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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545882/emerging-infectious-diseases-and-blood-safety-modeling-the-transfusion-transmission-risk
#1
REVIEW
Philip Kiely, Manoj Gambhir, Allen C Cheng, Zoe K McQuilten, Clive R Seed, Erica M Wood
While the transfusion-transmission (TT) risk associated with the major transfusion-relevant viruses such as HIV is now very low, during the last 20 years there has been a growing awareness of the threat to blood safety from emerging infectious diseases, a number of which are known to be, or are potentially, transfusion transmissible. Two published models for estimating the transfusion-transmission risk from EIDs, referred to as the Biggerstaff-Petersen model and the European Upfront Risk Assessment Tool (EUFRAT), respectively, have been applied to several EIDs in outbreak situations...
May 15, 2017: Transfusion Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542609/potent-and-selective-inhibition-of-pathogenic-viruses-by-engineered-ubiquitin-variants
#2
Wei Zhang, Ben A Bailey-Elkin, Robert C M Knaap, Baldeep Khare, Tim J Dalebout, Garrett G Johnson, Puck B van Kasteren, Nigel J McLeish, Jun Gu, Wenguang He, Marjolein Kikkert, Brian L Mark, Sachdev S Sidhu
The recent Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), Ebola and Zika virus outbreaks exemplify the continued threat of (re-)emerging viruses to human health, and our inability to rapidly develop effective therapeutic countermeasures. Many viruses, including MERS-CoV and the Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) encode deubiquitinating (DUB) enzymes that are critical for viral replication and pathogenicity. They bind and remove ubiquitin (Ub) and interferon stimulated gene 15 (ISG15) from cellular proteins to suppress host antiviral innate immune responses...
May 18, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542540/elevation-as-a-proxy-for-mosquito-borne-zika-virus-transmission-in-the-americas
#3
Alexander G Watts, Jennifer Miniota, Heather A Joseph, Oliver J Brady, Moritz U G Kraemer, Ardath W Grills, Stephanie Morrison, Douglas H Esposito, Adriano Nicolucci, Matthew German, Maria I Creatore, Bradley Nelson, Michael A Johansson, Gary Brunette, Simon I Hay, Kamran Khan, Marty Cetron
INTRODUCTION: When Zika virus (ZIKV) first began its spread from Brazil to other parts of the Americas, national-level travel notices were issued, carrying with them significant economic consequences to affected countries. Although regions of some affected countries were likely unsuitable for mosquito-borne transmission of ZIKV, the absence of high quality, timely surveillance data made it difficult to confidently demarcate infection risk at a sub-national level. In the absence of reliable data on ZIKV activity, a pragmatic approach was needed to identify subnational geographic areas where the risk of ZIKV infection via mosquitoes was expected to be negligible...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542240/wmel-limits-zika-and-chikungunya-virus-infection-in-a-singapore-wolbachia-introgressed-ae-aegypti-strain-wmel-sg
#4
Cheong Huat Tan, PeiSze Jeslyn Wong, Meizhi Irene Li, HuiTing Yang, Lee Ching Ng, Scott Leslie O'Neill
BACKGROUND: Zika (ZIKV) and Chikungunya (CHIKV) viruses are emerging Aedes-borne viruses that are spreading outside their known geographic range and causing wide-scale epidemics. It has been reported that these viruses can be transmitted efficiently by Ae. aegypti. Recent studies have shown that Ae. aegypti when transinfected with certain Wolbachia strains shows a reduced replication and dissemination of dengue (DENV), Chikungunya (CHIKV), and Yellow Fever (YFV) viruses. The aim of this study was to determine whether the wMel strain of Wolbachia introgressed onto a Singapore Ae...
May 19, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541711/a-critical-review-on-ultrasensitive-spectroscopic-based-methods-for-high-throughput-monitoring-of-bacteria-during-infection-treatment
#5
Nicoleta Elena Dina, Alia Colniță, Tiberiu Szöke-Nagy, Alin Sebastian Porav
The world is in the midst of a pre-emptive public health emergency, one that is just as dramatic as the global aggressive viruses-related crises (Ebola, Zika, or SARS), but not as visible. The "superbugs" and their antimicrobial resistance (AMR) don't cause much public alarm or awareness, but provoke financial losses of $100 trillion annually [1] . This status quo review offers an overview of ultrasensitive methods for high-throughput monitoring of bacteria during infection treatment, the effects of antibiotics on bacteria at single-cell level and the challenges we will need to face in their detection due to the extraordinary capability of these "superbugs" to gain and constantly improve multiresistance to antibiotics...
