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Alternative state

Benjamin W Mooneyham, Michael D Mrazek, Alissa J Mrazek, Kaita L Mrazek, Dawa T Phillips, Jonathan W Schooler
During tasks that require continuous engagement, the mind alternates between mental states of focused attention and mind-wandering. Existing research has assessed the functional connectivity of intrinsic brain networks underlying the experience and training of these mental states using "static" approaches that assess connectivity across an entire task. To disentangle the functional connectivity between brain regions as the mind fluctuates between discrete brain states, we employed a dynamic functional connectivity approach that characterized brain activity using a sliding window...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Ross S Firestone, Scott A Cameron, Peter C Tyler, Rodrigo Gay Ducati, Adam Z Spitz, Vern L Schramm
5'-Methylthioadenosine phosphorylase (MTAP) and 5'-methylthioadenosine nucleosidase (MTAN) catalyze the phosphorolysis and hydrolysis of 5'-methylthioadenosine (MTA), respectively. Both enzymes have low KM values for their substrates. Kinetic assays for these enzymes are challenging, as the ultraviolet absorbance spectra for reactant MTA and product adenine are similar. We report a new assay using 2-amino-5'-methylthioadenosine (2AMTA) as an alternative substrate for MTAP and MTAN enzymes. Hydrolysis or phosphorolysis of 2AMTA forms 2,6-diaminopurine, a fluorescent and easily quantitated product...
October 25, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
Teresa T Vo, Sheeba Varghese Gupta
For treatment-naïve patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection, efavirenz (EFV) together with tenofovir and emtricitabine were once widely prescribed given its efficacy and ease of administration in a combination pill. However, the high rate of central nervous system toxicities from EFV prompted the United States Department of Health and Human Services to move the EFV-based regimen from the recommended to the alternative category. For patients who do meet the criteria for newer recommended antiretroviral treatments, EFV is a viable option and is often the mainstay of treatment outside the United States, as newer antiretroviral treatments are more expensive...
October 25, 2016: Pharmacotherapy
Margaret J Livingstone, Cornelius B Groenewald, Jennifer A Rabbitts, Tonya M Palermo
BACKGROUND: Concerns regarding the safety of codeine have been raised. Cases of life-threatening respiratory depression and death in children have been attributed to codeine's polymorphic metabolic pathway. International health agencies recommend restricted use of codeine in children. Despite these recommendations, the epidemiology of codeine use among children remains unknown. AIMS: Our objective was to examine patterns of codeine use in the US among children. METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis of children of age 0-17 years from 1996 to 2013 in the US was performed...
October 25, 2016: Paediatric Anaesthesia
Joy M Dawes, Erin M Cooke, Jacqueline A Hannam, Katherine A Brand, Pamela Winton, Ricardo Jimenez-Mendez, Katarina Aleksa, Gillian R Lauder, Bruce C Carleton, Gideon Koren, Michael J Rieder, Brian J Anderson, Carolyne J Montgomery
BACKGROUND: Oral morphine has been proposed as an effective and safe alternative to codeine for after-discharge pain in children following surgery but there are few data guiding an optimum safe oral dose. AIMS: The aim of this study was to characterize the absorption pharmacokinetics of enteral morphine in order to simulate time-concentration profiles in children given common oral morphine dose regimens. METHODS: Children (2-6 years, n = 34) undergoing elective surgery and requiring opioid analgesia were randomized to receive preoperative oral morphine (100 mcg·kg(-1) , 200 mcg·kg(-1) , 300 mcg·kg(-1) )...
October 25, 2016: Paediatric Anaesthesia
Ya-Fu Lee, Yen-Min Kuo, Wen-Chen Chu
BACKGROUND: When facing a novel situation, animals can retreat or leave to avoid risks, but will miss potential resources and opportunities. Alternatively they may reduce environmental uncertainty by exploration, while risking no energy rewards and exposure to hazards, and use the information retrieved for subsequent decision making. When exploring, however, animals may adopt different tactics according to individual states. RESULTS: We tested that energy states will affect exploratory behavior by experimenting with wild-caught untrained Eurasian tree sparrows (Passer montanus) in fasted or fed states exploring in a novel space with hidden food supply in different patch distribution patterns...
