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Wei Wang, Dong Xing, Yingjian Song, Feiyu Liu
BACKGROUND: Esophageal cancer is one of the worst malignant digestive neoplasms with poor treatment outcomes. Definitive concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CRT) has become the standard nonsurgical treatment option for locally advanced esophageal cancer. The chemotherapeutic drugs 5-fluorouracil and cisplatin have been most commonly used in CRT of esophageal cancer. However, radiotherapy combined with 5-FU/cisplatin often delivers severe toxicity to patients. S-1 as an oral chemotherapeutic drug exhibits higher anti-tumor activity, less adverse effects, and better biological availability...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Shuhei Mayanagi, Kosuke Kashiwabara, Michitaka Honda, Koji Oba, Toru Aoyama, Mitsuro Kanda, Hiromichi Maeda, Chikuma Hamada, Sotaro Sadahiro, Junichi Sakamoto, Shigetoyo Saji, Takaki Yoshikawa
BACKGROUND: Most previous reports to analyze risk factors for peritoneal recurrence in patients with colon cancer have been observational studies of a population-based cohort. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the risk factors for peritoneal recurrence in patients with stage II to III colon cancer who underwent curative resection. DESIGN: This was a pooled analysis using a combined database obtained from 3 large phase III randomized trials (N = 3714)...
March 20, 2018: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
Ting-Ting Liu, Xi-Sheng Liu, Meng Zhang, Xue-Ni Liu, Fu-Xiang Zhu, Fang-Ming Zhu, Si-Wen Ouyang, Shan-Bao Li, Chen-Long Song, Hui-Min Sun, Su Lu, Yu Zhang, Jun Lin, Hua-Mei Tang, Zhi-Hai Peng
PURPOSE: Recent studies have determined that cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) plays a vital role in carcinogenesis. We sought to clarify the role of COMP in colon cancer. METHODS: We investigated gene expression data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) dataset. Tissue microarrays (TMA) containing paired samples from 253 patients with colon cancer were subjected to immunostaining. COMP levels in serum of colon cancer patients and healthy donors were measured with ELISA...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology
Youhei Okada, Ting Wang, Kazuhiro Kasai, Kazuyuki Suzuki, Yasuhiro Takikawa
Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) is critical in cancer cell invasion and metastasis. The effects of a treatment that targets TGF-β using the combination of interferon alpha (IFNα)-2b and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) are unknown. Here, we show that the serum levels of TGF-β1 prior to the therapy correlate with increased maximum tumor diameter, which is significantly ( p  < 0.01) decreased after the combination therapy. 5-FU increased both the expression and secretion levels of TGF-β1 in hepatoma cells, but not in normal hepatocytes...
2018: Cell Death Discovery
Kathryn J Schunke, Lauren M Rosati, Marianna Zahurak, Joseph M Herman, Amol K Narang, Irina Usach, Alison P Klein, Charles J Yeo, Larry T Korman, Ralph H Hruban, John L Cameron, Daniel A Laheru, Ross A Abrams
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to report toxicity and long-term survival outcomes of 2 prospective trials evaluating mitomycin C (MMC) with 5-fluorouracil-based adjuvant chemoradiation in resected periampullary adenocarcinoma. Methods and materials: From 1996 to 2002, 119 patients received an adjuvant 4-drug chemotherapy regimen of 5-fluorouracil, leucovorin, MMC, and dipyridamole with chemoradiation on 2 consecutive trials (trials A and B). Trial A patients received upfront chemoradiation (50 Gy split-course, 2...
January 2018: Advances in Radiation Oncology
Hidehiro Tajima, Mitsuyoshi Okazaki, Takahisa Yamaguchi, Yoshinao Ohbatake, Koichi Okamoto, Shinichi Nakanuma, Shiro Terai, Seisho Sakai, Jun Kinoshita, Isamu Makino, Keishi Nakamura, Hironori Hayashi, Katsunobu Oyama, Masafumi Inokuchi, Tomoharu Miyashita, Hiroyuki Takamura, Itasu Ninomiya, Sachio Fushida, Tetsuo Ohta
The prognosis of patients with unresectable or recurrent pancreatic cancers is very poor. Prior to development of nab-paclitaxel (PTX) plus gemcitabine (GEM) therapy and FOLFIRINOX therapy, there was no recommended third-line chemotherapy after 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and GEM-based regimens. The present study conducted a Phase I clinical trial of weekly low-dose PTX as a third-line palliative chemotherapy for patients with pancreatic cancer. PTX was administered on days 1, 8, 15, and 22 of each cycle, repeated twice as follows: Level 1, 40 mg/m2 (n=6); Level 2, 50 mg/m2 (n=4)...
