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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716516/hypertonia
#1
Sarah Helen Evans, Mark William Cameron, Justin Michael Burton
Hypertonia is the abnormal increase in muscle tone as a result of upper motor neuron lesions. There are three following clinical types: spasticity, dystonia, and rigidity. Management of hypertonia is individualized and should be directed by the patient and/or family׳s goals of care as well as the underlying cause of the hypertonia. Treatment options include stretching, strengthening, positioning, oral medications, botulinum toxin injections, phenol injections, as well as surgical procedures. Without effective management, hypertonia can result in muscle imbalance, abnormal movement patterns, pain, joint contracture, joint deformity, and ultimately negatively impact a patient׳s function...
July 14, 2017: Current Problems in Pediatric and Adolescent Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713039/efficacy-of-ankle-foot-orthoses-types-on-walking-in-children-with-cerebral-palsy-a-systematic-review
#2
REVIEW
Atefeh Aboutorabi, Mokhtar Arazpour, Monireh Ahmadi Bani, Hassan Saeedi, John S Head
BACKGROUND: Ankle foot orthoses (AFOs) are orthotic devices that can be used to normalize the walking pattern of children with cerebral palsy (CP). One of the aims of orthotic management is to produce a more normal gait pattern by positioning joints in the proper position to reduce pathological reflex or spasticity. OBJECTIVE: To conduct a systematic review of the literature and establish the effect of treatment with various types of AFOs on gait patterns of children with CP...
July 13, 2017: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698802/gait-analysis-in-children-with-cerebral-palsy
#3
Stéphane Armand, Geraldo Decoulon, Alice Bonnefoy-Mazure
Cerebral palsy (CP) children present complex and heterogeneous motor disorders that cause gait deviations.Clinical gait analysis (CGA) is needed to identify, understand and support the management of gait deviations in CP. CGA assesses a large amount of quantitative data concerning patients' gait characteristics, such as video, kinematics, kinetics, electromyography and plantar pressure data.Common gait deviations in CP can be grouped into the gait patterns of spastic hemiplegia (drop foot, equinus with different knee positions) and spastic diplegia (true equinus, jump, apparent equinus and crouch) to facilitate communication...
December 2016: EFORT open reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694601/spastic-quadriparesis-due-to-pathological-fracture-of-odontoid-secondary-to-carcinoma-prostate-a-rare-presentation
#4
Maneet Gill, M N Swamy, Vikas Maheshwari, T S Lingaraju, Aishik Mukherjee
Prostate carcinoma presenting as symptomatic metastases to atlantoaxial spine is extremely rare. Spastic quadriparesis due to pathological fracture of odontoid as the only initial manifestation without symptoms of primary malignancy is rarer still. We report a 64-year-old male who presented with progressive spastic quadriparesis along with urinary retention of 3 weeks duration. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging cervical spine and craniovertebral junction showed type III pathological fracture of odontoid with anterior translation of C1 with spinal cord compression...
April 2017: Journal of Craniovertebral Junction and Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676144/ixcellence-network%C3%A2-an-international-educational-network-to-improve-current-practice-in-the-management-of-cervical-dystonia-or-spastic-paresis-by-botulinum-toxin-injection
#5
Klemens Fheodoroff, Roongroj Bhidayasiri, Luis Jorge Jacinto, Tae Mo Chung, Kailash Bhatia, Therese Landreau, Carlo Colosimo
Botulinum toxin is a well-established treatment for a number of conditions involving muscle hyperactivity, such as focal dystonia and spastic paresis. However, current injection practice is not standardized and there is a clear need for structured training. An international group of experts in the management of patients with cervical dystonia (CD) and spastic paresis created a steering committee (SC). For each therapeutic area, the SC developed a core slide set on best practice, based on the literature. International sites of expertise were identified for training and courses were designed to include lectures and casebased learning...
April 2017: Functional Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676142/the-italian-real-life-post-stroke-spasticity-survey-unmet-needs-in-the-management-of-spasticity-with-botulinum-toxin-type-a
#6
A Picelli, A Baricich, C Cisari, Stefano Paolucci, Nicola Smania, Giorgio Sandrini
The present national survey seeking to identify unmet needs in the management of spasticity with botulinum toxin type A focused on the use of OnabotulinumoxinA, since this is the brand with the widest range of licensed indications in Italy. Physicians from twenty-four Italian neurorehabilitation units compiled a questionnaire about "real-life" post-stroke spasticity management. OnabotulinumtoxinA was reported to be used in the following average doses: upper limb 316.7 ± 79.1 units; lower limb 327.8 ± 152...
April 2017: Functional Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641445/subcutaneous-botulinum-toxin-injection-for-post-thoracotomy-pain-syndrome-in-palliative-care-a-case-report
#7
Saima Rashid, Amanda R Fields, Steven J Baumrucker
Post-thoracotomy pain syndrome (PTPS) is a traumatic neuropathy that can affect as many as 50% of patients undergoing thoracotomy. Patients are often refractory to conservative management and may require multiple analgesics for adequate pain control. Botulinum toxin, derived from Clostridium botulinum, has many uses in treating conditions involving spasticity, dystonia, chronic migraine, and a variety of pain disorders including neuropathies. Botulinum toxin type A injections may provide an alternative or adjunct to improve symptom management in patients with PTPS...
