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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643775/zika-virus-pathogenesis-in-rhesus-macaques-is-unaffected-by-pre-existing-immunity-to-dengue-virus
#1
Petraleigh Pantoja, Erick X Pérez-Guzmán, Idia V Rodríguez, Laura J White, Olga González, Crisanta Serrano, Luis Giavedoni, Vida Hodara, Lorna Cruz, Teresa Arana, Melween I Martínez, Mariah A Hassert, James D Brien, Amelia K Pinto, Aravinda de Silva, Carlos A Sariol
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a re-emerging virus that has recently spread into dengue virus (DENV) endemic regions and cross-reactive antibodies (Abs) could potentially affect ZIKV pathogenesis. Using DENV-immune serum, it has been shown in vitro that antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) of ZIKV infection can occur. Here we study the effects of pre-existing DENV immunity on ZIKV infection in vivo. We infect two cohorts of rhesus macaques with ZIKV; one cohort has been exposed to DENV 2.8 years earlier and a second control cohort is naïve to flaviviral infection...
June 23, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638845/detection-of-the-northeastern-african-rift-valley-fever-virus-lineage-during-the-2015-outbreak-in-mauritania
#2
Ndeye Sakha Bob, Hampâté Bâ, Gamou Fall, Elkhalil Ishagh, Mamadou Y Diallo, Abdourahmane Sow, Pape Mbacké Sembene, Ousmane Faye, Brahim El Kouri, Mohamed Lemine Sidi, Amadou Alpha Sall
BACKGROUND: Rift Valley fever (RVF) is an acute viral anthropozoonosis that causes epizootics and epidemics among livestock population and humans. Multiple emergences and reemergences of the virus have occurred in Mauritania over the last decade. This article describes the outbreak that occurred in 2015 in Mauritania and reports the results of serological and molecular investigations of blood samples collected from suspected RVF patients. METHODS: An RVF outbreak was reported from 14 September to 26 November 2015 in Mauritania...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638259/global-alert-zika-virus-an-emerging-arbovirus
#3
REVIEW
Zulal Ozkurt, Esra Cinar Tanriverdi
Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arbovirus of the Flavivirus genus, and it has an envelope and a single RNA molecule. In early 2016, the World Health Organization declared ZIKV infection to be an emerging global health threat. The major transmission route of the virus to humans is Aedes mosquitoes. ZIKV can be transmitted between humans by transplacental, perinatal, and sexual routes and via blood and body fluids. ZIKV infection usually results in a mild and self-limiting disease with low-grade fever, conjunctivitis, and periorbital edema...
June 2017: Eurasian Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636449/zika-virus-in-ontario-evaluating-a-rapid-risk-assessment-tool-for-emerging-infectious-disease-threats
#4
Ryan Van Meer, Karin Hohenadel, Alanna Fitzgerald-Husek, Bryna Warshawsky, Doug Sider, Brian Schwartz, Mark P Nelder
To determine the Ontario-specific risk of local and travel-related Zika virus transmission in the context of a public health emergency of international concern, Public Health Ontario (PHO) completed a rapid risk assessment (RRA) on January 29, 2016, using a newly developed RRA guidance tool. The RRA concluded that risk of local mosquito-borne transmission was low, with a high risk of imported cases through travel. The RRA was updated 3 times based on predetermined triggers. An independent evaluation assessed both the application of the RRA guidance tool (process evaluation) and the usefulness of the RRA (outcome evaluation)...
May 2017: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633549/an-update-on-zika-vaccine-developments
#5
Anna Durbin, Annelies Wilder-Smith
The devastating consequences of congenital Zika virus (ZIKV) infection led to a global response directed toward a better understanding of the epidemiology and pathogenesis of ZIKV and to efforts at vaccine development. As a result, there are currently 45 ZIKV vaccine candidates in development. Areas covered: Both traditional (purified inactivated, live attenuated, viral-vectored, recombinant sub-unit) and novel (DNA, self-replicating RNA, mRNA) vaccine platforms are being utilized. For emergency use, vaccines that are appropriate for women of child-bearing age (including pregnant women) are being developed...
June 21, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627851/zika-virus-practical-guidelines
#6
Gilles Eperon, Manuel Schibler, Noémie Wagner, François Chappuis, Isabelle Eperon
Zika virus suddenly emerged in Latin America in 2015‑2016. Congenital malformations have been observed in infected pregnant women, causing a major public health impact in affected countries, particularly in Brazil. In addition, sexual transmission of Zika virus has been well documented. This led to the development of prevention strategies and recommendations for travellers visiting at risk countries. These documents are regularly amended depending on the evolution of scientific knowledge, the epidemiologic trends and the national and international guidelines...
