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zika virus emergency

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934370/the-risk-of-sustained-sexual-transmission-of-zika-is-underestimated
#1
Antoine Allard, Benjamin M Althouse, Laurent Hébert-Dufresne, Samuel V Scarpino
Pathogens often follow more than one transmission route during outbreaks-from needle sharing plus sexual transmission of HIV to small droplet aerosol plus fomite transmission of influenza. Thus, controlling an infectious disease outbreak often requires characterizing the risk associated with multiple mechanisms of transmission. For example, during the Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa, weighing the relative importance of funeral versus health care worker transmission was essential to stopping disease spread...
September 21, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934352/global-reaction-to-the-recent-outbreaks-of-zika-virus-insights-from-a-big-data-analysis
#2
Nicola Luigi Bragazzi, Cristiano Alicino, Cecilia Trucchi, Chiara Paganino, Ilaria Barberis, Mariano Martini, Laura Sticchi, Eugen Trinka, Francesco Brigo, Filippo Ansaldi, Giancarlo Icardi, Andrea Orsi
OBJECTIVE: The recent spreading of Zika virus represents an emerging global health threat. As such, it is attracting public interest worldwide, generating a great amount of related Internet searches and social media interactions. The aim of this research was to understand Zika-related digital behavior throughout the epidemic spreading and to assess its consistence with real-world epidemiological data, using a behavioral informatics and analytics approach. METHODS: In this study, the global web-interest and reaction to the recently occurred outbreaks of the Zika Virus were analyzed in terms of tweets and Google Trends (GT), Google News, YouTube, and Wikipedia search queries...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933344/first-outbreak-of-zika-virus-in-the-continental-united-states-a-modelling-analysis
#3
Giovanni Marini, Giorgio Guzzetta, Roberto Rosà, Stefano Merler
Since 2015, Zika virus (ZIKV) has spread throughout Latin and Central America. This emerging infectious disease has been causing considerable public health concern because of severe neurological complications, especially in newborns after congenital infections. In July 2016, the first outbreak in the continental United States was identified in the Wynwood neighbourhood of Miami-Dade County, Florida. In this work, we investigated transmission dynamics using a mathematical model calibrated to observed data on mosquito abundance and symptomatic human infections...
September 14, 2017: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932235/zika-virus-congenital-syndrome-experimental-models-and-clinical-aspects
#4
REVIEW
Carolina Manganeli Polonio, Carla Longo de Freitas, Nagela Ghabdan Zanluqui, Jean Pierre Schatzmann Peron
Viral infections have long been the cause of severe diseases to humans, increasing morbidity and mortality rates worldwide, either in rich or poor countries. Yellow fever virus, H1N1 virus, HIV, dengue virus, hepatitis B and C are well known threats to human health, being responsible for many million deaths annually, associated to a huge economic and social cost. In this context, a recently introduced flavivirus in South America, called Zika virus (ZIKV), led the WHO to declare in February 1st 2016 a warning on Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC)...
2017: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931684/zika-virus-encoding-non-glycosylated-envelope-protein-is-attenuated-and-defective-in-neuroinvasion
#5
Arun S Annamalai, Aryamav Pattnaik, Bikash R Sahoo, Ezhumalai Muthukrishnan, Sathish Kumar Natarajan, David Steffen, Hiep L X Vu, Gustavo Delhon, Fernando A Osorio, Thomas M Petro, Shi-Hua Xiang, Asit K Pattnaik
Zika virus (ZIKV), a mosquito-transmitted flavivirus, responsible for sporadic outbreaks of mild and febrile illness in Africa and Asia, re-emerged in the last decade causing serious human diseases including microcephaly, congenital malformations, and Guillain-Barré syndrome. Although genomic and phylogenetic analyses suggest that genetic evolution may have led to enhanced virulence of ZIKV, experimental evidence supporting the role of specific genetic changes in virulence is currently outstanding. One sequence motif, VNDT, containing an N-linked glycosylation site in the envelope (E) protein, is polymorphic, being absent in many of the African isolates while present in all isolates from the recent outbreaks...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929534/emerging-arboviruses-in-rio-grande-do-sul-brazil-chikungunya-and-zika-outbreaks-2014-2016
#6
Tatiana Schäffer Gregianini, Tani Ranieri, Cátia Favreto, Zenaida Marion Alves Nunes, Gabriela Luchiari Tumioto Giannini, Nara Druck Sanberg, Marilda Tereza Mar da Rosa, Ana Beatriz Gorini da Veiga
QUESTIONS INVESTIGATED: The recent emergence of arboviruses such as Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and Zika virus (ZIKV) in Brazil has posed a threat to human health and to the country's economy. Outbreaks occur mainly in tropical areas; however, increasing number of cases have been observed in Rio Grande do Sul (RS), the Southernmost state; therefore, surveillance of these arboviruses is essential for public health measures. DESIGN: In this study, we analyzed 1276 samples from patients with clinically suspected arboviral diseases between 2014 and 2016...
