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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244839/direct-and-indirect-climate-controls-predict-heterogeneous-early-mid-21st-century-wildfire-burned-area-across-western-and-boreal-north-america
#1
Thomas Kitzberger, Donald A Falk, Anthony L Westerling, Thomas W Swetnam
Predicting wildfire under future conditions is complicated by complex interrelated drivers operating across large spatial scales. Annual area burned (AAB) is a useful index of global wildfire activity. Current and antecedent seasonal climatic conditions, and the timing of snowpack melt, have been suggested as important drivers of AAB. As climate warms, seasonal climate and snowpack co-vary in intricate ways, influencing fire at continental and sub-continental scales. We used independent records of seasonal climate and snow cover duration (last date of permanent snowpack, LDPS) and cell-based Structural Equation Models (SEM) to separate direct (climatic) and indirect (snow cover) effects on relative changes in AAB under future climatic scenarios across western and boreal North America...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229850/human-presence-diminishes-the-importance-of-climate-in-driving-fire-activity-across-the-united-states
#2
Alexandra D Syphard, Jon E Keeley, Anne H Pfaff, Ken Ferschweiler
Growing human and ecological costs due to increasing wildfire are an urgent concern in policy and management, particularly given projections of worsening fire conditions under climate change. Thus, understanding the relationship between climatic variation and fire activity is a critically important scientific question. Different factors limit fire behavior in different places and times, but most fire-climate analyses are conducted across broad spatial extents that mask geographical variation. This could result in overly broad or inappropriate management and policy decisions that neglect to account for regionally specific or other important factors driving fire activity...
December 11, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223078/impact-on-mortality-of-biomass-combustion-from-wildfires-in-spain-a-regional-analysis
#3
C Linares, R Carmona, P Salvador, J Díaz
Studies that analyse the impact on mortality of particulate matter (PM) produced by biomass combustion from wildfires mostly focus on a single city or on cities in different countries, with very few concentrating on one country as a whole. Accordingly, the aim of this paper was to analyse the impact that PM has on daily mortality in Spain on days with biomass combustion from wildfires. To analyse natural PM advections the Ministry of Agriculture and Fishing, Food & Environment divides Spain into 9 geographical regions...
December 6, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216595/optimizing-prescribed-fire-allocation-for-managing-fire-risk-in-central-catalonia
#4
Fermín J Alcasena, Alan A Ager, Michele Salis, Michelle A Day, Cristina Vega-Garcia
We used spatial optimization to allocate and prioritize prescribed fire treatments in the fire-prone Bages County, central Catalonia (northeastern Spain). The goal of this study was to identify suitable strategic locations on forest lands for fuel treatments in order to: 1) disrupt major fire movements, 2) reduce ember emissions, and 3) reduce the likelihood of large fires burning into residential communities. We first modeled fire spread, hazard and exposure metrics under historical extreme fire weather conditions, including node influence grid for surface fire pathways, crown fraction burned and fire transmission to residential structures...
December 4, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207297/differences-between-a-deciduous-and-a-conifer-tree-species-in-gaseous-and-particulate-emissions-from-biomass-burning
#5
Emanuele Pallozzi, Ilaria Lusini, Lucia Cherubini, Ramilla A Hajiaghayeva, Paolo Ciccioli, Carlo Calfapietra
In the Mediterranean ecosystem, wildfires are very frequent and the predicted future with a probable increase of fires could drastically modify the vegetation scenarios. Vegetation fires are an important source of gases and primary emissions of fine carbonaceous particles in the atmosphere. In this paper, we present gaseous and particulate emissions data from the combustion of different plant tissues (needles/leaves, branches and needle/leaf litter), obtained from one conifer (Pinus halepensis) and one deciduous broadleaf tree (Quercus pubescens)...
December 2, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186670/changes-in-extreme-events-and-the-potential-impacts-on-human-health
#6
Jesse E Bell, Claudia Langford Brown, Kathryn Conlon, Stephanie Herring, Kenneth E Kunkel, Jay Lawrimore, George Luber, Carl Schreck, Adam Smith, Christopher Uejio
Extreme weather and climate-related events affect human health by causing death, injury, and illness, as well as having large socioeconomic impacts. Climate change has caused changes in extreme event frequency, intensity and geographic distribution, and will continue to be a driver for change in the future. Some of these events include heat waves, droughts, wildfires, dust storms, flooding rains, coastal flooding, storm surge, and hurricanes. The pathways connecting extreme events to health outcomes and economic losses can be diverse and complex...
