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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455307/adansonia-digitata-and-adansonia-gregorii-fruit-shells-serve-as-a-protection-against-high-temperatures-experienced-during-wildfires
#1
Andreas Kempe, Christoph Neinhuis, Thea Lautenschläger
The thick and woody shell of the fruit of Adansonia species cannot be explained solely by adaptation to zoochory or hydrochory. Since the trunks of Adansonia possess a thick and fire-resistant bark and wildfires occur regularly in its habitat (savannah), we examined with the African Adanonia digitata and the Australian Adansonia gregorii whether the fruit offers protection against high heat typically experienced in wildfires. Heat-resistance tests were conducted by applying a simple heat test based on known temperature and temperature residence times occurring in savannah fires and complemented by tests to reveal the impact of heat on germination since long-term seed dormancy is known for Adansonia...
February 17, 2018: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443966/global-patterns-of-tropical-forest-fragmentation
#2
Franziska Taubert, Rico Fischer, Jürgen Groeneveld, Sebastian Lehmann, Michael S Müller, Edna Rödig, Thorsten Wiegand, Andreas Huth
Remote sensing enables the quantification of tropical deforestation with high spatial resolution. This in-depth mapping has led to substantial advances in the analysis of continent-wide fragmentation of tropical forests. Here we identified approximately 130 million forest fragments in three continents that show surprisingly similar power-law size and perimeter distributions as well as fractal dimensions. Power-law distributions have been observed in many natural phenomena such as wildfires, landslides and earthquakes...
February 14, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441692/a-conservation-planning-tool-for-greater-sage-grouse-using-indices-of-species-distribution-resilience-and-resistance
#3
Mark A Ricca, Peter S Coates, K Benjamin Gustafson, Brianne E Brussee, Jeanne C Chambers, Shawn P Espinosa, Scott C Gardner, Sherri Lisius, Pilar Ziegler, David J Delehanty, Michael L Casazza
Managers require quantitative yet tractable tools that can identify areas for restoration yielding effective benefits for targeted wildlife species and the ecosystems they inhabit. As a contemporary example of high national significance for conservation, the persistence of greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus, hereafter 'sage-grouse') in the Great Basin ecoregion is compromised, in part, by strongly interacting stressors of conifer encroachment, annual grass invasion, and larger and more frequent wildfires occurring in sagebrush ecosystems...
February 14, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434586/bioactive-lipids-and-chronic-inflammation-managing-the-fire-within
#4
REVIEW
Valerio Chiurchiù, Alessandro Leuti, Mauro Maccarrone
Inflammation is an immune response that works as a contained fire that is pre-emptively sparked as a defensive process during infections or upon any kind of tissue insult, and that is spontaneously extinguished after elimination or termination of the damage. However, persistent and uncontrolled immune reactions act as a wildfire that promote chronic inflammation, unresolved tissue damage and, eventually, chronic diseases. A wide network of soluble mediators, among which endogenous bioactive lipids, governs all immune processes...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426643/comparative-evaluation-of-stress-distribution-in-experimentally-designed-nickel-titanium-rotary-files-with-varying-cross-sections-a-finite-element-analysis
#5
Shadir Bughari Basheer Ahamed, Purushothaman Pranav Vanajassun, Kothandaraman Rajkumar, Sekar Mahalaxmi
INTRODUCTION: Single cross-sectional nickel-titanium (NiTi) rotary instruments during continuous rotations are subjected to constant and variable stresses depending on the canal anatomy. This study was intended to create 2 new experimental, theoretic single-file designs with combinations of triple U (TU), triangle (TR), and convex triangle (CT) cross sections and to compare their bending stresses in simulated root canals with a single cross-sectional instrument using finite element analysis...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Endodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426186/inferring-changes-in-soil-organic-matter-in-post-wildfire-soil-burn-severity-levels-in-a-temperate-climate
#6
Agustín Merino, María T Fonturbel, Cristina Fernández, Bruno Chávez-Vergara, Felipe García-Oliva, Jose A Vega
Simple, rapid and reliable methods of assessing soil burn severity (SBS) are required in order to prioritize post-fire emergency stabilization actions. SBS proxies based on visual identification and changes in soil organic matter (SOM) content and quality can be related to other soil properties in order to determine the extent to which soil is perturbed following fire. This task is addressed in the present study by an approach involving the use of differential scanning calorimetry-thermogravimetric analysis (DSC-TGA) to determine changes in SOM generated in soils subjected to different levels of SBS...
