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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161434/designing-a-mutant-candida-uricase-with-improved-polymerization-state-and-enzymatic-activity
#1
Lei Tao, Dandan Li, Yonghong Li, Xinchang Shi, Junzhi Wang, Chunming Rao, Yingqi Zhang
As human uricase has been silenced during evolution, counterparts from other species become an alternative for the treatment of hyperuricemia. Candida uricase is a promising option among them, but its aggregation propensity remains a major obstacle to clinical use. In this study, we designed two mutations according to homology-modeled 3D structure of Candida uricase: Cys249Ser substitution and C-terminal Leu deletion. The wild-type uricase and three mutants containing either or both of the mutations were expressed in Escherichiacoli BL21 and validated by mass spectrometry...
November 17, 2017: Protein Engineering, Design & Selection: PEDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161210/index-use-of-smoflipid-in-a-tertiary-intestinal-rehabilitation-and-transplantation-program
#2
Kwai Lam, Thomas Schiano, Maria Isabel Fiel, Kishore Iyer
Long-term parenteral nutrition (PN) may be complicated by PN-associated liver disease (PNALD), and some studies suggest an association between the use of soy-based fat emulsions and PNALD development. Patients' liver function typically improves and PNALD resolves after reducing or stopping a soy-based fat emulsion, and thus lipid minimization has been the primary strategy for managing PNALD in many intestinal rehabilitation programs. However, fat emulsions often cannot be stopped entirely, leading some patients to develop PNALD even after lipid reduction strategies have been implemented...
November 1, 2017: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161174/the-telescoping-phenomenon-origins-in-gender-bias-and-implications-for-contemporary-scientific-inquiry
#3
Katherine R Marks, Claire D Clark
BACKGROUND: In an article published in International Journal of the Addictions in 1989, Nick Piazza and his coauthors described "telescoping," an accelerated progression through "landmark symptoms" of alcoholism, among a sample of recovering women. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this critical analysis is to apply a feminist philosophy of science to examine the origins of the framework of telescoping research and its implications for contemporary scientific inquiry. METHODS: A feminist philosophy of science framework is outlined and applied to key source publications of telescoping literature drawn from international and United States-based peer-reviewed journals published beginning in 1952...
November 21, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160605/1-5-disubstituted-1-2-3-triazole-containing-peptidotriazolamers-design-principles-for-a-class-of-versatile-peptidomimetics
#4
Oliver Kracker, Jerzy Góra, Joanna Krzciuk-Gula, Antoine Marion, Beate Neumann, Hans-Georg Stammler, Anke Nieß, Iris Antes, Rafal Latajka, Norbert Sewald
Peptidotriazolamers are hybrid foldamers combining features of peptides and triazolamers - repetitive peptidomimetic structures with triazoles replacing peptide bonds. We report on the synthesis of a new class of peptidomimetics, containing 1,5-disubstituted 1,2,3-triazoles in an alternating fashion with amide bonds and the analysis of their conformation in solid state and solution. Homo- or heterochiral peptidotriazolamers were obtained from enantiomerically pure propargylamines with stereogenic centers in the propargylic position and alpha-azido esters by ruthenium-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (RuAAC) under microwave conditions in high yields...
November 21, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159989/general-phase-regularized-reconstruction-using-phase-cycling
#5
Frank Ong, Joseph Y Cheng, Michael Lustig
PURPOSE: To develop a general phase regularized image reconstruction method, with applications to partial Fourier imaging, water-fat imaging and flow imaging. THEORY AND METHODS: The problem of enforcing phase constraints in reconstruction was studied under a regularized inverse problem framework. A general phase regularized reconstruction algorithm was proposed to enable various joint reconstruction of partial Fourier imaging, water-fat imaging and flow imaging, along with parallel imaging (PI) and compressed sensing (CS)...
