keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Wildfire

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321358/examining-the-potential-of-forest-residue-based-amendments-for-post-wildfire-rehabilitation-in-colorado-usa
#1
Charles C Rhoades, Kerri L Minatre, Derek N Pierson, Timothy S Fegel, M Francesca Cotrufo, Eugene F Kelly
Wildfire is a natural disturbance, though elemental losses and changes that occur during combustion and post-fire erosion can have long-term impacts on soil properties, ecosystem productivity, and watershed condition. Here we evaluate the potential of forest residue-based materials to rehabilitate burned soils. We compare soil nutrient and water availability, and plant recovery after application of 37 t ha(-1) of wood mulch, 20 t ha(-1) of biochar, and the combination of the two amendments with untreated, burned soils...
2017: Scientifica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319706/fire-spread-predictions-sweeping-uncertainty-under-the-rug
#2
Akli Benali, Ana C L Sá, Ana R Ervilha, Ricardo M Trigo, Paulo M Fernandes, José M C Pereira
Predicting fire spread and behavior correctly is crucial to minimize the dramatic consequences of wildfires. However, our capability of accurately predicting fire spread is still very limited, undermining the utility of such simulations to support decision-making. Improving fire spread predictions for fire management purposes, by using higher quality input data or enhanced models, can be expensive, unfeasible or even impossible. Fire managers would benefit from fast and inexpensive ways of improving their decision-making...
March 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294305/differential-impacts-of-wildfire-on-the-population-dynamics-of-an-old-forest-species
#3
Jeremy T Rockweit, Alan B Franklin, Peter C Carlson
Ecological disturbances shape and maintain natural communities, but climate change and human land use can alter disturbance regimes and affect population persistence and vital rates in unpredictable ways. Species inhabiting landscapes shaped by wildfire have evolved mechanisms allowing them to persist under this dynamic disturbance type, which creates habitats of varying quality for these species. We utilized data from a 26-year demographic study of northern spotted owls to analyze the influence of wildfire on apparent survival and recruitment rates...
March 14, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291609/a-comparative-study-of-fire-weather-indices-in-a-semiarid-south-eastern-europe-region-case-of-study-murcia-spain
#4
Julio Pérez-Sánchez, Javier Senent-Aparicio, José María Díaz-Palmero, Juan de Dios Cabezas-Cerezo
Forest fires are an important distortion in forest ecosystems, linked to their development and whose effects proceed beyond the destruction of ecosystems and material properties, especially in semiarid regions. Prevention of forest fires has to lean on indices based on available parameters that quantify fire risk ignition and spreading. The present study was conducted to compare four fire weather indices in a semiarid region of 11,314km(2) located in southern Spain, characterised as being part of the most damaged area by fire in the Iberian Peninsula...
March 11, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288104/the-asthma-mobile-health-study-a-large-scale-clinical-observational-study-using-researchkit
#5
Yu-Feng Yvonne Chan, Pei Wang, Linda Rogers, Nicole Tignor, Micol Zweig, Steven G Hershman, Nicholas Genes, Erick R Scott, Eric Krock, Marcus Badgeley, Ron Edgar, Samantha Violante, Rosalind Wright, Charles A Powell, Joel T Dudley, Eric E Schadt
The feasibility of using mobile health applications to conduct observational clinical studies requires rigorous validation. Here, we report initial findings from the Asthma Mobile Health Study, a research study, including recruitment, consent, and enrollment, conducted entirely remotely by smartphone. We achieved secure bidirectional data flow between investigators and 7,593 participants from across the United States, including many with severe asthma. Our platform enabled prospective collection of longitudinal, multidimensional data (e...
March 13, 2017: Nature Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257416/network-analysis-of-wildfire-transmission-and-implications-for-risk-governance
#6
Alan A Ager, Cody R Evers, Michelle A Day, Haiganoush K Preisler, Ana M G Barros, Max Nielsen-Pincus
We characterized wildfire transmission and exposure within a matrix of large land tenures (federal, state, and private) surrounding 56 communities within a 3.3 million ha fire prone region of central Oregon US. Wildfire simulation and network analysis were used to quantify the exchange of fire among land tenures and communities and analyze the relative contributions of human versus natural ignitions to wildfire exposure. Among the land tenures examined, the area burned by incoming fires averaged 57% of the total burned area...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242690/human-started-wildfires-expand-the-fire-niche-across-the-united-states
#7
Jennifer K Balch, Bethany A Bradley, John T Abatzoglou, R Chelsea Nagy, Emily J Fusco, Adam L Mahood
The economic and ecological costs of wildfire in the United States have risen substantially in recent decades. Although climate change has likely enabled a portion of the increase in wildfire activity, the direct role of people in increasing wildfire activity has been largely overlooked. We evaluate over 1.5 million government records of wildfires that had to be extinguished or managed by state or federal agencies from 1992 to 2012, and examined geographic and seasonal extents of human-ignited wildfires relative to lightning-ignited wildfires...