January 31, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426163/burning-intensity-and-low-light-availability-reduce-resprouting-ability-and-vigor-of-buxus-sempervirens-l-after-clearing
#7
P Casals, A I Rios
Thinning and prescribed burning are two common operations for reducing fuel accumulation and decreasing the intensity and severity of wildfires. However, the resprouting response of understory species may reduce the effectiveness of fuel load treatments and thus negatively affect the cost-benefit ratio of these treatments. This study focuses on Buxus sempervirens, a slow-growing, multi-stemmed tree species, frequently dominant in the understory of temperate European forests, which resprouts strongly after clearing or burning...
January 29, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420265/climate-ecosystems-and-planetary-futures-the-challenge-to-predict-life-in-earth-system-models
#8
REVIEW
Gordon B Bonan, Scott C Doney
Many global change stresses on terrestrial and marine ecosystems affect not only ecosystem services that are essential to humankind, but also the trajectory of future climate by altering energy and mass exchanges with the atmosphere. Earth system models, which simulate terrestrial and marine ecosystems and biogeochemical cycles, offer a common framework for ecological research related to climate processes; analyses of vulnerability, impacts, and adaptation; and climate change mitigation. They provide an opportunity to move beyond physical descriptors of atmospheric and oceanic states to societally relevant quantities such as wildfire risk, habitat loss, water availability, and crop, fishery, and timber yields...
February 2, 2018: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414989/harvesting-interacts-with-climate-change-to-affect-future-habitat-quality-of-a-focal-species-in-eastern-canada-s-boreal-forest
#9
Junior A Tremblay, Yan Boulanger, Dominic Cyr, Anthony R Taylor, David T Price, Martin-Hugues St-Laurent
Many studies project future bird ranges by relying on correlative species distribution models. Such models do not usually represent important processes explicitly related to climate change and harvesting, which limits their potential for predicting and understanding the future of boreal bird assemblages at the landscape scale. In this study, we attempted to assess the cumulative and specific impacts of both harvesting and climate-induced changes on wildfires and stand-level processes (e.g., reproduction, growth) in the boreal forest of eastern Canada...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29384719/where-there-s-wildfire-there-s-smoke
#10
John R Balmes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 31, 2018: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29368547/blocking-cxcl1-dependent-neutrophil-recruitment-prevents-pulmonary-damage-and-reduces-rick-of-bacterial-infection-after-inhalation-injury
#11
Julia L Dunn, Laurel B Kartchner, Wesley H Stepp, Lindsey I Glenn, Madison M Malfitano, Samuel Jones, Claire M Doerschuk, Robert Maile, Bruce A Cairns
Smoke inhalation associated with structural fires, wildfires, or explosions leads to lung injury, for which innovative and clinically relevant animal models are needed to develop effective therapeutics. We have previously reported that damage associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) and anti-inflammatory cytokines correlate with infectious complications in patients diagnosed with inhalational injury. In this study, we describe a novel and translational murine model of acute inhalational injury characterized by an accumulation of protein and neutrophils in the bronchoalveolar space, as well as histological evidence of tissue damage...
January 25, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29361204/lessons-learned-from-chikungunya-in-the-americas
#12
EDITORIAL
Jonathan J Miner, Deborah J Lenschow
In 2013, chikungunya virus (CHIKV) arrived in the Western Hemisphere, spreading like wildfire across the Islands of the Caribbean, Mexico, Central America, and South America, resulting in ~3 million infections (1). Similar to historical outbreaks in the Eastern Hemisphere, CHIKV spread quickly in a population without pre-existing immunity to CHIKV. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
January 23, 2018: Arthritis & Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352412/management-regime-is-the-most-important-factor-influencing-ectomycorrhizal-species-community-in-norway-spruce-forests-after-windthrow
#13
Martina Vašutová, Magda Edwards-Jonášová, Petra Veselá, Lenka Effenberková, Peter Fleischer, Pavel Cudlín
Ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi, as symbionts of many tree species in temperate forests, are thought to play an important role in forest regeneration processes after large disturbances. Their reaction to different disturbance and management regimes was studied in spruce forests (Lariceto-Piceetum) 10 years after a severe windthrow in the Tatra National Park (Slovak Republic). ECM community structure was compared between different "management types″-cleared area (EXT), area affected by wildfire (FIRE), uncleared area left for natural development (NEX), and mature forest as a control (REF)...
January 19, 2018: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351323/fire-forbids-fifty-fifty-forest
#14
Egbert H van Nes, Arie Staal, Stijn Hantson, Milena Holmgren, Salvador Pueyo, Rafael E Bernardi, Bernardo M Flores, Chi Xu, Marten Scheffer
Recent studies have interpreted patterns of remotely sensed tree cover as evidence that forest with intermediate tree cover might be unstable in the tropics, as it will tip into either a closed forest or a more open savanna state. Here we show that across all continents the frequency of wildfires rises sharply as tree cover falls below ~40%. Using a simple empirical model, we hypothesize that the steepness of this pattern causes intermediate tree cover (30‒60%) to be unstable for a broad range of assumptions on tree growth and fire-driven mortality...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349106/the-wildland-urban-interface-raster-dataset-of-catalonia
#15
Fermín J Alcasena, Cody R Evers, Cristina Vega-Garcia
We provide the wildland urban interface (WUI) map of the autonomous community of Catalonia (Northeastern Spain). The map encompasses an area of some 3.21 million ha and is presented as a 150-m resolution raster dataset. Individual housing location, structure density and vegetation cover data were used to spatially assess in detail the interface, intermix and dispersed rural WUI communities with a geographical information system. Most WUI areas concentrate in the coastal belt where suburban sprawl has occurred nearby or within unmanaged forests...