May 25, 2017: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538739/multiplex-pcr-method-for-minion-and-illumina-sequencing-of-zika-and-other-virus-genomes-directly-from-clinical-samples
#6
Joshua Quick, Nathan D Grubaugh, Steven T Pullan, Ingra M Claro, Andrew D Smith, Karthik Gangavarapu, Glenn Oliveira, Refugio Robles-Sikisaka, Thomas F Rogers, Nathan A Beutler, Dennis R Burton, Lia Laura Lewis-Ximenez, Jaqueline Goes de Jesus, Marta Giovanetti, Sarah C Hill, Allison Black, Trevor Bedford, Miles W Carroll, Marcio Nunes, Luiz Carlos Alcantara, Ester C Sabino, Sally A Baylis, Nuno R Faria, Matthew Loose, Jared T Simpson, Oliver G Pybus, Kristian G Andersen, Nicholas J Loman
Genome sequencing has become a powerful tool for studying emerging infectious diseases; however, genome sequencing directly from clinical samples (i.e., without isolation and culture) remains challenging for viruses such as Zika, for which metagenomic sequencing methods may generate insufficient numbers of viral reads. Here we present a protocol for generating coding-sequence-complete genomes, comprising an online primer design tool, a novel multiplex PCR enrichment protocol, optimized library preparation methods for the portable MinION sequencer (Oxford Nanopore Technologies) and the Illumina range of instruments, and a bioinformatics pipeline for generating consensus sequences...
June 2017: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537028/enhanced-larvicidal-antibacterial-and-photocatalytic-efficacy-of-tio2-nanohybrids-green-synthesized-using-the-aqueous-leaf-extract-of-parthenium-hysterophorus
#7
Keerthika Thandapani, Manikandan Kathiravan, Elangovan Namasivayam, Indira Arulselvi Padiksan, Geetha Natesan, Manish Tiwari, Benelli Giovanni, Venkatachalam Perumal
Titanium dioxide nanoparticles are emerging as a biocompatible nanomaterial with multipurpose bioactivities. In this study, titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles were effectively synthesized using the aqueous leaf extracts of Parthenium hysterophorus prepared by microwave irradiation. TiO2 nanoparticles were fabricated by treating the P. hysterophorus leaf extracts with the TiO4 solution. Biologically active compounds such as alcohols, phenols, alkanes, and fluoroalkanes were involved in bioreduction of TiO4 into TiO2...
May 23, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531943/recent-trends-in-zikv-research-a-step-away-from-cure
#8
REVIEW
Aftab Alam, Nikhat Imam, Anam Farooqui, Shahnawaz Ali, Md Zubbair Malik, Romana Ishrat
Zika virus (ZikV) is a member of the Flaviviridae virus family, genus Flavivirus has emerged as a potential threat to human health worldwide. Consequences of vertical infections includes microcephaly with brain and eye anomalies, and adult infections includes Guillain-Barrésyndrome (GBS), brain ischemia, myelitis and meningoencephalitis. To develop a better treatment, many efforts are being made, like drug-repurposing concept for FDA-approved drugs for antiviral activity are screened against ZikV infection and emerging as a promising alternative to expedite drug development and various vaccines like DNA, ZPIV, LAIV, mRNA and AGS-v vaccines have been designed and in under clinical trial phases...
May 17, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529976/de-novo-generation-and-characterization-of-new-zika-virus-isolate-using-sequence-data-from-a-microcephaly-case
#9
Yin Xiang Setoh, Natalie A Prow, Nias Peng, Leon E Hugo, Gregor Devine, Jessamine E Hazlewood, Andreas Suhrbier, Alexander A Khromykh
Zika virus (ZIKV) has recently emerged and is the etiological agent of congenital Zika syndrome (CZS), a spectrum of congenital abnormalities arising from neural tissue infections in utero. Herein, we describe the de novo generation of a new ZIKV isolate, ZIKVNatal, using a modified circular polymerase extension reaction protocol and sequence data obtained from a ZIKV-infected fetus with microcephaly. ZIKVNatal thus has no laboratory passage history and is unequivocally associated with CZS. ZIKVNatal could be used to establish a fetal brain infection model in IFNAR(-/-) mice (including intrauterine growth restriction) without causing symptomatic infections in dams...
