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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822939/short-term-effects-of-spring-prescribed-burning-on-the-understory-vegetation-of-a-pinushalepensis-forest-in-northeastern-spain
#1
Laura Fuentes, Beatriz Duguy, Daniel Nadal-Sala
Since the 1970s, fire regimes have been modified in the Northern Mediterranean region due to profound landscape changes mostly driven by socioeconomic factors, such as rural abandonment and large-scale plantations. Both fuel accumulation and the increasing vegetation spatial continuity, combined with the expansion of the wildland-urban interface, have enhanced fire risk and the occurrence of large wildfires. This situation will likely worsen under the projected aridity increase resulting from climate change...
August 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819065/effects-of-the-fort-mcmurray-wildfires-on-the-health-of-evacuated-workers-follow-up-of-2-cohorts
#2
Nicola Cherry, Whitney Haynes
BACKGROUND: Wildfire engulfed Fort McMurray, Alberta on May 3, 2016, leading to a total evacuation. Access to 2 active cohorts allowed us to rapidly assess health effects in those evacuated. METHODS: People working in Fort McMurray who had been recruited before the fire for 2 occupational health cohort studies completed a questionnaire (online or via telephone) 3-26 weeks after evacuation. The questionnaire asked about respiratory and mental health and experiences since the fire...
August 15, 2017: CMAJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812737/human-exposure-and-sensitivity-to-globally-extreme-wildfire-events
#3
David M J S Bowman, Grant J Williamson, John T Abatzoglou, Crystal A Kolden, Mark A Cochrane, Alistair M S Smith
Extreme wildfires have substantial economic, social and environmental impacts, but there is uncertainty whether such events are inevitable features of the Earth's fire ecology or a legacy of poor management and planning. We identify 478 extreme wildfire events defined as the daily clusters of fire radiative power from MODIS, within a global 10 × 10 km lattice, between 2002 and 2013, which exceeded the 99.997th percentile of over 23 million cases of the ΣFRP 100 km(-2) in the MODIS record. These events are globally distributed across all flammable biomes, and are strongly associated with extreme fire weather conditions...
February 6, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810209/benefits-of-the-fire-mitigation-ecosystem-service-in-the-great-dismal-swamp-national-wildlife-refuge-virginia-usa
#4
Bryan Parthum, Emily Pindilli, Dianna Hogan
The Great Dismal Swamp (GDS) National Wildlife Refuge delivers multiple ecosystem services, including air quality and human health via fire mitigation. Our analysis estimates benefits of this service through its potential to reduce catastrophic wildfire related impacts on the health of nearby human populations. We used a combination of high-frequency satellite data, ground sensors, and air quality indices to determine periods of public exposure to dense emissions from a wildfire within the GDS. We examined emergency department (ED) visitation in seven Virginia counties during these periods, applied measures of cumulative Relative Risk to derive the effects of wildfire smoke exposure on ED visitation rates, and estimated economic losses using regional Cost of Illness values established within the US Environmental Protection Agency BenMAP framework...
August 12, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782362/emission-factors-for-selected-semivolatile-organic-chemicals-from-burning-of-tropical-biomass-fuels-and-estimation-of-annual-australian-emissions
#5
Xianyu Wang, Carl P Meyer, Fabienne Reisen, Melita Keywood, Phong K Thai, Darryl W Hawker, Jennifer Claire Powell, Jochen F Mueller
This study reveals that open-field biomass burning can be an important source of various semivolatile organic chemicals (SVOCs) to the atmosphere including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and a range of pesticides. Emission factors (EFs) for 39 individual SVOCs are determined from burning of various fuel types that are common in tropical Australia. Emissions of PAHs are found to be sensitive to differences in combustion efficiencies rather than fuel types reflecting a formation mechanism...
