaki Tokuda, Tetsuo Minamino, Akira Nishiyama, Masakazu Kohno
Deterioration of adipocyte function due to increased oxidative stress predisposes patients to metabolic disorders in advanced age. However, the roles of tumor suppressors in such conditions remain largely unknown. Therefore, we aimed to address their dynamics in aged adipocytes using a long-term culture model. We compared 3T3-L1 adipocytes at 17-19 days (long-term) with those at 8-10 days (short-term) after initiation of adipogenic induction for mimicking 'aged' and 'young' adipocytes, respectively. H2O2 release and dihydroethidium (DHE) staining was increased, while superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was reduced in long-term cultured adipocytes, which is suggestive of enhanced oxidative stress in this group...
October 12, 2016: Biogerontology
Shuang Chu, Xiao-Dong Mao, Li Wang, Wen Peng
Vascular endothelial dysfunction can be induced by homocysteine (Hcy) through promoted oxidative stress. Huang Qi decoction (HQD) is a traditional Chinese medical formula and its components possess antioxidant effect. The study herein was therefore designed to investigate the effects of HQD at different dosage on endothelial dysfunction induced by Hcy. Tempol and apocynin were used to investigate whether antioxidant mechanisms were involved. Endothelium-dependent relaxation of rat aortas was investigated by isometric tension recordings...
2016: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Lei Wang, Xue-Chen Zhao, Wei Cui, Yong-Qiang Ma, Hua-Liang Ren, Xin Zhou, John Fassett, Yan-Zong Yang, Yingjie Chen, Yun-Long Xia, Jie Du, Huihua Li
BACKGROUND: -The recruitment of leukocytes to the vascular wall is a key step in hypertension development. Chemokine receptor CXCR2 mediates inflammatory cell chemotaxis in several diseases, however, the role of CXCR2 in hypertension development and the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. METHODS: -Angiotensin II (490 ng·kg(-1)·min(-1)) or DOCA-salt-induced mouse hypertensive models in genetic ablation, pharmacological inhibition of CXCR2 and adoptive bone marrow transfer mice were used to determine the role of CXCR2 in hypertension (measured by radiotelemetry and tail-cuff system), inflammation (verified by flow cytometry and quantitative real-time PCR analysis), vascular remodeling (studied by haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and Masson's trichrome staining), vascular dysfunction (assessed by aortic ring), and oxidative stress (indicated by NADPH oxidase activity, DHE staining and quantitative real-time PCR analysis)...
September 27, 2016: Circulation
Byul-Nim Ahn, Fatih Karadeniz, Chang-Suk Kong, Ki-Ho Nam, Mi-Soon Jang, Youngwan Seo, Han Seong Kim
Lack of bone formation-related health problems are a major problem for the aging population in the modern world. As a part of the ongoing trend of developing natural substances that attenuate osteoporotic bone loss conditions, dioxinodehydroeckol (DHE) from edible brown alga Ecklonia cava was tested for its effects on osteoblastogenic differentiation in MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts. DHE was observed to successfully enhance osteoblast differentiation, as indicated by elevated cell proliferation, alkaline phosphatase activity, intracellular cell mineralization, along with raised levels of osteoblastogenesis indicators at the concentration of 20 μM...
September 14, 2016: Marine Drugs
Yuanting Cui, Li Li, Peng Gao, Liqun Ma, Daoyan Liu, Zhiming Zhu
OBJECTIVE: Obesity is global healthy problem. Uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) mainly expresses on brown adipose tissue (BAT), uncouples energy substrate oxidation from mitochondrial ATP production and results in the loss of potential energy as heat. Transient receptor potential vanilloid subfamily, member 1 (TRPV1) is the heat-gated cation ion channel. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vivo role of TRPV1 and UCP1 co-action in obesity. DESIGN AND METHOD: We generated and characterized UCP1 mice lacking TRPV1 activity (TRPV1/UCP1 mice)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Peng Jiang, Amrita Ray, Leonard P Rybak, Michael J Brenner
RATIONALE: Oxidative stress plays a critical role in gentamicin-induced hair cell death. Previous work has implicated the cytoplasmic transcription factor signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) as a potential mediator of drug-induced ototoxicity, but role in aminoglycosides is largely unknown. This study investigated aminoglycosides-induced cell death, exploring contributions of reactive oxygen species and STAT1 pathway in injury and protection. METHODS: Neonatal murine organ of Corti explants from 2 to 3 day postnatal pups (n = 96) were treated with gentamicin at (4 μM, 50 μM) for 4 to 72 hours, with/without protectants...