January 1, 2017: American Journal of Hospice & Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607753/a-group-delivered-self-management-program-reduces-spasticity-in-people-with-multiple-sclerosis-a-randomized-controlled-pilot-trial
#8
Cinda L Hugos, Dennis Bourdette, Yiyi Chen, Zunqiu Chen, Michelle Cameron
BACKGROUND: Spasticity affects more than 80% of people with multiple sclerosis (MS), affecting activity, participation, and quality of life. Based on an international guideline, an MS spasticity group education and stretching program, MS Spasticity: Take Control (STC), has been developed. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this paper is to determine whether STC with home stretching is associated with greater changes in spasticity than usual care (UC), consisting of an illustrated stretching booklet and home stretching but without group instruction or support, in people with MS...
January 2017: Multiple Sclerosis Journal—Experimental, Translational and Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604190/the-use-of-a-stent-retriever-to-cause-mechanical-dilatation-of-a-vasospasm-secondary-to-iatrogenic-subarachnoid-haemorrhage
#9
Pervinder Bhogal, Dimitris Paraskevopoulos, Hegoda Ld Makalanda
Objective To report the use of a stent-retriever in the management of vasospasm secondary to craniopharyngioma resection. Postoperative improvement was seen both clinically and on perfusion imaging. Methods A patient was admitted for resection of a large craniopharygioma. On day 6 postoperatively the patient had an acute hemiparesis. A computed tomography angiogram and perfusion scan demonstrated acute right-sided cerebral vasospasm and a perfusion defect in the territory of the middle cerebral artery (MCA)...
June 2017: Interventional Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586619/role-of-stretching-exercises-in-the-management-of-constipation-in-spastic-cerebral-palsy
#10
Waqar Ahmed Awan, Tahir Masood
BACKGROUND: Constipation is considered as one of the most common non-motor manifestations in cerebral palsy (CP). Along with other reasons, spasticity also contributes in developing constipation in CP, by decreasing mobility of trunk and lower extremities and abdominal viscera. Stretching exercises of upper extremities, trunk and lower extremities are routine management of spasticity in CP children. The objective of the study was to determine the role of stretching exercises in improving constipation symptoms in children with spastic cerebral palsy and to explore the association between spasticity and constipation among cerebral palsy children...
October 2016: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579820/cannabis-and-intractable-chronic-pain-an-explorative-retrospective-analysis-of-italian-cohort-of-614-patients
#11
Guido Fanelli, Giuliano De Carolis, Claudio Leonardi, Adele Longobardi, Ennio Sarli, Massimo Allegri, Michael E Schatman
BACKGROUND: Despite growing interest in the therapeutic use of cannabis to manage chronic pain, only limited data that address these issues are available. In recent years, a number of nations have introduced specific laws to allow patients to use cannabis preparations to treat a variety of medical conditions. In 2015, the Italian government authorized the use of cannabis to treat several diseases, including chronic pain generally, spasticity in multiple sclerosis, cachexia and anorexia among AIDS and cancer patients, glaucoma, Tourette syndrome, and certain types of epilepsy...
2017: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566775/orthopedic-surgery-in-cerebral-palsy-instructional-course-lecture
#12
Deepak Sharan
Orthopedic surgery (OS) plays an important role in the management of cerebral palsy (CP). The objectives of OS are to optimize functions and prevent deformity. Newer developments in OS for CP include emphasis on hip surveillance, minimally invasive procedures, use of external fixators instead of plates and screws, better understanding of lever arm dysfunctions (that can only be corrected by bony OS), orthopedic selective spasticity-control surgery, and single-event multilevel lever arm restoration and anti spasticity surgery, which have led to significant improvements in gross motor function and ambulation, especially in spastic quadriplegia, athetosis, and dystonia...
May 2017: Indian Journal of Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549726/spasticity-dyskinesia-and-ataxia-in-cerebral-palsy-are-we-sure-we-can-differentiate-them
#13
H Eggink, D Kremer, O F Brouwer, M F Contarino, M E van Egmond, A Elema, K Folmer, J F van Hoorn, L A van de Pol, V Roelfsema, M A J Tijssen
OBJECTIVE: Cerebral palsy (CP) can be classified as spastic, dyskinetic, ataxic or combined. Correct classification is essential for symptom-targeted treatment. This study aimed to investigate agreement among professionals on the phenotype of children with CP based on standardized videos. METHODS: In a prospective, observational pilot study, videos of fifteen CP patients (8 boys, mean age 11 ± 5 y) were rated by three pediatric neurologists, three rehabilitation physicians and three movement disorder specialists...