April 2018: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349103/wildfire-spread-hazard-and-exposure-metric-raster-grids-for-central-catalonia
#16
Fermín J Alcasena, Alan A Ager, Michele Salis, Michelle A Day, Cristina Vega-Garcia
We provide 40 m resolution wildfire spread, hazard and exposure metric raster grids for the 0.13 million ha fire-prone Bages County in central Catalonia (northeastern Spain) corresponding to node influence grid (NIG), crown fraction burned (CFB) and fire transmission to residential houses (TR). Fire spread and behavior data (NIG, CFB and fire perimeters) were generated with fire simulation modeling considering wildfire season extreme fire weather conditions (97th percentile). Moreover, CFB was also generated for prescribed fire (Rx) mild weather conditions...
April 2018: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341854/separation-of-brown-carbon-from-black-carbon-for-improve-and-csn-pm2-5-samples
#17
Judith C Chow, John G Watson, Mark C Green, Xiaoliang Wang, L-W Antony Chen, Dana L Trimble, Paul M Cropper, Steven D Kohl, Steven B Gronstal
The replacement of the DRI Model 2001 with Model 2015 thermal/optical analyzers (TOAs) results in continuity of the long-term organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) data base, and it adds optical information with no additional carbon analysis effort. The value of multiwavelength light attenuation is that light absorption due to black carbon (BC) can be separated from that of brown carbon (BrC), with subsequent attribution to known sources such as biomass burning and secondary organic aerosols. There is evidence of filter loading effects for the 25% of all samples with the highest EC concentrations based on the ratio of light attenuation to EC...
January 17, 2018: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330602/ecosystem-carbon-emissions-from-2015-forest-fires-in-interior-alaska
#18
Christopher Potter
BACKGROUND: In the summer of 2015, hundreds of wildfires burned across the state of Alaska, and consumed more than 1.6 million ha of boreal forest and wetlands in the Yukon-Koyukuk region. Mapping of 113 large wildfires using Landsat satellite images from before and after 2015 indicated that nearly 60% of this area was burned at moderate-to-high severity levels. Field measurements near the town of Tanana on the Yukon River were carried out in July of 2017 in both unburned and 2015 burned forested areas (nearly adjacent to one-another) to visually verify locations of different Landsat burn severity classes (low, moderate, or high; LBS, MBS, HBS)...
January 8, 2018: Carbon Balance and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330475/recent-enhanced-high-summer-north-atlantic-jet-variability-emerges-from-three-century-context
#19
V Trouet, F Babst, M Meko
A recent increase in mid-latitude extreme weather events has been linked to Northern Hemisphere polar jet stream anomalies. To put recent trends in a historical perspective, long-term records of jet stream variability are needed. Here we combine two tree-ring records from the British Isles and the northeastern Mediterranean to reconstruct variability in the latitudinal position of the high-summer North Atlantic Jet (NAJ) back to 1725 CE. We find that northward NAJ anomalies have resulted in heatwaves and droughts in northwestern Europe and southward anomalies have promoted wildfires in southeastern Europe...
January 12, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330378/mechanisms-controlling-the-impact-of-multi-year-drought-on-mountain-hydrology
#20
Roger C Bales, Michael L Goulden, Carolyn T Hunsaker, Martha H Conklin, Peter C Hartsough, Anthony T O'Geen, Jan W Hopmans, Mohammad Safeeq
Mountain runoff ultimately reflects the difference between precipitation (P) and evapotranspiration (ET), as modulated by biogeophysical mechanisms that intensify or alleviate drought impacts. These modulating mechanisms are seldom measured and not fully understood. The impact of the warm 2012-15 California drought on the heavily instrumented Kings River basin provides an extraordinary opportunity to enumerate four mechanisms that controlled the impact of drought on mountain hydrology. Two mechanisms intensified the impact: (i) evaporative processes have first access to local precipitation, which decreased the fractional allocation of P to runoff in 2012-15 and reduced P-ET by 30% relative to previous years, and (ii) 2012-15 was 1 °C warmer than the previous decade, which increased ET relative to previous years and reduced P-ET by 5%...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
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