November 21, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159476/the-impact-of-skeletal-muscle-on-the-pharmacokinetics-and-toxicity-of-5-fluorouracil-in-colorectal-cancer
#6
Grant R Williams, Allison M Deal, Shlomit Strulov Shachar, Christine M Walko, Jai N Patel, Bert O'Neil, Howard L McLeod, Marc S Weinberg, Seul Ki Choi, Hyman B Muss, Hanna K Sanoff
PURPOSE: Great heterogeneity exists in the ability of adults with cancer to tolerate chemotherapy. Variability in body composition may affect rates of metabolism of cytotoxic agents and contribute to the variable chemotherapy toxicity observed. The objective of this exploratory study was to examine the association of low skeletal muscle, commonly known as sarcopenia, on the pharmacokinetics (PKs) of 5-fluorouracil (5FU) in patients receiving FOLFOX for colorectal cancer. METHODS: We performed a secondary analysis of a completed multicenter trial that investigated PK-guided 5FU dosing in patients receiving mFOLFOX6 +/- bevacizumab for colorectal cancer...
November 20, 2017: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159176/effect-of-alternate-nostril-breathing-exercise-on-experimentally-induced-anxiety-in-healthy-volunteers-using-the-simulated-public-speaking-model-a-randomized-controlled-pilot-study
#7
Ashwin Kamath, Rathnakar P Urval, Ashok K Shenoy
A randomized controlled pilot study was carried out to determine the effect of a 15-minute practice of ANB exercise on experimentally induced anxiety using the simulated public speaking model in yoga-naïve healthy young adults. Thirty consenting medical students were equally divided into test and control groups. The test group performed alternate nostril breathing exercise for 15 minutes, while the control group sat in a quiet room before participating in the simulated public speaking test (SPST). Visual Analog Mood Scale and Self-Statements during Public Speaking scale were used to measure the mood state at different phases of the SPST...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159147/osmotic-conditions-could-promote-scfv-antibody-production-in-the-escherichia-coli-hb2151
#8
Ali Mesgari-Shadi, Mohammad Hossein Sarrafzadeh
Introduction: Single chain variable fragment (scFv) antibodies are reduced forms of the whole antibodies that could be regarded as an alternative tool for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. The optimization of processes and environmental conditions is necessary to increase the production yields and enhance the productivity. This can result in a cost-effective process and respond to the high demand for these antibodies. Methods: In this research, physical and chemical factors influencing the batch fermentation was investigated in 50 mL batch tubes using minimum media to find the optimum conditions for production of a single chain variable fragment antibody in the Escherichia coli HB2151...
2017: BioImpacts: BI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158090/the-developmental-switch-in-bacteriophage-%C3%AE-a-critical-role-of-the-cro-protein
#9
Sangmi Lee, Dale E A Lewis, Sankar Adhya
Bacteriophage λ of Escherichia coli has two alternative life cycles after infection-host survival with lysogen formation, or host lysis and phage production. In a lysogen, CI represses the two lytic promoters, pR and pL, and activates its own transcription from the auto-regulated pRM promoter. During induction from the lysogenic to lytic state, CI is inactivated, and the two lytic promoters are de-repressed allowing expression of Cro from pR. Cro is known to repress transcription of CI from pRM to prevent lysogeny...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158049/down-regulation-of-pro-inflammatory-pathways-by-tanshinone-iia-and-cryptotanshinone-in-a-non-genetic-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#10
Francesco Maione, Marialuisa Piccolo, Simona De Vita, Maria Giovanna Chini, Claudia Cristiano, Carmen De Caro, Pellegrino Lippiello, Maria Concetta Miniaci, Rita Santamaria, Carlo Irace, Vincenzo De Feo, Antonio Calignano, Nicola Mascolo, Giuseppe Bifulco
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a common form of dementia mainly characterized by the deposition of neurofibrillary tangles and β-amyloid (Aβ) peptides in the brain. Additionally, increasing evidence demonstrates that a neuro-inflammatory state plays a key role in the development of this disease. Beside synthetic drugs, the use of natural compounds represents an alternative for the development of new potential drugs for the treatment of AD. Among these, the root of Salvia miltiorhiza Bunge (also known as Danshen) used for the treatment of cardiovascular, cerebrovascular disease and CNS functional decline in Chinese traditional medicine is one of the most representative examples...