September 20, 2017: Reviews in Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927458/sybr-green-based-one-step-quantitative-real-time-polymerase-chain-reaction-assay-for-the-detection-of-zika-virus-in-field-caught-mosquitoes
#7
Wei-Ping Tien, Gareth Lim, Gladys Yeo, Suzanna Nicole Chiang, Chee-Seng Chong, Lee-Ching Ng, Hapuarachchige Chanditha Hapuarachchi
BACKGROUND: The monitoring of vectors is one of the key surveillance measures to assess the risk of arbovirus transmission and the success of control strategies in endemic regions. The recent re-emergence of Zika virus (ZIKV) in the tropics, including Singapore, emphasizes the need to develop cost-effective, rapid and accurate assays to monitor the virus spread by mosquitoes. As ZIKV infections largely remain asymptomatic, early detection of ZIKV in the field-caught mosquitoes enables timely implementation of appropriate mosquito control measures...
September 19, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923507/pentagalloylglucose-a-highly-bioavailable-polyphenolic-compound-present-in-cortex-moutan-efficiently-blocks-hepatitis-c-virus-entry
#8
Patrick Behrendt, Paula Perin, Nicolas Menzel, Dominic Banda, Stephanie Pfaender, Marco P Alves, Volker Thiel, Phillip Meulemann, Che C Colpitts, Luis M Schang, Florian W R Vondran, Anggakusuma, Michael P Manns, Eike Steinmann, Thomas Pietschmann
Approximately 142 million people worldwide are infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV). Although potent direct acting antivirals are available, high costs limit access to treatment. Chronic hepatitis C virus infection remains a major cause of orthotopic liver transplantation. Moreover, re-infection of the graft occurs regularly. Antivirals derived from natural sources might be an alternative and cost-effective option to complement therapy regimens for global control of hepatitis C virus infection. We tested the antiviral properties of a mixture of different Chinese herbs/roots named Zhi Bai Di Huang Wan (ZBDHW) and its individual components on HCV...
September 15, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918127/clinical-laboratory-and-virological-data-from-suspected-zikv-patients-in-an-endemic-arbovirus-area
#9
Tatiana Elias Colombo, Cássia Fernanda Estofolete, Andréia Francesli Negri Reis, Natal Santos da Silva, Morgana Lima Aguiar, Eliana Márcia Sotello Cabrera, Izalco Nuremberg Penha Dos Santos, Fabiana Rodrigues Costa, Lilian Elisa Arão Antônio Cruz, Patrícia Lopes Rombola, Ana Carolina Bernardes Terzian, Maurício Lacerda Nogueira
BACKGROUND: The emergence of Zika virus (ZIKV) presents new challenges to both clinicians and public health authorities. Overlapping clinical features between the diseases caused by ZIKV, dengue (DENV) and chikungunya (CHIKV) and the lack of validated serological assays for ZIKV make accurate diagnosis difficult. Brazilian authorities largely rely on clinical and epidemiological data for the epidemiological and clinical classifications of most ZIKV cases. OBJECTIVE: To report the laboratory and clinical profiles of patients diagnosed with Zika fever based only on clinical and epidemiological data...