May 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524874/impact-of-simultaneous-exposure-to-arboviruses-on-infection-and-transmission-by-aedes-aegypti-mosquitoes
#10
Claudia Rückert, James Weger-Lucarelli, Selene M Garcia-Luna, Michael C Young, Alex D Byas, Reyes A Murrieta, Joseph R Fauver, Gregory D Ebel
The recent emergence of both chikungunya and Zika viruses in the Americas has significantly expanded their distribution and has thus increased the possibility that individuals may become infected by more than one Aedes aegypti-borne virus at a time. Recent clinical data support an increase in the frequency of coinfection in human patients, raising the likelihood that mosquitoes could be exposed to multiple arboviruses during one feeding episode. The impact of coinfection on the ability of relevant vector species to transmit any of these viruses (that is, their vector competence) has not been determined...
May 19, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515302/transposon-mutagenesis-of-the-zika-virus-genome-highlights-regions-essential-for-rna-replication-and-restricted-for-immune-evasion
#11
Benjamin O Fulton, David Sachs, Megan C Schwarz, Peter Palese, Matthew J Evans
The molecular constraints affecting Zika virus (ZIKV) evolution are not well understood. To investigate ZIKV genetic flexibility, we used transposon mutagenesis to add 15-nucleotide insertions throughout the MR766 ZIKV genome and subsequently deep sequenced the viable mutants. Few ZIKV insertion mutants replicated, which likely reflects a high degree of functional constraints on the genome. The NS1 gene exhibited distinct mutational tolerances at different stages of the screen. This result may define regions of the NS1 protein that are required for the different stages of the viral life cycle...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511271/georgia-s-collaborative-approach-to-expanding-mosquito-surveillance-in-response-to-zika-virus-a-case-study
#12
R Christopher Rustin, Deonte Martin, Varadan Sevilimedu, Sarbesh Pandeya, Haresh Rochani, Rosmarie Kelly
Zika virus (ZIKV) was declared an international public health emergency by the World Health Organization on February 1, 2016. Due to the known and estimated range of the ZIKV mosquito vectors, southern and central US states faced increased risk of ZIKV transmission. With the state of Georgia hosting the world's busiest international airport, a climate that supports the ZIKV vectors, and limited surveillance (13 counties) and response capacity, the Department of Public Health (DPH) was challenged to respond and prevent ZIKV transmission...
January 2017: U.S. Army Medical Department Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509947/-arboviruses-also-have-an-american-dream
#13
F Rodhain
Some arboviruses that originated in the Old World have been introduced by humans into the American continent. The first of them was the yellow fever virus, coming from the West African coast with slaves in the 17th-19th centuries, followed by dengue viruses, which were always prevalent within the Americas. Next was theWest Nile virus, introduced in New York in 1999, that spread in only a few years over the whole continent. Then, Chikungunya virus arrived on Saint Martin Island in 2013 after its outbreak in Polynesia; it is now widespread in the Caribbean Islands and on the American continent from the United States to Brazil...
May 16, 2017: Bulletin de la Société de Pathologie Exotique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506240/inhibitors-compounds-of-the-flavivirus-replication-process
#14
REVIEW
Leidy L García, Leonardo Padilla, Jhon C Castaño
Flaviviruses are small viruses with single-stranded RNA, which include the yellow fever virus, dengue virus, West Nile virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, tick-borne encephalitis virus, and Zika virus; and are causal agents of the most important emerging diseases that have no available treatment to date. In recent years, the strategy has focused on the development of replication inhibitors of these viruses designed to act mainly by affecting the activity of enzyme proteins, such as NS3 and NS5, which perform important functions in the viral replication process...