November 17, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157022/phytochemical-based-nanomedicines-against-cancer-current-status-and-future-prospects
#11
Md Rizwanullah, Saima Amin, Showkat Rasool Mir, Khalid Umar Fakhri, Mohd Moshahid Alam Rizvi
Cancer continues to be one in all the leading reasons for death worldwide. The mean cancer survival through standard therapeutic strategies has not been significantly improved over the past few decades. Hence, alternate remedies are needed to treat this terrible disease. Recently, natural compounds present in the plants, i.e. phytochemicals have been widely exploited for their anticancer potential. Phytochemicals may exhibit their anticancer activity through targeting different cancer cell signaling pathways, promoting cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, regulating antioxidant status and detoxification...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Drug Targeting
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156140/automated-training-of-reaxff-reactive-force-fields-for-energetics-of-enzymatic-reactions
#12
Tomáš Trnka, Igor Tvaroska, Jaroslav Koca
Computational studies of the reaction mechanisms of various enzymes are nowadays based almost exclusively on hybrid QM/MM models. Unfortunately, the success of this approach strongly depends on the selection of the QM region, and computational cost is a crucial limiting factor. An interesting alternative is offered by empirical reactive molecular force fields, especially the ReaxFF potential developed by van Duin and co-workers. However, even though an initial parameterization of ReaxFF for biomolecules already exists, it does not provide the desired level of accuracy...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156043/tenofovir-alafenamide-fumarate-a-new-tenofovir-prodrug-for-the-treatment-of-chronic-hepatitis-b-infection
#13
Maria Buti, Mar Riveiro-Barciela, Rafael Esteban
Tenofovir alafenamide fumarate (TAF), a new prodrug of tenofovir and a potential successor of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF), has been approved in the United States and Europe for treating adolescents and adults with chronic hepatitis B infection. TAF is formulated to deliver the active metabolite to target cells more efficiently than TDF at lower doses, thereby reducing systemic exposure to tenofovir. In patients with chronic hepatitis B, TAF appears to be as effective as TDF, with lower bone and renal toxicity...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155946/gpcrdb-in-2018-adding-gpcr-structure-models-and-ligands
#14
Gáspár Pándy-Szekeres, Christian Munk, Tsonko M Tsonkov, Stefan Mordalski, Kasper Harpsøe, Alexander S Hauser, Andrzej J Bojarski, David E Gloriam
G protein-coupled receptors are the most abundant mediators of both human signalling processes and therapeutic effects. Herein, we report GPCRome-wide homology models of unprecedented quality, and roughly 150 000 GPCR ligands with data on biological activities and commercial availability. Based on the strategy of 'Less model - more Xtal', each model exploits both a main template and alternative local templates. This achieved higher similarity to new structures than any of the existing resources, and refined crystal structures with missing or distorted regions...
November 16, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155808/a-hierarchical-stochastic-model-for-bistable-perception
#15
Stefan Albert, Katharina Schmack, Philipp Sterzer, Gaby Schneider
Viewing of ambiguous stimuli can lead to bistable perception alternating between the possible percepts. During continuous presentation of ambiguous stimuli, percept changes occur as single events, whereas during intermittent presentation of ambiguous stimuli, percept changes occur at more or less regular intervals either as single events or bursts. Response patterns can be highly variable and have been reported to show systematic differences between patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls. Existing models of bistable perception often use detailed assumptions and large parameter sets which make parameter estimation challenging...