May 9, 2017: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542281/gait-asymmetry-ankle-spasticity-and-depression-as-independent-predictors-of-falls-in-ambulatory-stroke-patients
#14
Ta-Sen Wei, Peng-Ta Liu, Liang-Wey Chang, Sen-Yung Liu
BACKGROUND: Falls are the leading cause of injury in stroke patients. However, the cause of a fall is complicated, and several types of risk factors are involved. Therefore, a comprehensive model to predict falls with high sensitivity and specificity is needed. METHODS: This study was a prospective study of 112 inpatients in a rehabilitation ward with follow-up interviews in patients' homes. Evaluations were performed 1 month after stroke and included the following factors: (1) status of cognition, depression, fear of fall and limb spasticity; (2) functional assessments [walking velocity and the Functional Independence Measure (FIM)]; and (3) objective, computerized gait and balance analyses...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541901/changes-of-shoulder-elbow-and-wrist-stiffness-matrix-post-stroke
#15
Li-Qun Zhang, Jongsang Son, Hyung-Soon Park, Sang Hoon Kang, Yunju Lee, Yupeng Ren
Stroke affects multiple joints in the arm with stereotypical patterns of arm deformity involving the shoulder, elbow, wrist and hand and with disrupted coordination of multiple joints in active movements. However, there is a lack of systematic methods to evaluate multi-joints and multi-degree of freedoms (DOF) neuromechanical changes, especially for complex systems with three or more joints/DOFs involved. This study used a novel systematic method to characterize dynamics and control of the shoulder, elbow and wrist of the human arm individually and simultaneously, including the couplings across the multiple joints during controlled movements...
May 23, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539691/goals-set-by-patients-using-the-icf-model-before-receiving-botulinum-injections-and-their-relation-to-spasticity-distribution
#16
Kevin Choi, Jaclyn Peters, Andrew Tri, Elizabeth Chapman, Ayako Sasaki, Farooq Ismail, Chris Boulias, Shannon Reid, Chetan P Phadke
Purpose: Goal Attainment Scaling (GAS) is used to assess functional gains in response to treatment. Specific characteristics of the functional goals set by individuals receiving botulinum toxin type A (BoNTA) injections for spasticity management are unknown. The primary objectives of this study were to describe the characteristics of the goals set by patients before receiving BoNTA injections using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) and to determine whether the pattern of spasticity distribution affected the goals set...
2017: Physiotherapy Canada. Physiothérapie Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537343/practice-patterns-for-spasticity-management-with-phenol-neurolysis
#17
Jay Karri, Manuel F Mas, Gerard E Francisco, Sheng Li
OBJECTIVE: To present practice patterns for phenol neurolysis procedures conducted for spasticity management. DESIGN: A retrospective review of 185 persons with spasticity who underwent phenol neurolysis procedures (n = 293) at an academic rehabilitation hospital and clinic. Patient demographics, concomitant spasticity treatments, and procedure relevant information were collected. RESULTS: The cohort included 71.9% males and 61.6% inpatient procedures...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512616/surgical-management-of-syringomyelia-associated-with-spinal-adhesive-arachnoiditis-a-late-complication-of-tuberculous-meningitis-a-case-report
#18
Jun Seok Lee, Geun Sung Song, Dong Wuk Son
Syringomyelia associated with tuberculous meningitis is an extremely rare condition. Only a few studies have reported clinical experience with syringomyelia as a late complication of tuberculous meningitis. Twenty-six years after a tuberculous meningitis episode, a 44-year-old man presented with progressively worsening spastic paresis of the lower limbs and impaired urinary function for 2 years. Radiological examination revealed syringomyelia extending from the level of C2 to T9 and arachnoiditis with atrophy of the spinal cord between C2 and T3...
April 2017: Korean Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509356/assessments-of-pain-in-children-and-adolescents-with-cerebral-palsy-a-retrospective-population-based-registry-study
#19
Lena Westbom, Amanda Rimstedt, Eva Nordmark
AIM: To explore pain screening in CPUP, a follow-up surveillance programme for people with cerebral palsy (CP), specifically to describe reported pain prevalence, localizations, patterns of distribution; to compare with studies using psychometrically sound assessment instruments; and to assess agreement between pain documented in CPUP and medical records. METHOD: Registry study of a population with CP, born 1993 to 2008, living in Skåne, Sweden in 2013. Descriptive data, cross-tabulations, and chi-square tests to characterize and compare the study groups...
August 2017: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497442/-myths-and-evidence-on-the-use-of-botulinum-toxin-spasticity-in-adults-and-in-children-with-cerebral-palsy
#20
J C Martinez-Castrillo, J L Pena-Segura, P Sanz-Cartagena, X Alonso-Curco, J M Arbelo-Gonzalez, G Arriola-Pereda, M D Coll-Bosch, J A Conejero-Casares, A Garcia-Ribes, S Jauma-Classen, J Pagonabarraga, J Vidal-Valls, P J Garcia-Ruiz
INTRODUCTION: Spasticity is a medical problem with a high incidence that significantly impact on the quality of life of patients and their families. AIM: To analyze and to answer different questions about the use of botulinum toxin type A (BTA) in our clinical practice. DEVELOPMENT: A group of experts in neurology develop a list of topics related with the use of BTA. Two big groups were considered: spasticity in adults and in children with cerebral palsy...
May 16, 2017: Revista de Neurologia
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