May 3, 2017: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615701/revisiting-zika-and-rubella
#7
Adolfo Martinez-Palomo
Three months after the World Health Organization declared the epidemic of Zika virus infections to be a Public Health Emergency of International Concern, we can look back at what we have learned and prospects for controlling the disease. Although Zika virus infections may explain many cases of brain damage in newborns, it may not be the only cause. We need a clear association between confirmed cases of Zika infections in pregnant women and microcephaly in newborns. Until we reach a firm conclusion, past experience with another virus that causes damage to newborns offers some hope...
August 2016: Journal of Public Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614803/delineating-antibody-recognition-against-zika-virus-during-natural-infection
#8
Lei Yu, Ruoke Wang, Fei Gao, Min Li, Jianying Liu, Jian Wang, Wenxin Hong, Lingzhai Zhao, Yingfen Wen, Chibiao Yin, Hua Wang, Qi Zhang, Yangyang Li, Panpan Zhou, Rudian Zhang, Yang Liu, Xiaoping Tang, Yongjun Guan, Cheng-Feng Qin, Ling Chen, Xuanling Shi, Xia Jin, Gong Cheng, Fuchun Zhang, Linqi Zhang
Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-transmitted flavivirus that shares a considerable degree of homology with dengue virus (DENV). Here, we examined longitudinal antibody response against ZIKV during natural infection in 2 convalescent individuals. By decomposing the antibody recognition into DI/DII and DIII of the E glycoprotein, we showed their development in humans followed a spatiotemporal hierarchy. Plasma binding to DI/DII appeared to peak and wane during early infection with extensive cross-reactivity with DI/DII of DENV...
June 15, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614394/first-report-of-naturally-infected-aedes-aegypti-with-chikungunya-virus-genotype-ecsa-in-the-americas
#9
André Luis Costa-da-Silva, Rafaella Sayuri Ioshino, Vivian Petersen, Antonio Fernando Lima, Marielton Dos Passos Cunha, Michael R Wiley, Jason T Ladner, Karla Prieto, Gustavo Palacios, Danuza Duarte Costa, Lincoln Suesdek, Paolo Marinho de Andrade Zanotto, Margareth Lara Capurro
BACKGROUND: The worldwide expansion of new emergent arboviruses such as Chikungunya and Zika reinforces the importance in understanding the role of mosquito species in spreading these pathogens in affected regions. This knowledge is essential for developing effective programs based on species specificity to avoid the establishment of endemic transmission cycles sustained by the identified local vectors. Although the first autochthonous transmission of Chikungunya virus was described in 2014 in the north of Brazil, the main outbreaks were reported in 2015 and 2016 in the northeast of Brazil...
June 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608813/zika-virus-recent-advances-towards-the-development-of-vaccines-and-therapeutics
#10
REVIEW
Monica A McArthur
Zika is a rapidly emerging public health threat. Although clinical infection is frequently mild, significant neurological manifestations have been demonstrated in infants born to Zika virus (ZIKV) infected mothers. Due to the substantial ramifications of intrauterine infection, effective counter-measures are urgently needed. In order to develop effective anti-ZIKV vaccines and therapeutics, improved animal models and a better understanding of immunological correlates of protection against ZIKV are required...
June 13, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601976/zika-virus-as-an-emerging-neuropathogen-mechanisms-of-neurovirulence-and-neuro-immune-interactions
#11
REVIEW
Gerwyn Morris, Tatiana Barichello, Brendon Stubbs, Cristiano A Köhler, André F Carvalho, Michael Maes
Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging arbovirus of the genus Flaviviridae, which causes a febrile illness and has spread from across the Pacific to the Americas in a short timeframe. Convincing evidence has implicated the ZIKV to incident cases of neonatal microcephaly and a set of neurodevelopmental abnormalities referred to as the congenital Zika virus syndrome. In addition, emerging data points to an association with the ZIKV and the development of the so-called Guillain-Barre syndrome, an acute autoimmune polyneuropathy...