September 9, 2017: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912110/the-genetics-of-congenitally-small-brains
#10
REVIEW
Sarah Duerinckx, Marc Abramowicz
Primary microcephaly (PM) refers to a congenitally small brain, resulting from insufficient prenatal production of neurons, and serves as a model disease for brain volumic development. Known PM genes delineate several cellular pathways, among which the centriole duplication pathway, which provide interesting clues about the cellular mechanisms involved. The general interest of the genetic dissection of PM is illustrated by the convergence of Zika virus infection and PM gene mutations on congenital microcephaly, with CENPJ/CPAP emerging as a key target...
September 11, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912011/cell-line-dependent-antiviral-activity-of-sofosbuvir-against-zika-virus
#11
Noreen Mumtaz, Leah C Jimmerson, Lane R Bushman, Jennifer J Kiser, Georgina Aron, Chantal B E M Reusken, Marion P G Koopmans, Jeroen J A van Kampen
The recent epidemic of Zika virus (ZIKV) in the Americas and its association with fetal and neurological complications has shown the need to develop a treatment. Repurposing of drugs that are already FDA approved or in clinical development may shorten drug development timelines in case of emerging viral diseases like ZIKV. Initial studies have shown conflicting results when testing sofosbuvir developed for treatment of infections with another Flaviviridae virus, hepatitis C virus. We hypothesized that the conflicting results could be explained by differences in intracellular processing of the compound...
September 11, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900425/corrigendum-zika-virus-an-emerging-worldwide-threat
#12
Irfan A Rather, Jameel B Lone, Vivek K Bajpai, Woon K Paek, Jeongheui Lim
[This corrects the article on p. 1417 in vol. 8, PMID: 28798738.].
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892452/science-in-emergency-response-at-cdc-structure-and-functions
#13
John Iskander, Dale A Rose, Neelam D Ghiya
Recent high-profile activations of the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Emergency Operations Center (EOC) include responses to the West African Ebola and Zika virus epidemics. Within the EOC, emergency responses are organized according to the Incident Management System, which provides a standardized structure and chain of command, regardless of whether the EOC activation occurs in response to an outbreak, natural disaster, or other type of public health emergency. By embedding key scientific roles, such as the associate director for science, and functions within a Scientific Response Section, the current CDC emergency response structure ensures that both urgent and important science issues receive needed attention...
September 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887877/epidemiological-and-ecological-determinants-of-zika-virus-transmission-in-an-urban-setting
#14
José Lourenço, Maricelia Maia de Lima, Nuno Rodrigues Faria, Andrew Walker, Moritz Ug Kraemer, Christian Julian Villabona-Arenas, Ben Lambert, Erenilde Marques de Cerqueira, Oliver G Pybus, Luiz Cj Alcantara, Mario Recker
The Zika virus has emerged as a global public health concern. Its rapid geographic expansion is attributed to the success of Aedes mosquito vectors, but local epidemiological drivers are still poorly understood. Feira de Santana played a pivotal role in the Chikungunya epidemic in Brazil and was one of the first urban centres to report Zika infections. Using a climate-driven transmission model and notified Zika case data, we show that a low observation rate and high vectorial capacity translated into a significant attack rate during the 2015 outbreak, with a subsequent decline in 2016 and fade-out in 2017 due to herd-immunity...