August 7, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777802/evidence-of-compounded-disturbance-effects-on-vegetation-recovery-following-high-severity-wildfire-and-spruce-beetle-outbreak
#6
Amanda R Carlson, Jason S Sibold, Timothy J Assal, Jose F Negrón
Spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis) outbreaks are rapidly spreading throughout subalpine forests of the Rocky Mountains, raising concerns that altered fuel structures may increase the ecological severity of wildfires. Although many recent studies have found no conclusive link between beetle outbreaks and increased fire size or canopy mortality, few studies have addressed whether these combined disturbances produce compounded effects on short-term vegetation recovery. We tested for an effect of spruce beetle outbreak severity on vegetation recovery in the West Fork Complex fire in southwestern Colorado, USA, where much of the burn area had been affected by severe spruce beetle outbreaks in the decade prior to the fire...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758398/origin-of-fine-particulate-carbon-in-the-rural-united-states
#7
Bret A Schichtel, Jenny L Hand, Michael G Barna, Kristi A Gebhart, Scott Copeland, John Vimont, William Conrad Malm
Carbonaceous compounds are a significant component of fine particulate matter and haze in national parks and wilderness areas where visibility is protected, i.e., class I areas (CIAs). The Regional Haze Rule set the goal of returning visibility in CIAs on the most-anthropogenically-impaired days to natural by 2064. To achieve this goal, we need to understand contributions of natural and anthropogenic sources to the total fine particulate carbon (TC). A Lagrangian chemical transport model was used to simulate the 2006-2008 contributions from various source types to measured TC in CIAs and other rural lands...
July 31, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756990/thermal-stability-of-biochar-and-its-effects-on-cadmium-sorption-capacity
#8
Fangjie Qi, Yubo Yan, Dane Lamb, Ravi Naidu, Nanthi S Bolan, Yanju Liu, Yong Sik Ok, Scott W Donne, Kirk T Semple
In this study, the thermal stability of a wood shaving biochar (WS, 650°C), a chicken litter biochar (CL, 550°C) and an activated carbon (AC, 1100°C) were evaluated by combustion at 375°C for 24h to remove the labile non-carbonized organic matter. Results showed that WS and CL biochars were not thermally stable and can lose most of the organic C during combustion. The combusted WS and CL biochars retained considerable amounts of negative charge and displayed higher sorption for Cd (from 5.46 to 68.9mg/g for WS and from 48...
July 8, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747719/multi-year-predictability-of-climate-drought-and-wildfire-in-southwestern-north-america
#9
Yoshimitsu Chikamoto, Axel Timmermann, Matthew J Widlansky, Magdalena A Balmaseda, Lowell Stott
Past severe droughts over North America have led to massive water shortages and increases in wildfire frequency. Triggering sources for multi-year droughts in this region include randomly occurring atmospheric blocking patterns, ocean impacts on atmospheric circulation, and climate's response to anthropogenic radiative forcings. A combination of these sources translates into a difficulty to predict the onset and length of such droughts on multi-year timescales. Here we present results from a new multi-year dynamical prediction system that exhibits a high degree of skill in forecasting wildfire probabilities and drought for 10-23 and 10-45 months lead time, which extends far beyond the current seasonal prediction activities for southwestern North America...
July 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730654/extensive-wildfires-climate-change-and-an-abrupt-state-change-in-subalpine-ribbon-forests-colorado
#10
W John Calder, Bryan Shuman
Ecosystems may shift abruptly when the effects of climate change and disturbance interact, and landscapes with regularly patterned vegetation may be especially vulnerable to abrupt shifts. Here we use a fossil pollen record from a regularly patterned ribbon forest (alternating bands of forests and meadows) in Colorado to examine whether past changes in wildfire and climate produced abrupt vegetation shifts. Comparing the percentages of conifer pollen with sedimentary δ(18) O data (interpreted as an indicator of temperature or snow accumulation) indicates a first-order linear relationship between vegetation composition and climate change with no detectable lags over the past 2500 years (r = 0...