2016: Frontiers in Zoology
R Aubry
On February 2, 2016, the French parliament adopted legislation creating new rights for the terminally ill. The text modifies and reinforces the rights of patients to end-of-life care and strengthens the status of surrogate decision makers. Under the new regulations, advance directives become legally binding though not unenforceable. Two types of advance directives are distinguished depending on whether the person is suffering or not from a serious illness when drafting them. The attending physician must abide by the patient's advance directives except in three situations: there is a life-threatening emergency; the directives are manifestly inappropriate; the directives are not compatible with the patient's medical condition...
October 21, 2016: Revue Neurologique
D Wang, A Fu
Mitochondria possess oxygen-consuming respiratory electron transfer chains (RETCs), and the oxygen-evolving photosynthetic electron transfer chain (PETC) resides in chloroplasts. Evolutionarily mitochondria and chloroplasts are derived from ancient α-proteobacteria and cyanobacteria, respectively. However, cyanobacteria harbor both RETC and PETC on their thylakoid membranes. It is proposed that chloroplasts could possess a RETC on the thylakoid membrane, in addition to PETC. Identification of a plastid terminal oxidase (PTOX) in the chloroplast from the Arabidopsis variegation mutant immutans (im) demonstrated the presence of a RETC in chloroplasts, and the PTOX is the committed oxidase...
2016: Enzymes
C Grillon, O J Robinson, K O'Connell, A Davis, G Alvarez, D S Pine, M Ernst
BACKGROUND: Laboratory tasks to delineate anxiety disorder features are used to refine classification and inform our understanding of etiological mechanisms. The present study examines laboratory measures of response inhibition, specifically the inhibition of a pre-potent motor response, in clinical anxiety. Data on associations between anxiety and response inhibition remain inconsistent, perhaps because of dissociable effects of clinical anxiety and experimentally manipulated state anxiety...
October 25, 2016: Psychological Medicine
P Maxwell Courtney, David C Markel
With renewed focus on achieving value for patients in total hip and knee arthroplasty, payors, hospitals, and physicians strive to provide quality care while minimizing cost. Large registry datasets have gained popularity in the United States to track implant survivorship and outcomes after joint replacement. Partnerships among surgeons, insurers, and health systems have improved on earlier administrative datasets from Medicare to measure quality and outcomes. Participation in state and national registries can help surgeons and hospitals gain a financial advantage in several insurers' quality programs and alternative payment models...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Knee Surgery
Paul S Sheeran, Naomi Matsuura, Mark A Borden, Ross Williams, Terry O Matsunaga, Peter N Burns, Paul A Dayton
Continued advances in the field of ultrasound and ultrasound contrast agents have created new approaches to imaging and medical intervention. Phase-shift perfluorocarbon droplets, which can be vaporized by ultrasound energy to transition from the liquid to the vapor state, are one of the most highly researched alternatives to clinical ultrasound contrast agents (i.e. microbubbles). In this review, part of a special issue on methods in biomedical ultrasonics, we survey current techniques to prepare ultrasound-activated nanoscale phase-shift perfluorocarbon droplets, including sonication, extrusion, homogenization, microfluidics, and microbubble condensation...
October 20, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
Jamie Perin, John S Preisser
Alternating logistic regressions is an estimating equations procedure used to model marginal means of correlated binary outcomes while simultaneously specifying a within-cluster association model for log odds ratios of outcome pairs. A recent generalization of alternating logistic regressions, known as orthogonalized residuals, is extended to incorporate finite sample adjustments in the estimation of the log odds ratio model parameters for when there is a moderately small number of clusters. Bias adjustments are made both in the sandwich variance estimators and in the estimating equations for the association parameters...
October 24, 2016: Biometrics
Jessica M Andriolo, Richard J Rossi, Casey A McConnell, Baili I Connors, Kevin Trout, M K Hailer, Marisa L Pedulla, Jack L Skinner
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have estimated that each year, two million people in the United States become infected with antibiotic-resistant bacteria, of which, approximately 23 000 die as a direct result of these infections. Phage therapy, or the treatment of bacterial infection by specific, antagonistic viruses, provides one alternative to traditional antibiotics. Bacteriophages, or phages, are bacteriaspecific viruses that possess biological traits that allow for not only the removal of bacterial infection, but also the evasion of bacterial resistance which renders antibiotics ineffective...