April 2018: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
Çinel Köksal Karayildirim, Mustafa Kotmakçi, Erkan Halay, Kadir Ay, Yücel Başpinar
5-Fluorouracil is one of the first line drugs for the systemic therapy of solid tumors like breast, colorectal, oesophageal, stomach, pancreatic, head and neck. It could be shown that sugars can improve the absorption across cell membranes and can help to bypass some pharmacokinetic problems. Carbohydrates as most common organic molecules are an important issue of plant and animal metabolisms. They are non toxic and have important duties in the body like participating in DNA and RNA synthesis and being responsible for energy production...
March 2018: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal: SPJ: the Official Publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society
A S Ochoa-Chavez, A Pieczyńska, A Fiszka Borzyszkowska, P J Espinoza-Montero, E M Siedlecka
In this study, the electrochemical degradation process of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in aqueous media was performed using a continuous flow reactor in an undivided cell (system I), and in a divided cell with a cationic membrane (Nafion® 424) (system II). In system I, 75% of 5-FU degradation was achieved (50 mg L-1 ) with a applied current density japp  = 150 A m-2 , volumetric flow rate qv = 13 L h-1 , after 6 h of electrolysis (kapp  = 0.004 min-1 ). The removal efficiency of 5-FU was higher (95%) when the concentration was 5 mg L-1 under the same conditions...
March 9, 2018: Chemosphere
Qingyi Tong, Huijuan You, Xintao Chen, Kongchao Wang, Weiguang Sun, Yufeng Pei, Xiaodan Zhao, Ming Yuan, Hucheng Zhu, Zengwei Luo, Yonghui Zhang
Despite All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) has transformed acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) from the most fatal to the most curable hematological cancer, there remains a clinical challenge that many high-risk APL patients who fail to achieve a complete molecular remission or relapse and become resistant to ATRA. Herein, we report that 5-(4-methoxyphenethyl)-[1, 3] dioxolo [4, 5-j] phenanthridin-6(5H)-one (ZYH005) exhibits specific anticancer effects on APL and ATRA-resistant APL in vitro and vivo, while shows negligible cytotoxic effect on non-cancerous cell lines and peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy donors...
March 15, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Cebrail Akyuz, Necdet Fatih Yasar, Orhan Uzun, Kıvanc Derya Peker, Oguzhan Sunamak, Mustafa Duman, Ahmet Ozer Sehirli, Sinan Yol
INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to investigate the effect of melatonin on the healing of colon anastomosis following chemotherapy. METHODS: 32 rats were randomised into four groups: (a) control group (Group 1), which underwent sigmoid colon transaction and primary anastomosis; (b) melatonin group (Group 2), which received melatonin daily following anastomosis; (c) 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) group (Group 3), which received 5-FU for five days prior to anastomosis; and (d) 5-FU+melatonin group (Group 4), which received 5-FU for five days prior to anastomosis and melatonin daily following anastomosis...
March 19, 2018: Singapore Medical Journal
Jun-Ming Chen, Jue Zhang, Yong-Mei Xia, Xiao-Xia Wang, Jian Li
Steviol is the colonic metabolite of the natural sweetener steviol glycosides. It does not diffuse to the blood and the half maximal inhibitory concentration of steviol is longer compared with that of current chemotherapy agents, including 5-fluorouracil and doxorubicin. The present study demonstrated that steviol inhibits the proliferation of the human osteosarcoma U2OS cell line in a dose- and time-dependent manner, and that the inhibition rate is comparative with that of doxorubicin and 5-fluorouracil. The mechanism of this anticancer activity is also investigated...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Maha S Al-Keilani, Dua H Alsmadi, Ruba S Darweesh, Karem H Alzoubi
Background: Approximately 90% of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer fail therapy mainly due to resistance. Taking advantage of currently approved agents for treatment of disease conditions other than cancer for the identification of new adjuvant anticancer therapies is highly encouraged. Pramlintide is a parenteral antidiabetic agent that is currently approved for treatment of types 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus. Objectives: To address the antineoplastic potential of pramlintide in colorectal cancer and to evaluate the ability of pramlintide to enhance the cytotoxicity of 5-fluorouracil, oxaliplatin, and irinotecan against colorectal cancer cell lines expressing wild-type and mutant p53...
2018: Clinical Pharmacology: Advances and Applications
Ilaria Depetris, Donatella Marino, Alessandro Bonzano, Celeste Cagnazzo, Roberto Filippi, Massimo Aglietta, Francesco Leone
Fluoropyrimidines (5-fluorouracil and capecitabine) are antimetabolite drugs, widely used for the treatment of a variety of cancers, both in adjuvant and in metastatic setting. Although the most common toxicities of these drugs have been extensively studied, robust data and comprehensive characterization still lack concerning fluoropyrimidine-induced cardiotoxicity (FIC), an infrequent but potentially life-threatening toxicity. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge of FIC with special regard to proposed pathogenetic models (coronary vasospasm, endothelium and cardiomyocytes damage, toxic metabolites, dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase deficiency); risk and predictive factors; efficacy and usefulness in detection of laboratory markers, electrocardiographic changes and cardiac imaging; and specific treatment, including a novel agent, uridine triacetate...