June 11, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600536/imipramine-inhibits-chikungunya-virus-replication-in-human-skin-fibroblasts-through-interference-with-intracellular-cholesterol-trafficking
#12
Sineewanlaya Wichit, Rodolphe Hamel, Eric Bernard, Loïc Talignani, Fodé Diop, Pauline Ferraris, Florian Liegeois, Peeraya Ekchariyawat, Natthanej Luplertlop, Pornapat Surasombatpattana, Frédéric Thomas, Andres Merits, Valérie Choumet, Pierre Roques, Hans Yssel, Laurence Briant, Dorothée Missé
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an emerging arbovirus of the Togaviridae family that poses a present worldwide threat to human in the absence of any licensed vaccine or antiviral treatment to control viral infection. Here, we show that compounds interfering with intracellular cholesterol transport have the capacity to inhibit CHIKV replication in human skin fibroblasts, a major viral entry site in the human host. Pretreatment of these cells with the class II cationic amphiphilic compound U18666A, or treatment with the FDA-approved antidepressant drug imipramine resulted in a near total inhibition of viral replication and production at the highest concentration used without any cytotoxic effects...
June 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599659/zika-vector-transmission-risk-in-temperate-australia-a-vector-competence-study
#13
Jean-Bernard Duchemin, Peter T Mee, Stacey E Lynch, Ravikiran Vedururu, Lee Trinidad, Prasad Paradkar
BACKGROUND: Zika virus is an emerging pathogen of global importance. It has been responsible for recent outbreaks in the Americas and in the Pacific region. This study assessed five different mosquito species from the temperate climatic zone in Australia and included Aedes albopictus as a potentially invasive species. METHODS: Mosquitoes were orally challenged by membrane feeding with Zika virus strain of Cambodia 2010 origin, belonging to the Asian clade. Virus infection and dissemination were assessed by quantitative PCR on midgut and carcass after dissection...
June 9, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598357/microcephaly
#14
REVIEW
Emily Hanzlik, Joseph Gigante
Microcephaly is defined as a head circumference more than two standard deviations below the mean for gender and age. Congenital microcephaly is present at birth, whereas postnatal microcephaly occurs later in life. Genetic abnormalities, syndromes, metabolic disorders, teratogens, infections, prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal injuries can cause both congenital and postnatal microcephaly. Evaluation of patients with microcephaly begins with a thorough history and physical examination. In cases of worsening microcephaly or neurological signs or symptoms, neuroimaging, metabolic, or genetic testing should be strongly considered...
June 9, 2017: Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595824/zika-in-the-americas-year-2-what-have-we-learned-what-gaps-remain-a-report-from-the-global-virus-network
#15
REVIEW
Matthew T Aliota, Leda Bassit, Shelton S Bradrick, Bryan Cox, Mariano A Garcia-Blanco, Christina Gavegnano, Thomas C Friedrich, Thaddeus G Golos, Diane E Griffin, Andrew Haddow, Esper G Kallas, Uriel Kitron, Marc Lecuit, Diogo M Magnani, Caroline Marrs, Natalia Mercer, Edward McSweegan, Lisa Ng, David H O'Connor, Jorge E Osorio, Guilherme S Ribeiro, Michael Ricciardi, Shannan L Rossi, George Saade, Raymond F Schinazi, Geraldine O Schott-Lerner, Chao Shan, Pei-Yong Shi, David I Watkins, Nikos Vasilakis, Scott C Weaver
In response to the outbreak of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection in the Western Hemisphere and the recognition of a causal association with fetal malformations, the Global Virus Network (GVN) assembled an international taskforce of virologists to promote basic research, recommend public health measures and encourage the rapid development of vaccines, antiviral therapies and new diagnostic tests. In this article, taskforce members and other experts review what has been learned about ZIKV disease in humans, its modes of transmission and the cause and nature of associated congenital manifestations...
June 5, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594787/measures-taken-to-prevent-zika-virus-infection-during-pregnancy-puerto-rico-2016
#16
Denise V D'Angelo, Beatriz Salvesen von Essen, Mark J Lamias, Holly Shulman, Wanda I Hernandez-Virella, Aspy J Taraporewalla, Manuel I Vargas, Leslie Harrison, Sascha R Ellington, Leslianne Soto, Tanya Williams, Aurea Rodriguez, Carrie K Shapiro-Mendoza, Brenda Rivera, Shanna Cox, Karen Pazol, Marion E Rice, Deborah L Dee, Lisa Romero, Eva Lathrop, Wanda Barfield, Ruben A Smith, Denise J Jamieson, Margaret A Honein, Carmen Deseda, Lee Warner
Zika virus infection during pregnancy remains a serious health threat in Puerto Rico. Infection during pregnancy can cause microcephaly, brain abnormalities, and other severe birth defects (1). From January 1, 2016 through March 29, 2017, Puerto Rico reported approximately 3,300 pregnant women with laboratory evidence of possible Zika virus infection (2). There is currently no vaccine or intervention to prevent the adverse effects of Zika virus infection during pregnancy; therefore, prevention has been the focus of public health activities, especially for pregnant women (3)...