October 19, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Nanobioscience
Laurent Pedesseau, Daniel Sapori, Boubacar Traore, Roberto Robles, Hong-Hua Fang, Maria Antonietta Loi, Hsinhan Tsai, Wanyi Nie, Jean-Christophe Blancon, Amanda Neukirch, Sergei Tretiak, Aditya D Mohite, Claudine Katan, Jacky Even, Mikaël Kepenekian
Layered halide hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites (HOP) have been the subject of intense investigation before the rise of three-dimensional (3D) HOP and their impressive performance in solar cells. Recently, layered HOP have also been proposed as attractive alternatives for photostable solar cells and revisited for light-emitting devices. In this review, we combine classical solid-state physics concepts with simulation tools based on density functional theory to overview the main features of the optoelectronic properties of layered HOP...
October 24, 2016: ACS Nano
Jonathan M Mudge, Jennifer Harrow
A genome sequence is worthless if it cannot be deciphered; therefore, efforts to describe - or 'annotate' - genes began as soon as DNA sequences became available. Whereas early work focused on individual protein-coding genes, the modern genomic ocean is a complex maelstrom of alternative splicing, non-coding transcription and pseudogenes. Scientists - from clinicians to evolutionary biologists - need to navigate these waters, and this has led to the design of high-throughput, computationally driven annotation projects...
October 24, 2016: Nature Reviews. Genetics
Antonino Naro, Antonino Leo, Antonio Buda, Alfredo Manuli, Alessia Bramanti, Placido Bramanti, Rocco Salvatore Calabrò
Visual fixation (VF) of a target is a possible, although atypical, feature of the Unresponsive Wakefulness Syndrome (UWS). Whether VF may indicate residual awareness in these patients is debatable, since it may simply subtend a series of reflex processes. Objective tools should therefore be used to identify aware VF, which depends on the integrity of visuomotor networks encompassing frontal-parietal-occipital areas. The aim of our study was to detect residual visuomotor network functionality potentially sustaining aware VF...
October 20, 2016: Brain Research
Christos Lazaridis
Shock is a systemic form of acute circulatory failure leading to cellular dysoxia and death. Such a state of aerobic metabolism failure also underlies neuronal cell death in severe traumatic brain injury. It is becoming increasingly recognized that ischemic hypoxia is not the sole mechanism and that multiple alternate cooperating mechanisms may be responsible for compromising neuronal oxidative metabolism. These different mechanisms can be usefully understood via analysis of the classic subdivisions of tissue hypoxia...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Critical Care
Smain Chemat, Abdallah Aissa, Abdenour Boumechhour, Omar Arous, Hamid Ait-Amar
This study proposes an ultrasound-horn system for the extraction of a natural active compound "artemisinin" from Artemisia annua L. leaves as an alternative to hot maceration technique. Ultrasound leaching improves artemisinin recovery at all temperatures where only ten minutes is required to recover 70% (4.42mgg(-1)) compared to 60min of conventional hot leaching for the same yield. For instance, ultrasound treatment at 30°C produced a higher yield than the one obtained by conventional maceration at 40°C...
January 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Jack J Olney, Paula Braitstein, Jeffrey W Eaton, Edwin Sang, Monicah Nyambura, Sylvester Kimaiyo, Ellen McRobie, Joseph W Hogan, Timothy B Hallett
BACKGROUND: With expanded access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) in sub-Saharan Africa, HIV mortality has decreased, yet life-years are still lost to AIDS. Strengthening of treatment programmes is a priority. We examined the state of an HIV care programme in Kenya and assessed interventions to improve the impact of ART programmes on population health. METHODS: We created an individual-based mathematical model to describe the HIV epidemic and the experiences of care among adults infected with HIV in Kenya...
October 19, 2016: Lancet HIV
Andrea Doeschl-Wilson, Alison Wilson, Jens Nielsen, Hans Nauwynck, Alan Archibald, Tahar Ait-Ali
BACKGROUND: Macrophages are essential to innate immunity against many pathogens, but some pathogens also target macrophages as routes to infection. The Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome virus (PRRSV) is an RNA virus that infects porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs) causing devastating impact on global pig production. Identifying the cellular mechanisms that mediate PAM susceptibility to the virus is crucial for developing effective interventions. Previous evidence suggests that the scavenger receptor CD163 is essential for productive infection of PAMs with PRRSV...
October 22, 2016: BMC Systems Biology
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