April 2018: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
Karen Kinsley, Wendy Pritchett
Recent approaches in treating pancreatic adenocarcinoma, an aggressive disease with limited survival, include the use of liposomal irinotecan as an option when first-line therapy has failed. Liposomal irinotecan has been approved in combination with 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin for patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer. Liposomal irinotecan is a newer therapy requiring oncology nurses to obtain knowledge and skills for proper administrating, monitoring of hypersensitivity reactions during infusion, managing side effects, and providing patient education...
April 1, 2018: Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing
Nelson S Yee
Progress has been made in the treatment of gastrointestinal cancers through advances in systemic therapies, surgical interventions, and radiation therapy. At the Multi-Disciplinary Patient Care in Gastrointestinal Oncology conference, the faculty members of the Penn State Health Milton S. Hershey Medical Center presented a variety of topics that focused on this sub-specialty. This conference paper highlights the new development in systemic treatment of various malignant diseases in the digestive system. Results of the recent clinical trials that investigated the clinical efficacy of pegylated hyaluronidase, napabucasin, and L-asparaginase in pancreatic carcinoma are presented...
March 16, 2018: Biomedicines
Satoshi Suzuki, Moriya Iwaizumi, Hidetaka Yamada, Tomohiro Sugiyama, Yasushi Hamaya, Takahisa Furuta, Shigeru Kanaoka, Haruhiko Sugimura, Hiroaki Miyajima, Satoshi Osawa, John M Carethers, Ken Sugimoto
Backgrounds: Trifluridine is an active antitumor component of TAS-102 that resembles 5-fluorouracil. Although patients with advanced colorectal cancer (CRC) exhibiting a mismatch repair (MMR) deficiency reportedly do not benefit from 5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy and we previously reported that truncated methyl-CpG binding domain protein 4 (MBD4) enhances 5-fluorouracil cytotoxicity in MMR-deficient CRC cells, little is known regarding the effect of MMR deficiency on trifluridine cytotoxicity in CRC...
February 20, 2018: Oncotarget
Helena S Gouveia, Sílvia O Lopes, Ana Luísa Faria
Tumour lysis syndrome (TLS) is a rare oncological emergency in solid tumours. Because it is associated with bad short-term prognosis, early recognition and treatment are mandatory. This case refers to a middle-aged woman who presented with stage IV colon cancer, with massive hepatic involvement. After three cycles of first-line FOLFOX (folinic acid, 5-fluorouracil and oxaliplatin), she developed acute kidney injury and hyperkalaemia that did not respond to standard measures. High suspicion of TLS prompted further corroborating investigations and early intensive care unit admission...
March 15, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
R Petrilli, J O Eloy, J A R Paschoal, R F V Lopez
5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is used for the topical treatment of pre-cancerous skin lesions. However, previous reports focus on 5-FU quantification in plasma samples, failing to provide information about drug quantification in the skin. Therefore, the aim of this work was to develop a simple and reliable analytical method employing HPLC-UV for 5-FU quantification in skin samples. Chromatographic separation was obtained using the commonly available Lichrospher RP-C18 endcapped column. Porcine ear skin matrix-based analytical curves with thymine, as internal standard, were used...
March 5, 2018: Die Pharmazie
Arezoo Mohammadi Gazestani, Samideh Khoei, Sepideh Khoee, Soraya Emamgholizadeh Minaei, Manijeh Motevalian
Magnetite nanographene oxide has exhibited great potential in drug delivery and photothermal therapy (PTT) for cancer treatment. Here we developed 5-fluorouracil-loaded poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid)-coated magnetite nanographene oxide (NGO-SPION-PLGA-5-Fu) to simplify combined PTT and chemotherapy in one complex. The nanocarrier was synthesized using a modified O1 /W1 /O2 /W2 multiple emulsion solvent evaporation method and was characterized for size, zeta potential, drug loading, in vitro and in vivo release...
March 15, 2018: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
Guangzhong Xu, Kai Li, Nengwei Zhang, Bin Zhu, Guosheng Feng, Qing Fan
Colorectal cancer is a common malignancy with a high prevalence and associated mortality rate. However, the preclinical tools currently used for drug development are insufficient. The aim of the present study was to establish and characterize a specific patient-derived colon cancer xenograft (PDCCX) mouse model for drug testing. Primary colon tumors were obtained from 10 patients by surgical resection, and tumor tissues were subsequently grafted into nude mice followed by consecutive passages. Primary tumors and xenograft tumors were collected and processed for DNA sequencing, histological evaluation and immunohistochemical staining...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
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