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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088544/off-site-impacts-of-wildfires-on-aquatic-systems-biomarker-responses-of-the-mosquitofish-gambusia-holbrooki
#1
Bruno Nunes, Vera Silva, Isabel Campos, Joana Luísa Pereira, Patrícia Pereira, Jan Jacob Keizer, Fernando Gonçalves, Nelson Abrantes
The number of wildfires has markedly increased in Mediterranean Europe, including in Portugal. Wildfires are environmentally concerning, not only due to the loss of biodiversity and forest area, but also as a consequence of environmental contamination by specific compounds including metals and polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAHs). These contaminants, mostly bound to ashes, can reach downstream water bodies, namely through surface runoff, being ultimately dispersed by vast areas and contacting with aquatic biota...
January 11, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081508/historical-variation-in-black-carbon-deposition-and-sources-to-northern-china-sediments
#2
Wenxue Xu, Fu Wang, Jiwei Li, Lizhu Tian, Xingyu Jiang, Jilong Yang, Bing Chen
Black carbon (BC) in fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is an important air pollutant in a large area of China. We have reconstructed a 100-year-long history of BC deposition based on analyses of sediment samples in the coastal area of the Northern China Plain (NCP). During 1900-2010, the sedimentary BC concentrations at three cores increased from 0.2 to 1.3, from 0.2 to 2.3, and from 0.2 to 1.9 mg g(-1), and the ranges for the BC deposition fluxes were 0.1-4.7, 0.1-8.2, 0.2-7.4 g m(-2) a(-1), suggesting the increase of ten times from the pre-industrial era...
January 2, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064035/a-ranking-system-for-prescribed-burn-prioritization-in-table%C3%A2-mountain-national-park-south-africa
#3
Carly Ruth Cowell, Chad Cheney
To aid prescribed burn decision making in Table Mountain National Park, in South Africa a priority ranking system was tested. Historically a wildfire suppression strategy was adopted due to wildfires threatening urban areas close to the park, with few prescribed burns conducted. A large percentage of vegetation across the park exceeded the ecological threshold of 15 years. We held a multidisciplinary workshop, to prioritize areas for prescribed burning. Fire Management Blocks were mapped and assessed using the following seven categories: (1) ecological, (2) management, (3) tourism, (4) infrastructure, (5) invasive alien vegetation, (6) wildland-urban interface and (7) heritage...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052498/solute-and-sediment-export-from-amazon-forest-and-soybean-headwater-streams
#4
Shelby H Riskin, Christopher Neill, KathiJo Jankowski, Alex V Krusche, Richard McHorney, Helmut Elsenbeer, Marcia N Macedo, Darlisson Nunes, Stephen Porder
Intensive cropland agriculture commonly increases streamwater solute concentrations and export from small watersheds. In recent decades, the lowland tropics have become the world's largest and most important region of cropland expansion. Although the effects of intensive cropland agriculture on streamwater chemistry and watershed export have been widely studied in temperate regions, their effects in tropical regions are poorly understood. We sampled seven headwater streams draining watersheds in forest (n = 3) or soybeans (n = 4) to examine the effects of soybean cropping on stream solute concentrations and watershed export in a region of rapid soybean expansion in the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso...