May 15, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505571/re-evaluation-of-routine-dengue-virus-serology-in-travelers-in-the-era-of-zika-virus-emergence
#15
Maurits P A van Meer, Ramona Mögling, Janienne Klaasse, Felicity D Chandler, Suzan D Pas, Annemiek A van der Eijk, Marion P G Koopmans, Chantal B E M Reusken, Corine H GeurtsvanKessel
BACKGROUND: Diagnostic requests for both Zika virus (ZIKV) and dengue virus (DENV) infections in returning travelers have significantly increased during the recent ZIKV outbreak in the Americás. These flaviviruses have overlapping clinical syndromes and geographical distribution, but diagnostic differentiation is important because of different clinical consequences. As flaviviruses are known to have a short viremic period, diagnostics often rely on serological methods, which are challenging due to extensive cross-reactive antibodies...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500817/transmission-incompetence-of-culex-quinquefasciatus-and-culex-pipiens-pipiens-from-north-america-for-zika-virus
#16
Joan L Kenney, Hannah Romo, Nisha K Duggal, Wen-Pin Tzeng, Kristen L Burkhalter, Aaron C Brault, Harry M Savage
AbstractIn late 2014, Zika virus (ZIKV; Flaviviridae, Flavivirus) emerged as a significant arboviral disease threat in the Western hemisphere. Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus have been considered the principal vectors of ZIKV in the New World due to viral isolation frequency and vector competence assessments. Limited reports of Culex transmission potential have highlighted the need for additional vector competence assessments of North American Culex species. Accordingly, North American Culex pipiens and Culex quinquefasciatus were orally exposed and intrathoracically inoculated with the African prototype ZIKV strain and currently circulating Asian lineage ZIKV strains to assess infection, dissemination, and transmission potential...
May 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499036/potential-of-a-northern-population-of-aedes-vexans-diptera-culicidae-to-transmit-zika-virus
#17
Kyle L O'Donnell, Mckenzie A Bixby, Kelsey J Morin, David S Bradley, Jefferson A Vaughan
Zika virus is an emerging arbovirus of humans in the western hemisphere. With its potential spread into new geographical areas, it is important to define the vector competence of native mosquito species. We tested the vector competency of Aedes vexans (Meigen) from the Lake Agassiz Plain of northwestern Minnesota and northeastern North Dakota. Aedes aegypti (L.) was used as a positive control for comparison. Mosquitoes were fed blood containing Zika virus and 2 wk later were tested for viral infection and dissemination...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493351/human-zika-and-west-nile-virus-neurological-infections-what-is-the-difference
#18
REVIEW
Clayton A Wiley, Leila Chimelli
The recent epidemic of West Nile Virus (WNV) infection in the United States was associated with severe neurological disease in immunocompromised hosts, while the emergence of Zika virus infection in the Americas has been notable for an association with increased microcephaly in the fetuses of infected mothers. Rare autopsies of WNV infected humans have shown multiple organ involvement with a clear neurotropism. We have recently had the opportunity to examine the distribution of Zika virus in autopsies of newborns from infected pregnancies...
May 11, 2017: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487557/humoral-cross-reactivity-between-zika-and-dengue-viruses-implications-for-protection-and-pathology
#19
REVIEW
Lalita Priyamvada, William Hudson, Rafi Ahmed, Jens Wrammert
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a re-emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus that has recently caused extensive outbreaks in Central and South America and the Caribbean. Given its association with Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults and neurological and ocular malformities in neonates, ZIKV has become a pathogen of significant public health concern worldwide. ZIKV shares a considerable degree of genetic identity and structural homology with other flaviviruses, including dengue virus (DENV). In particular, the surface glycoprotein envelope (E), which is involved in viral fusion and entry and is therefore a chief target for neutralizing antibody responses, contains regions that are highly conserved between the two viruses...
May 10, 2017: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487506/development-of-a-s-adenosylmethionine-analog-that-intrudes-the-rna-cap-binding-site-of-zika-methyltransferase
#20
Rinku Jain, Kyle V Butler, Javier Coloma, Jian Jin, Aneel K Aggarwal
The Zika virus (ZIKV) has emerged as a major health hazard. We present here a high resolution structure (1.55 Å) of ZIKV NS5 methyltransferase bound to a novel S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) analog in which a 4-fluorophenyl moiety substitutes for the methyl group. We show that the 4-fluorophenyl moiety extends into a portion of the RNA binding tunnel that typically contains the adenosine 2'OH of the RNA-cap moiety. Together, the new SAM analog and the high-resolution crystal structure are a step towards the development of antivirals against ZIKV and other flaviviruses...
May 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
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