February 27, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238748/can-we-predict-fall-asthma-exacerbations-validation-of-the-seasonal-asthma-exacerbation-index
#8
Heather E Hoch, Agustin Calatroni, Joseph B West, Andrew H Liu, Peter J Gergen, Rebecca S Gruchalla, Khurana G K Hershey, Carolyn M Kercsmar, Haejin Kim, Carin I Lamm, Melanie M Makhija, Herman E Mitchell, Stephen J Teach, Jeremy J Wildfire, William W Busse, Stanley J Szefler
BACKGROUND: A Seasonal Asthma Exacerbation Predictive Index (saEPI) was previously reported based on two prior NIAID Inner City Asthma Consortium trials. OBJECTIVE: We sought to validate the saEPI in a separate trial designed to prevent fall exacerbations with omalizumab therapy. METHODS: The saEPI and its components were analyzed to characterize those who had an asthma exacerbation during the PROSE (Preventative Omalizumab or Step-Up Therapy for Fall Exacerbations) study...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226261/effectiveness-of-public-health-messaging-and-communication-channels-during-smoke-events-a-rapid-systematic-review
#9
REVIEW
Jennifer A Fish, Micah D J Peters, Imogen Ramsey, Greg Sharplin, Nadia Corsini, Marion Eckert
Exposure to smoke emitted from wildfire and planned burns (i.e., smoke events) has been associated with numerous negative health outcomes, including respiratory symptoms and conditions. This rapid review investigates recent evidence (post-2009) regarding the effectiveness of public health messaging during smoke events. The objectives were to determine the effectiveness of various communication channels used and public health messages disseminated during smoke events, for general and at-risk populations. A search of 12 databases and grey literature yielded 1775 unique articles, of which 10 were included in this review...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213542/plant-community-and-nitrogen-deposition-as-drivers-of-%C3%AE-and-%C3%AE-prokaryotic-diversity-in-reconstructed-oil-sands-soils-and-natural-boreal-forest-soils
#10
Jacynthe Masse, Cindy E Prescott, Sébastien Renaut, Yves Terrat, Sue J Grayston
The Athabasca Oil Sands deposit is one of the largest single oil deposits in the world. Following surface mining, companies are required to restore soil-like profiles that can support the previous land capabilities. The objective of this study was to assess if soil prokaryotic α- and β-diversity in oil-sands soils reconstructed 20-30 years previously, and planted to one of three vegetation types (coniferous or deciduous trees and grassland) were similar to those found in natural boreal-forest soils subject to wildfire disturbance...
February 17, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208688/the-impact-of-heat-exposure-and-sleep-restriction-on-firefighters-work-performance-and-physiology-during-simulated-wildfire-suppression
#11
Grace E Vincent, Brad Aisbett, Brianna Larsen, Nicola D Ridgers, Rod Snow, Sally A Ferguson
This study was designed to examine the effects of ambient heat on firefighters' physical task performance, and physiological and perceptual responses when sleep restricted during simulated wildfire conditions. Thirty firefighters were randomly allocated to the sleep restricted (n = 17, SR; 19 °C, 4-h sleep opportunity) or hot and sleep restricted (n = 13, HOT + SR; 33 °C, 4-h sleep opportunity) condition. Firefighters performed two days of simulated, intermittent, self-paced work circuits comprising six firefighting tasks...
February 12, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208028/early-life-wildfire-smoke-exposure-is-associated-with-immune-dysregulation-and-lung-function-decrements-in-adolescence
#12
Carolyn Black, Joan E Gerriets, Justin H Fontaine, Richart W Harper, Nicholas J Kenyon, Fern Tablin, Edward S Schelegle, Lisa A Miller
RATIONALE: The long-term health effects of wildfire smoke exposure in pediatric populations are not known. OBJECTIVE: To determine if early life exposure to wildfire smoke can affect parameters of immunity and airways physiology that are detectable with maturity. METHODS: We studied a mixed gender cohort of rhesus macaque monkeys that were exposed as infants to ambient wood smoke from a series of Northern California wildfires in the summer of 2008...
February 16, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158284/impacts-of-fire-on-non-native-plant-recruitment-in-black-spruce-forests-of-interior-alaska
#13
Xanthe J Walker, Matthew D Frey, Alexandra J Conway, Mélanie Jean, Jill F Johnstone
Climate change is expected to increase the extent and severity of wildfires throughout the boreal forest. Historically, black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P.) forests in interior Alaska have been relatively free of non-native species, but the compounding effects of climate change and an altered fire regime could facilitate the expansion of non-native plants. We tested the effects of wildfire on non-native plant colonization by conducting a seeding experiment of non-native plants on different substrate types in a burned black spruce forest, and surveying for non-native plants in recently burned and mature black spruce forests...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157285/boreal-forests-sequester-large-amounts-of-mercury-over-millennial-time-scales-in-the-absence-of-wildfire
#14
Reiner Giesler, Karina E Clemmensen, David A Wardle, Jonatan Klaminder, Richard Bindler
Alterations in fire activity due to climate change and fire suppression may have profound effects on the balance between storage and release of carbon (C) and associated volatile elements. Stored soil mercury (Hg) is known to volatilize due to wildfires and this could substantially affect the land-air exchange of Hg; conversely the absence of fires and human disturbance may increase the time period over which Hg is sequestered. Here we show for a wildfire chronosequence spanning over more than 5000 years in boreal forest in northern Sweden that belowground inventories of total Hg are strongly related to soil humus C accumulation (R(2) = 0...