January 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046079/quantifying-the-carbon-balance-of-forest-restoration-and-wildfire-under-projected-climate-in-the-fire-prone-southwestern-us
#5
Matthew D Hurteau
Climate projections for the southwestern US suggest a warmer, drier future and have the potential to impact forest carbon (C) sequestration and post-fire C recovery. Restoring forest structure and surface fire regimes initially decreases total ecosystem carbon (TEC), but can stabilize the remaining C by moderating wildfire behavior. Previous research has demonstrated that fire maintained forests can store more C over time than fire suppressed forests in the presence of wildfire. However, because the climate future is uncertain, I sought to determine the efficacy of forest management to moderate fire behavior and its effect on forest C dynamics under current and projected climate...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032509/molecular-and-spectroscopic-characterization-of-water-extractable-organic-matter-from-thermally-altered-soils-reveal-insight-into-disinfection-byproduct-precursors
#6
Kaelin M Cawley, Amanda K Hohner, David C Podgorski, William T Cooper, Julie A Korak, Fernando L Rosario-Ortiz
To characterize the effects of thermal-alteration on water extractable organic matter (WEOM), soil samples were heated in a laboratory at 225, 350, and 500 °C. Next, heated and unheated soils were leached, filtered, and analyzed for dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration, optical properties, molecular size distribution, molecular composition, and disinfection byproduct (DBP) formation following the addition of chlorine. The soils heated to 225 °C leached the greatest DOC and had the highest C- and N-DBP precursor reactivity per unit carbon compared to the unheated material or soils heated to 350 or 500 °C...
December 29, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28001335/climate-change-and-the-eco-hydrology-of-fire-will-area-burned-increase-in-a-warming-western-usa
#7
Donald McKenzie, Jeremy S Littell
Wildfire area is predicted to increase with global warming. Empirical statistical models and process-based simulations agree almost universally. The key relationship for this unanimity, observed at multiple spatial and temporal scales, is between drought and fire. Predictive models often focus on ecosystems in which this relationship appears to be particularly strong, such as mesic and arid forests and shrublands with substantial biomass such as chaparral. We examine the drought-fire relationship, specifically the correlations between water-balance deficit and annual area burned, across the full gradient of deficit in the western USA, from temperate rainforest to desert...
August 25, 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27996154/assessing-climate-change-impacts-on-wildfire-exposure-in-mediterranean-areas
#8
Olga M Lozano, Michele Salis, Alan A Ager, Bachisio Arca, Fermin J Alcasena, Antonio T Monteiro, Mark A Finney, Liliana Del Giudice, Enrico Scoccimarro, Donatella Spano
We used simulation modeling to assess potential climate change impacts on wildfire exposure in Italy and Corsica (France). Weather data were obtained from a regional climate model for the period 1981-2070 using the IPCC A1B emissions scenario. Wildfire simulations were performed with the minimum travel time fire spread algorithm using predicted fuel moisture, wind speed, and wind direction to simulate expected changes in weather for three climatic periods (1981-2010, 2011-2040, and 2041-2070). Overall, the wildfire simulations showed very slight changes in flame length, while other outputs such as burn probability and fire size increased significantly in the second future period (2041-2070), especially in the southern portion of the study area...
December 20, 2016: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991554/water-soluble-organic-aerosols-in-the-colorado-rocky-mountains-usa-composition-sources-and-optical-properties
#9
Mingjie Xie, Natalie Mladenov, Mark W Williams, Jason C Neff, Joseph Wasswa, Michael P Hannigan
Atmospheric aerosols have been shown to be an important input of organic carbon and nutrients to alpine watersheds and influence biogeochemical processes in these remote settings. For many remote, high elevation watersheds, direct evidence of the sources of water soluble organic aerosols and their chemical and optical characteristics is lacking. Here, we show that the concentration of water soluble organic carbon (WSOC) in the total suspended particulate (TSP) load at a high elevation site in the Colorado Rocky Mountains was strongly correlated with UV absorbance at 254 nm (Abs254, r = 0...
December 19, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939873/letter-to-the-editor-on-the-necessity-of-overhaul-in-perception-of-microbiological-culture-methods
#10
EDITORIAL
Seema Patel
Unarguably, clinical microbiology has got a boost from NGS technology, but in the process of this transition it has suffered a huge setback. Computational biology can find the microbial genomic variations and can link it to drug resistance, but it has so far underestimated the crucial role of microbial culture medium. The constituents and growth conditions of the medium have been documented to shuffle genomic, epigenetic and metabolic aspects of the bacterial pathogens. Ignoring these in vitro-driven evolutions and attributing the variations as normal bacterial features, responsible for drug resistance is a huge mistake...