October 2016: Otology & Neurotology
Denise E Chou, Amy R Tso, Peter J Goadsby
OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy and tolerability of oral aprepitant, a substance P/neurokinin A receptor antagonist, in controlling nausea associated with IV dihydroergotamine (DHE) administered for medically refractory migrainous headache in patients not responding to standard antiemetics or with a history of uncontrolled nausea with DHE. METHODS: This was a retrospective chart review of prospectively collected hourly diary data and clinical notes of patients hospitalized between 2011 and 2015 for inpatient treatment with DHE...
October 11, 2016: Neurology
Andrew M Roberts, Rekha Jagadapillai, Radhika A Vaishnav, Robert P Friedland, Robert Drinovac, Xingyu Lin, Evelyne Gozal
Vascular dysfunction and decreased cerebral blood flow are linked to Alzheimer's disease (AD). Loss of endothelial nitric oxide (NO) and oxidative stress in human cerebrovascular endothelium increase expression of amyloid precursor protein (APP) and enhance production of the Aβ peptide, suggesting that loss of endothelial NO contributes to AD pathology. We hypothesize that decreased systemic NO bioavailability in AD may also impact lung microcirculation and induce pulmonary endothelial dysfunction. The acute effect of NO synthase (NOS) inhibition on pulmonary arteriolar tone was assessed in a transgenic mouse model (TgAD) of AD (C57BL/6-Tg(Thy1-APPSwDutIowa)BWevn/Mmjax) and age-matched wild-type controls (C57BL/6J)...
September 2016: Physiological Reports
Goran Bekan, Peer Tfelt-Hansen
BACKGROUND: The claim that parenteral dihydroergotamine (DHE) is effective in migraine is based on one randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover trial from 1986. The aim of this review was to critically evaluate the original article. It was also found to be of interest to review quotes concerning the results in the more than 100 articles subsequently referring to the article. METHODS: The correctness of the stated effect of intravenous DHE in the randomized clinical trial (RCT) was first critically evaluated...
October 2016: Headache
Sin Bond Leung, Hongwei Zhang, Chi Wai Lau, Zhi-Xiu Lin
BACKGROUND: Hypertension can be treated effectively by acupuncture; however, the association between acupuncture and endothelial function remains unknown. This study aimed to investigate the effects of acupuncture on endothelial dysfunction and oxidative stress-related parameters in spontaneously hypertensive animals. METHODS: Eighteen-week-old Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKYs) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) were arbitrarily divided into four groups: WKY control (n = 8), SHR control (n = 8), SHR sham-acupuncture (n = 8) and SHR acupuncture (n = 8)...
2016: Chinese Medicine
Michel Kindo, Sébastien Gerelli, Jamal Bouitbir, Tam Hoang Minh, Anne-Laure Charles, Jean-Philippe Mazzucotelli, Joffrey Zoll, François Piquard, Bernard Geny
OBJECTIVE: Left ventricle (LV) transmural gradient in mitochondrial respiration has been recently reported. However, to date, the physiological mechanisms involved in the lower endocardium mitochondrial respiration chain capacity still remain to be determined. Since, nitric oxide (NO) synthase expression in the heart has spatial heterogeneity and might impair mitochondrial function, we investigated a potential association between LV transmural NO and mitochondrial function gradient. METHODS: Maximal oxidative capacity (VMax) and relative contributions of the respiratory chain complexes II, III, IV (VSucc) and IV (VTMPD), mitochondrial content (citrate synthase activity), coupling, NO (electron paramagnetic resonance), and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production (H2O2 and dihydroethidium (DHE) staining) were determined in rat sub-endocardium (Endo) and sub-epicardium (Epi)...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
Jae Kun Jeon, Sung Mi Han, Jong Ki Kim
Bursts of emissions of low-energy electrons, including interatomic Coulomb decay electrons and Auger electrons (0-1000 eV), as well as X-ray fluorescence produced by irradiation of large-Z element nanoparticles by either X-ray photons or high-energy ion beams, is referred to as the nanoradiator effect. In therapeutic applications, this effect can damage pathological tissues that selectively take up the nanoparticles. Herein, a new nanoradiator dosimetry method is presented that uses probes for reactive oxygen species (ROS) incorporated into three-dimensional gels, on which macrophages containing iron oxide nanoparticles (IONs) are attached...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
Sen Zhu, Rakeshwar S Guleria, Candice M Thomas, Amanda Roth, F N U Gerilechaogetu, Rajesh Kumar, David E Dostal, Kenneth M Baker, Jing Pan
Retinoic acid receptor (RAR) has been implicated in pathological stimuli-induced cardiac remodeling. To determine whether the impairment of RARα signaling directly contributes to the development of heart dysfunction and the involved mechanisms, tamoxifen-induced myocardial specific RARα deletion (RARαKO) mice were utilized. Echocardiographic and cardiac catheterization studies showed significant diastolic dysfunction after 16 wks of gene deletion. However, no significant differences were observed in left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), between RARαKO and wild type (WT) control mice...
August 15, 2016: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
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