July 21, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729641/the-rhizosphere-microbiome-of-burned-holm-oak-potential-role-of-the-genus-arthrobacter-in-the-recovery-of-burned-soils
#11
Antonio J Fernández-González, Pilar Martínez-Hidalgo, José F Cobo-Díaz, Pablo J Villadas, Eustoquio Martínez-Molina, Nicolás Toro, Susannah G Tringe, Manuel Fernández-López
After a forest wildfire, the microbial communities have a transient alteration in their composition. The role of the soil microbial community in the recovery of an ecosystem following such an event remains poorly understood. Thus, it is necessary to understand the plant-microbe interactions that occur in burned soils. By high-throughput sequencing, we identified the main bacterial taxa of burnt holm-oak rhizosphere, then we obtained an isolate collection of the most abundant genus and its growth promoting activities were characterised...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724108/yellow-perch-perca-flavescens-mercury-unaffected-by-wildland-fires-in-northern-minnesota
#12
Charlotte E Riggs, Randall K Kolka, Edward A Nater, Emma L Witt, Trent R Wickman, Laurel G Woodruff, Jason T Butcher
Wildland fire can alter mercury (Hg) cycling on land and in adjacent aquatic environments. In addition to enhancing local atmospheric Hg redeposition, fire can influence terrestrial movement of Hg and other elements into lakes via runoff from burned upland soil. However, the impact of fire on water quality and the accumulation of Hg in fish remain equivocal. We investigated the effects of fire-specifically, a low-severity prescribed fire and moderate-severity wildfire-on young-of-the-year yellow perch () and lake chemistry in a small remote watershed in the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness in northeastern Minnesota...
May 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700243/impact-of-wildfire-emissions-on-chloride-and-bromide-depletion-in-marine-aerosol-particles
#13
Rachel A Braun, Hossein Dadashazar, Alexander B MacDonald, Abdulamonam M Aldhaif, Lindsay C Maudlin, Ewan Crosbie, Mojtaba Azadi Aghdam, Ali Hossein Mardi, Armin Sorooshian
This work examines particulate chloride (Cl(-)) and bromide (Br(-)) depletion in marine aerosol particles influenced by wildfires at a coastal California site in the summers of 2013 and 2016. Chloride exhibited a dominant coarse mode due to sea salt influence, with substantially diminished concentrations during fire periods as compared to nonfire periods. Bromide exhibited a peak in the submicrometer range during fire and nonfire periods, with an additional supermicrometer peak in the latter periods. Chloride and Br(-) depletions were enhanced during fire periods as compared to nonfire periods...
July 27, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690793/postfire-soil-water-repellency-in-pi%C3%A3-on-juniper-woodlands-extent-severity-and-thickness-relative-to-ecological-site-characteristics-and-climate
#14
Daniel L Zvirzdin, Bruce A Roundy, Nicholas S Barney, Steven L Petersen, Val J Anderson, Matthew D Madsen
Wildfires can create or intensify water repellency in soil, limiting the soil's capacity to wet and retain water. The objective of this research was to quantify soil water repellency characteristics within burned piñon-juniper woodlands and relate this information to ecological site characteristics. We sampled soil water repellency across forty-one 1,000 m(2) study plots within three major wildfires that burned in piñon-juniper woodlands. Water repellency was found to be extensive-present at 37% of the total points sampled-and strongly related to piñon-juniper canopy cover...
July 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681306/aquatic-ecotoxicity-of-ashes-from-brazilian-savanna-wildfires
#15
Darlan Q Brito, Carlos José S Passos, Daphne H F Muniz, Eduardo C Oliveira-Filho
In a global scenario of climate change, several studies have predicted an increase in fires in different parts of the world. With the occurrence of rains following the fires in the Brazilian savanna (Cerrado biome), the compounds present in ashes may enter aquatic environments and cause adverse effects to these ecosystems. In this context, this study evaluated the potential toxicity of ashes from two areas of Cerrado and an area of pasture, through ecotoxicological bioassays and using three aquatic species from distinct trophic levels, which were exposed to different dilutions of ashes: the microcrustacean Ceriodaphnia dubia, the fish Danio rerio and the mollusc Biomphalaria glabrata...