November 20, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155700/phase-behavior-of-charged-vesicles-under-symmetric-and-asymmetric-solution-conditions-monitored-with-fluorescence-microscopy
#16
Bastian Kubsch, Tom Robinson, Jan Steinkühler, Rumiana Dimova
Phase-separated giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) exhibiting coexisting liquid-ordered and liquid-disordered domains are a common biophysical tool to investigate the lipid raft hypothesis. Numerous studies, however, neglect the impact of physiological solution conditions. On that account, the current work presents the effect of high-salinity buffer and trans-membrane solution asymmetry on liquid-liquid phase separation in charged GUVs grown from dioleylphosphatidylglycerol, egg sphingomyelin, and cholesterol...
October 24, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155569/redox-behavior-of-a-dinuclear-ruthenium-ii-complex-bearing-an-uncommon-bridging-ligand-insights-from-high-pressure-electrochemistry
#17
Maximilian Dürr, Johannes Klein, Axel Kahnt, Sabine Becker, Ralph Puchta, Biprajit Sarkar, Ivana Ivanović-Burmazović
A dinuclear ruthenium complex bridged by 2,3,5,6-pyrazinetetracarboxylic acid (μ-LH2(2-)) was synthesized and characterized by X-ray crystallography, cyclic voltammetry under ambient and elevated pressures, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and UV/vis-NIR (NIR = near-infrared) spectroelectrochemistry, pulse radiolysis, and computational methods. We probed for the first time in the field of mixed-valency the use of high-pressure electrochemical methods. The investigations were directed toward the influence of the protonation state of the bridging ligand on the electronic communication between the ruthenium ions, since such behavior is interesting in terms of modulating redox chemistry by pH...
November 20, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155507/the-role-of-radiation-therapy-in-the-modern-management-of-oligometastatic-disease
#18
Yan Li, Suyu Tao, Mengru Li, Duojie Li
Multimodal treatment approaches are indispensable for patients with advanced-stage cancer, while radiation therapy has been established as essential part of therapeutic approaches and has been introduced as a better option to face challenges, such as, local relapse or oligometastatic disease. The mere insight of the concept of oligometastases, proposed for the first time in the middle 1990s, led to the hypothesis that this condition may be cured using local ablative weapons. This hypothesis has already been demonstrated by surgical ablative techniques...
July 2017: Journal of B.U.ON.: Official Journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154561/acculturative-stress-mental-health-symptoms-and-the-role-of-salivary-inflammatory-markers-among-a-latino-sample
#19
Adriana Maldonado, Andrea Preciado, Melissa Buchanan, Kim Pulvers, Devan Romero, Kimberly D'Anna-Hernandez
OBJECTIVES: Exposure to psychosocial stressors is associated with increases in adverse mental health outcomes and inflammatory markers. Limited research has investigated if acculturative stress, related to cultural adaptation in Latinos, one of the fastest growing minority groups in the United States, follows a similar pattern. This study hypothesized that acculturative stress would be associated with increased mental health symptoms as well as increases in salivary inflammatory markers...
November 20, 2017: Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153838/unsupervised-trajectory-analysis-of-single-cell-rna-seq-and-imaging-data-reveals-alternative-tuft-cell-origins-in-the-gut
#20
Charles A Herring, Amrita Banerjee, Eliot T McKinley, Alan J Simmons, Jie Ping, Joseph T Roland, Jeffrey L Franklin, Qi Liu, Michael J Gerdes, Robert J Coffey, Ken S Lau
Modern single-cell technologies allow multiplexed sampling of cellular states within a tissue. However, computational tools that can infer developmental cell-state transitions reproducibly from such single-cell data are lacking. Here, we introduce p-Creode, an unsupervised algorithm that produces multi-branching graphs from single-cell data, compares graphs with differing topologies, and infers a statistically robust hierarchy of cell-state transitions that define developmental trajectories. We have applied p-Creode to mass cytometry, multiplex immunofluorescence, and single-cell RNA-seq data...
November 7, 2017: Cell Systems
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