January 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935641/pinus-contorta-invasions-increase-wildfire-fuel-loads-and-may-create-a-positive-feedback-with-fire
#11
Kimberley T Taylor, Bruce D Maxwell, David B McWethy, Aníbal Pauchard, Martín A Nuñez, Cathy Whitlock
Invasive plant species that have the potential to alter fire regimes have significant impacts on native ecosystems. Concern that pine invasions in the Southern Hemisphere will increase fire activity and severity and subsequently promote further pine invasion prompted us to examine the potential for feedbacks between Pinus contorta invasions and fire in Patagonia and New Zealand. We determined how fuel loads and fire effects were altered by P. contorta invasion. We also examined post-fire plant communities across invasion gradients at a subset of sites to assess how invasion alters the post-fire vegetation trajectory...
December 9, 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923572/a-system-to-evaluate-fire-impacts-from-simulated-fire-behavior-in-mediterranean-areas-of-central-chile
#12
Miguel E Castillo, Juan R Molina, Francisco Rodríguez Y Silva, Pablo García-Chevesich, Roberto Garfias
Wildfires constitute the greatest economic disruption to Mediterranean ecosystems, from a socio-economic and ecological perspective (Molina et al., 2014). This study proposes to classify fire intensity levels based on potential fire behavior in different types of Mediterranean vegetation types, using two geographical scales. The study considered >4 thousand wildfires over a period of 25years, identifying fire behavior on each event, based on simulations using "KITRAL", a model developed in Chile in 1993 and currently used in the entire country...
February 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908624/a-review-of-biomass-burning-emissions-and-impacts-on-air-quality-health-and-climate-in-china
#13
REVIEW
Jianmin Chen, Chunlin Li, Zoran Ristovski, Andelija Milic, Yuantong Gu, Mohammad S Islam, Shuxiao Wang, Jiming Hao, Hefeng Zhang, Congrong He, Hai Guo, Hongbo Fu, Branka Miljevic, Lidia Morawska, Phong Thai, Yun Fat Lam, Gavin Pereira, Aijun Ding, Xin Huang, Umesh C Dumka
Biomass burning (BB) is a significant air pollution source, with global, regional and local impacts on air quality, public health and climate. Worldwide an extensive range of studies has been conducted on almost all the aspects of BB, including its specific types, on quantification of emissions and on assessing its various impacts. China is one of the countries where the significance of BB has been recognized, and a lot of research efforts devoted to investigate it, however, so far no systematic reviews were conducted to synthesize the information which has been emerging...
February 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902716/large-scale-anthropogenic-reduction-of-forest-cover-in-last-glacial-maximum-europe
#14
Jed O Kaplan, Mirjam Pfeiffer, Jan C A Kolen, Basil A S Davis
Reconstructions of the vegetation of Europe during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) are an enigma. Pollen-based analyses have suggested that Europe was largely covered by steppe and tundra, and forests persisted only in small refugia. Climate-vegetation model simulations on the other hand have consistently suggested that broad areas of Europe would have been suitable for forest, even in the depths of the last glaciation. Here we reconcile models with data by demonstrating that the highly mobile groups of hunter-gatherers that inhabited Europe at the LGM could have substantially reduced forest cover through the ignition of wildfires...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899113/collapse-of-an-iconic-conifer-long-term-changes-in-the-demography-of-widdringtonia-cedarbergensis-using-repeat-photography
#15
J D M White, S L Jack, M T Hoffman, J Puttick, D Bonora, V Visser, E C February
BACKGROUND: Conifer populations appear disproportionately threatened by global change. Most examples are, however, drawn from the northern hemisphere and long-term rates of population decline are not well documented as historical data are often lacking. We use a large and long-term (1931-2013) repeat photography dataset together with environmental data and fire records to account for the decline of the critically endangered Widdringtonia cedarbergensis. Eighty-seven historical and repeat photo-pairs were analysed to establish 20th century changes in W...