July 6, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680076/size-dependent-validation-of-modis-mcd64a1-burned-area-over-six-vegetation-types-in-boreal-eurasia-large-underestimation-in-croplands
#16
Chunmao Zhu, Hideki Kobayashi, Yugo Kanaya, Masahiko Saito
Pollutants emitted from wildfires in boreal Eurasia can be transported to the Arctic, and their subsequent deposition could accelerate global warming. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) MCD64A1 burned area product is the basis of fire emission products. However, uncertainties due to the "moderate resolution" (500 m) characteristic of the MODIS sensor could be introduced. Here, we present a size-dependent validation of MCD64A1 with reference to higher resolution (better than 30 m) satellite products (Landsat 7 ETM+, RapidEye, WorldView-2, and GeoEye-1) for six ecotypes over 12 regions of boreal Eurasia...
July 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675517/wildfire-policy-in-mediterranean-france-how-far-is-it-efficient-and-sustainable
#17
Thomas Curt, Thibaut Frejaville
A new fire policy reinforcing aggressive fire suppression was established in Mediterranean France in response to the devastating wildfires of the 1990s, but to what extent this has changed fire activity yet remains poorly understood. For this purpose, we compared the number and location of ignitions and of burned areas between two 20-year periods (1975-1994 vs. 1995-2014), in parallel to the changes in fuel covering, human activity promoting ignitions, and fire weather. The number of fires decreased almost continuously since 1975, but sharply after 1994, suggesting an effect of better fire prevention due to the new policy...
July 4, 2017: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666088/dynamic-changes-of-disinfection-byproduct-precursors-following-exposures-of-microcystis-aeruginosa-to-wildfire-ash-solutions
#18
Kuo-Pei Tsai, Habibullah Uzun, Tanju Karanfil, Alex T Chow
Wildfires can elevate dissolved organic matter (DOM) levels due to ash input and algal growth in source waters, and consequently impacting disinfection byproduct (DBP) formation in finished water; however, it remains unclear how quality and quantity of overall allochthonous and autochthonous DOM as well as associated DBP formation are changed during an entire algal life cycle. Microcystis aeruginosa was cultured in the medium containing low and high concentrations [10% and 65% (v/v)] of black and white ash water extracts (BE and WE) to study dynamic changes of carbonaceous, nitrogenous, and oxygenated DBP precursors during algal growth...
July 19, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665958/effects-of-fire-disturbance-on-soil-respiration-in-the-non-growing-season-in-a-larix-gmelinii-forest-in-the-daxing-an-mountains-china
#19
Tongxin Hu, Long Sun, Haiqing Hu, Futao Guo
In boreal forests, fire is an important part of the ecosystem that greatly influences soil respiration, which in turn affects the carbon balance. Wildfire can have a significant effect on soil respiration and it depends on the fire severity and environmental factors (soil temperature and snow water equivalent) after fire disturbance. In this study, we quantified post-fire soil respiration during the non-growing season (from November to April) in a Larix gmelinii forest in Daxing'an Mountains of China. Soil respiration was measured in the snow-covered and snow-free conditions with varying degrees of natural burn severity forests...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652943/diverse-habitat-use-during-two-life-stages-of-the-critically-endangered-bahama-oriole-icterus-northropi-community-structure-foraging-and-social-interactions
#20
Melissa R Price, William K Hayes
Our ability to prevent extinction in declining populations often depends on effective management of habitats that are disturbed through wildfire, logging, agriculture, or development. In these disturbed landscapes, the juxtaposition of multiple habitat types can be especially important to fledglings and young birds, which may leave breeding grounds in human-altered habitat for different habitats nearby that provide increased foraging opportunities, reduced competition, and higher protection from predators. In this study, we evaluated the importance of three habitat types to two life stages of the critically endangered Bahama Oriole (Icterus northropi), a synanthropic songbird endemic to Andros, The Bahamas...
2017: PeerJ
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