February 13, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119006/assessing-anthropogenic-impacts-on-riverine-ecosystems-using-nested-partial-least-squares-regression
#15
A R L Ferreira, L F Sanches Fernandes, R M V Cortes, F A L Pacheco
The results of three Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression models were used to gain a holistic view on the consequences of natural processes and anthropogenic pressures for water quality degradation and biodiversity decline in a multi-use watershed. The processes were soil erosion and wildfire risk; the pressures comprised land use conflicts, leachates from domestic and industrial waste, arable farming intensity and livestock density. Water quality was characterized for concentrations of nutrients (nitrate, phosphate), oxygen demands (Biochemical Oxygen Demand - BOD5, Chemical Oxygen Demand - COD) and various metals (e...
January 21, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088544/off-site-impacts-of-wildfires-on-aquatic-systems-biomarker-responses-of-the-mosquitofish-gambusia-holbrooki
#16
Bruno Nunes, Vera Silva, Isabel Campos, Joana Luísa Pereira, Patrícia Pereira, Jan Jacob Keizer, Fernando Gonçalves, Nelson Abrantes
The number of wildfires has markedly increased in Mediterranean Europe, including in Portugal. Wildfires are environmentally concerning, not only due to the loss of biodiversity and forest area, but also as a consequence of environmental contamination by specific compounds including metals and polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAHs). These contaminants, mostly bound to ashes, can reach downstream water bodies, namely through surface runoff, being ultimately dispersed by vast areas and contacting with aquatic biota...
January 11, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081508/historical-variation-in-black-carbon-deposition-and-sources-to-northern-china-sediments
#17
Wenxue Xu, Fu Wang, Jiwei Li, Lizhu Tian, Xingyu Jiang, Jilong Yang, Bing Chen
Black carbon (BC) in fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is an important air pollutant in a large area of China. We have reconstructed a 100-year-long history of BC deposition based on analyses of sediment samples in the coastal area of the Northern China Plain (NCP). During 1900-2010, the sedimentary BC concentrations at three cores increased from 0.2 to 1.3, from 0.2 to 2.3, and from 0.2 to 1.9 mg g(-1), and the ranges for the BC deposition fluxes were 0.1-4.7, 0.1-8.2, 0.2-7.4 g m(-2) a(-1), suggesting the increase of ten times from the pre-industrial era...
April 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064035/a-ranking-system-for-prescribed-burn-prioritization-in-table%C3%A2-mountain-national-park-south-africa
#18
Carly Ruth Cowell, Chad Cheney
To aid prescribed burn decision making in Table Mountain National Park, in South Africa a priority ranking system was tested. Historically a wildfire suppression strategy was adopted due to wildfires threatening urban areas close to the park, with few prescribed burns conducted. A large percentage of vegetation across the park exceeded the ecological threshold of 15 years. We held a multidisciplinary workshop, to prioritize areas for prescribed burning. Fire Management Blocks were mapped and assessed using the following seven categories: (1) ecological, (2) management, (3) tourism, (4) infrastructure, (5) invasive alien vegetation, (6) wildland-urban interface and (7) heritage...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052498/solute-and-sediment-export-from-amazon-forest-and-soybean-headwater-streams
#19
Shelby H Riskin, Christopher Neill, KathiJo Jankowski, Alex V Krusche, Richard McHorney, Helmut Elsenbeer, Marcia N Macedo, Darlisson Nunes, Stephen Porder
Intensive cropland agriculture commonly increases streamwater solute concentrations and export from small watersheds. In recent decades, the lowland tropics have become the world's largest and most important region of cropland expansion. Although the effects of intensive cropland agriculture on streamwater chemistry and watershed export have been widely studied in temperate regions, their effects in tropical regions are poorly understood. We sampled seven headwater streams draining watersheds in forest (n = 3) or soybeans (n = 4) to examine the effects of soybean cropping on stream solute concentrations and watershed export in a region of rapid soybean expansion in the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso...
January 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046079/quantifying-the-carbon-balance-of-forest-restoration-and-wildfire-under-projected-climate-in-the-fire-prone-southwestern-us
#20
Matthew D Hurteau
Climate projections for the southwestern US suggest a warmer, drier future and have the potential to impact forest carbon (C) sequestration and post-fire C recovery. Restoring forest structure and surface fire regimes initially decreases total ecosystem carbon (TEC), but can stabilize the remaining C by moderating wildfire behavior. Previous research has demonstrated that fire maintained forests can store more C over time than fire suppressed forests in the presence of wildfire. However, because the climate future is uncertain, I sought to determine the efficacy of forest management to moderate fire behavior and its effect on forest C dynamics under current and projected climate...
2017: PloS One
keyword
keyword
100129
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"