November 30, 2016: BMC Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898193/modeling-long-term-changes-in-tundra-carbon-balance-following-wildfire-climate-change-and-potential-nutrient-addition
#16
Yueyang Jiang, Edward B Rastetter, Gaius R Shaver, Adrian V Rocha, Qianlai Zhuang, Bonnie L Kwiatkowski
To investigate the underlying mechanisms that control long-term recovery of tundra carbon (C) and nutrients after fire, we employed the Multiple Element Limitation (MEL) model to simulate 200-yr post-fire changes in the biogeochemistry of three sites along a burn severity gradient in response to increases in air temperature, CO2 concentration, nitrogen (N) deposition, and phosphorus (P) weathering rates. The simulations were conducted for severely burned, moderately burned, and unburned arctic tundra. Our simulations indicated that recovery of C balance after fire was mainly determined by the internal redistribution of nutrients among ecosystem components (controlled by air temperature), rather than the supply of nutrients from external sources (e...
August 4, 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896583/use-of-ultra-high-spatial-resolution-aerial-imagery-in-the-estimation-of-chaparral-wildfire-fuel-loads
#17
Ian T Schmidt, John F O'Leary, Douglas A Stow, Kellie A Uyeda, Phillip J Riggan
Development of methods that more accurately estimate spatial distributions of fuel loads in shrublands allows for improved understanding of ecological processes such as wildfire behavior and postburn recovery. The goal of this study is to develop and test remote sensing methods to upscale field estimates of shrubland fuel to broader-scale biomass estimates using ultra-high spatial resolution imagery captured by a light-sport aircraft. The study is conducted on chaparral shrublands located in eastern San Diego County, CA, USA...
December 2016: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894047/predicting-the-occurrence-of-wildfires-with-binary-structured-additive-regression-models
#18
Laura Ríos-Pena, Thomas Kneib, Carmen Cadarso-Suárez, Manuel Marey-Pérez
Wildfires are one of the main environmental problems facing societies today, and in the case of Galicia (north-west Spain), they are the main cause of forest destruction. This paper used binary structured additive regression (STAR) for modelling the occurrence of wildfires in Galicia. Binary STAR models are a recent contribution to the classical logistic regression and binary generalized additive models. Their main advantage lies in their flexibility for modelling non-linear effects, while simultaneously incorporating spatial and temporal variables directly, thereby making it possible to reveal possible relationships among the variables considered...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891237/the-impact-of-fire-suppression-tasks-on-firefighter-hydration-a-critical-review-with-consideration-of-the-utility-of-reported-hydration-measures
#19
REVIEW
Adam Walker, Rodney Pope, Robin Marc Orr
BACKGROUND: Firefighting is a highly stressful occupation with unique physical challenges, apparel and environments that increase the potential for dehydration. Dehydration leaves the firefighter at risk of harm to their health, safety and performance. The purpose of this review was to critically analyse the current literature investigating the impact of fighting 'live' fires on firefighter hydration. METHODS: A systematic search was performed of four electronic databases for relevant published studies investigating the impact of live fire suppression on firefighter hydration...
2016: Annals of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890146/measuring-wildland-fire-fighter-performance-with-wearable-technology
#20
Richard Parker, Antonios Vitalis, Robyn Walker, David Riley, H Grant Pearce
Wildland (rural) fire fighting is a physically demanding and hazardous occupation. An observational study was conducted to explore the use of new technologies for the field study of fire fighters at wildfires and to understand the work pressures of wildland fire fighting. The research was carried out with two fire fighters at real fires wearing microphones, miniature video cameras, heart rate monitors and GPS units to record their actions and location at wildfire events. The fire fighters were exposed to high physiological workloads (heart rates of up to 180 beats per minute) and walked considerable distances at the fires...
March 2017: Applied Ergonomics
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