June 9, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592527/zika-virus-hijacks-stress-granule-proteins-and-modulates-the-host-stress-response
#17
Shangmei Hou, Anil Kumar, Zaikun Xu, Adriana M Airo, Iryna Stryapunina, Cheung Pang Wong, William Branton, Egor Tchesnokov, Matthias Götte, Christopher Power, Tom C Hobman
Zika virus (ZIKV), a member of the Flaviviridae family, has recently emerged as an important human pathogen with increasing economic and health impact worldwide. Because of its teratogenic nature and association with the serious neurological condition Guillain-Barré syndrome, a tremendous amount of effort has focused on understanding ZIKV pathogenesis. To gain further insights into ZIKV interaction with host cells, we investigated how this pathogen affects stress response pathways. While ZIKV infection induces stress signaling that leads to phosphorylation of eIF2α and cellular translational arrest, stress granule (SG) formation was inhibited...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590945/addressing-the-global-zika-epidemic-locally-an-interprofessional-model-of-universal-screening-at-one-center
#18
Rosha N Forman, Pooja K Mehta, Kettie R Louis, Molly K Finneseth, Christina D Yarrington
Escalating evidence for the fetal impact of Zika virus infection required a change in care by all prenatal providers. This article describes an effective model of rapid implementation of universal prenatal screening at one hospital and its network of community health centers for a large and diverse immigrant population exploring the challenges, experiences, and lessons learned. Implementation of national recommendations required a workflow change, challenging a system with a heterogeneity of settings and providers...
June 6, 2017: Journal of Perinatal & Neonatal Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589934/dna-vaccination-protects-mice-against-zika-virus-induced-damage-to-the-testes
#19
Bryan D Griffin, Kar Muthumani, Bryce M Warner, Anna Majer, Mable Hagan, Jonathan Audet, Derek R Stein, Charlene Ranadheera, Trina Racine, Marc-Antoine De La Vega, Jocelyne Piret, Stephanie Kucas, Kaylie N Tran, Kathy L Frost, Christine De Graff, Geoff Soule, Leanne Scharikow, Jennifer Scott, Gordon McTavish, Valerie Smid, Young K Park, Joel N Maslow, Niranjan Y Sardesai, J Joseph Kim, Xiao-Jian Yao, Alexander Bello, Robbin Lindsay, Guy Boivin, Stephanie A Booth, Darwyn Kobasa, Carissa Embury-Hyatt, David Safronetz, David B Weiner, Gary P Kobinger
Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging pathogen causally associated with serious sequelae in fetuses, inducing fetal microcephaly and other neurodevelopment defects. ZIKV is primarily transmitted by mosquitoes, but can persist in human semen and sperm, and sexual transmission has been documented. Moreover, exposure of type-I interferon knockout mice to ZIKV results in severe damage to the testes, epididymis and sperm. Candidate ZIKV vaccines have shown protective efficacy in preclinical studies carried out in animal models, and several vaccines have entered clinical trials...
June 7, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586426/sensitive-detection-of-zika-virus-antigen-in-patients-whole-blood-as-an-alternative-diagnostic-approach
#20
Fok-Moon Lum, Cui Lin, Olga Y Susova, Teck-Hui Teo, Siew-Wai Fong, Tze-Minn Mak, Linda Kay Lee, Chia-Yin Chong, David C B Lye, Raymond T P Lin, Andres Merits, Yee-Sin Leo, Lisa F P Ng
Background.: Epidemics caused by the re-emergence of Zika virus (ZIKAV) warrant the need to develop new diagnostic measures to complement currently used detection methods. In this study, we explored the detection of ZIKAV antigen in a defined leucocyte subset from patient's whole blood. Methods.: Whole blood samples were obtained at the acute and early convalescent phase from ZIKAV-infected patients during the Singapore outbreak in Aug-Sep 2016. Presence of ZIKAV antigen was determined by flow cytometry staining for intracellular ZIKAV NS3 with a ZIKAV-specific polyclonal antibody...
June 6, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
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