September 9, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878071/zika-virus-escapes-nk-cell-detection-by-upregulating-mhc-class-i-molecules
#15
Ariella Glasner, Esther Oiknine-Djian, Yiska Weisblum, Mohammad Diab, Amos Panet, Dana G Wolf, Ofer Mandelboim
NK cells are innate lymphocytes that participate in many immune processes encompassing cancer, bacterial and fungal infection, autoimmunity and even pregnancy and are specialize in anti-viral defense. NK cells express inhibitory and activating receptors and kill their targets when activating signals overpower the inhibitory ones. The NK cell inhibitory receptors compose of a uniquely diverse array of proteins named Killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) the CD94 family and the leukocyte immunoglobulin like receptor family (LIR)...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877637/ghost-probiotics-with-a-combined-regimen-a-novel-therapeutic-approach-against-the-zika-virus-an-emerging-world-threat
#16
Vivek K Bajpai, Vishal Chandra, Na-Hyung Kim, Rajni Rai, Pradeep Kumar, Kangmin Kim, Abhinav Aeron, Sun Chul Kang, D K Maheshwari, MinKyun Na, Irfan A Rather, Yong-Ha Park
The Zika virus (ZIKV) used to be an obscure flavivirus closely related to dengue virus (DENV). Transmission of this epidemic pathogen occurs mainly via mosquitoes, but it is also capable of placental and sexual transmission. Although the characteristics of these viruses are well defined, infections are unpredictable in terms of disease severity, unusual clinical manifestations, unexpected methods of transmission, long-term persistence, and the development of new strains. Recently, ZIKV has gained huge medical attention following the large-scale epidemics around the world, and reported cases of congenital abnormalities associated with Zika virus infections which have created a public health emergency of international concern...
September 7, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873445/deleterious-effect-of-usutu-virus-on-human-neural-cells
#17
Sara Salinas, Orianne Constant, Caroline Desmetz, Jonathan Barthelemy, Jean-Marc Lemaitre, Ollivier Milhavet, Nicolas Nagot, Vincent Foulongne, Florence E Perrin, Juan-Carlos Saiz, Sylvie Lecollinet, Philippe Van de Perre, Yannick Simonin
In the last decade, the number of emerging Flaviviruses described worldwide has increased considerably. Among them Zika virus (ZIKV) and Usutu virus (USUV) are African mosquito-borne viruses that recently emerged. Recently, ZIKV has been intensely studied due to major outbreaks associated with neonatal death and birth defects, as well as neurological symptoms. USUV pathogenesis remains largely unexplored, despite significant human and veterinary associated disorders. Circulation of USUV in Africa was documented more than 50 years ago, and it emerged in Europe two decades ago, causing massive bird mortality...
September 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869941/identifying-attenuating-mutations-tools-for-a-new-vaccine-design-against-flaviviruses
#18
Cécile Khou, Nathalie Pardigon
Emerging Flaviviruses pose an increasing threat to global human health. To date, human vaccines against yellow fever virus (YFV), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), dengue virus (DV), and tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) exist. However, there is no human vaccine against other Flaviviruses such as Zika virus (ZIKV) and West Nile virus (WNV). In order to restrict their spread and to protect populations against the diseases they induce, vaccines against these emerging viruses must be designed. Obtaining new live attenuated Flavivirus vaccines using molecular biology methods is now possible...
September 5, 2017: Intervirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867493/taking-the-defensive-immune-control-of-zika-virus-infection
#19
REVIEW
James R Bowen, Matthew G Zimmerman, Mehul S Suthar
ZIKV is a neurotropic mosquito-borne flavivirus that has recently emerged in the Americas and is a pathogen of significant public health concern across the world. ZIKV was first isolated in Uganda in 1947 and remained dormant in Africa and Asia for decades, with sporadic outbreaks characterized by a mild self-limiting disease in humans. The emergence of ZIKV in the Americas corresponded with enhanced disease severity and congenital Zika syndrome, a phenotype characterized by severe microcephaly, brain anomalies, ocular anomalies, congenital contractures and neurological impairments...
September 1, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854113/a-statewide-survey-for-container-breeding-mosquitoes-in-mississippi
#20
Jerome Goddard, Gail M Moraru, Sarah J Mcinnis, J Santos Portugal, Donald A Yee, J Hunter Deerman, Wendy C Varnado
Container-breeding mosquitoes are important in public health due to outbreaks of Zika, chikungunya, and dengue viruses. This paper documents the distribution of container-breeding mosquito species in Mississippi, with special emphasis on the genus Aedes. Five sites in each of the 82 Mississippi counties were sampled monthly between May 1 and August 31, 2016, and 50,109 mosquitoes in 14 species were collected. The most prevalent and widely distributed species found was Ae. albopictus, being found in all 82 counties, especially during July...
September 2017: Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association
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