November 29, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179067/how-wildfire-risk-is-related-to-urban-planning-and-fire-weather-index-in-se-france-1990-2013
#7
D M Fox, P Carrega, Y Ren, P Caillouet, C Bouillon, S Robert
Wildfires burn >450,000ha of forest every year in Euro-Mediterranean countries. Many fires originate in the Wildland Urban Interface (WUI) where housing density and weather conditions affect fire occurrence. Housing density is determined by long term land use policies while weather conditions evolve quickly. The first objective was to quantify the impacts of land use policy on WUI characteristics and fire risk in SE France during 1990-2012. The second objective was to quantify how Fire Weather Index (FWI) is related to fire occurrence...
November 23, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177966/air-pollution-prevention-and-control-policy-in-china
#8
Cunrui Huang, Qiong Wang, Suhan Wang, Meng Ren, Rui Ma, Yiling He
With rapid urbanization and development of transport infrastructure, air pollution caused by multiple-pollutant emissions and vehicle exhaust has been aggravated year by year in China. In order to improve air quality, the Chinese authorities have taken a series of actions to control air pollution emission load within a permissible range. However, although China has made positive progress on tackling air pollution, these actions have not kept up with its economy growth and fossil-fuel use. The traditional single-pollutant approach is far from enough in China now, and in the near future, air pollution control strategies should move in the direction of the multiple-pollutant approach...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177894/understanding-the-factors-that-influence-perceptions-of-post-wildfire-landscape-recovery-across-25-wildfires-in-the-northwestern-united-states
#9
C Kooistra, T E Hall, T Paveglio, M Pickering
Disturbances such as wildfire are important features of forested landscapes. The trajectory of changes following wildfires (often referred to as landscape recovery) continues to be an important research topic among ecologists and wildfire scientists. However, the landscape recovery process also has important social dimensions that may or may not correspond to ecological or biophysical perspectives. Perceptions of landscape recovery may affect people's attitudes and behaviors related to forest and wildfire management...
November 25, 2017: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175006/predicted-cumulative-dose-to-firefighters-and-the-offsite-public-from-natural-and-anthropogenic-radionuclides-in-smoke-from-wildland-fires-at-the-savannah-river-site-south-carolina-usa
#10
Brian J Viner, Tim Jannik, Allan Hepworth, Olorunfemi Adetona, Luke Naeher, Teresa Eddy, Eric Doman, John Blake
The contaminated ground surface at Savannah River Site (SRS) is a result of the decades of work that has been performed maintaining the country's nuclear stockpile and performing research and development on nuclear materials. The volatilization of radionuclides during wildfire results in airborne particles that are dispersed within the smoke plume and may result in doses to downwind firefighters and the public. To better understand the risk that these smoke plumes present, we have characterized four regions at SRS in terms of their fuel characteristics and radiological contamination on the ground...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168989/should-i-stay-or-should-i-go-now-or-should-i-wait-and-see-influences-on-wildfire-evacuation-decisions
#11
Sarah McCaffrey, Robyn Wilson, Avishek Konar
As climate change has contributed to longer fire seasons and populations living in fire-prone ecosystems increase, wildfires have begun to affect a growing number of people. As a result, interest in understanding the wildfire evacuation decision process has increased. Of particular interest is understanding why some people leave early, some choose to stay and defend their homes, and others wait to assess conditions before making a final decision. Individuals who tend to wait and see are of particular concern given the dangers of late evacuation...
November 23, 2017: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156261/soil-water-repellency-of-the-artificial-soil-and-natural-soil-in-rocky-slopes-as-affected-by-the-drought-stress-and-polyacrylamide
#12
Zhang Chen, Ruixin Wang, Pengyuan Han, Hailong Sun, Haifeng Sun, Chengjun Li, Lixia Yang
Soil water repellency (SWR) causes reduced soil water storage, enhanced runoff and reduced ecosystem productivity. Therefore, characterization of SWR is a prerequisite for effective environmental management. SWR has been reported under different soils, land uses and regions of the world, particularly in forest land and after wildfires; however, the understanding of this variable in the artificial soil of rocky slope eco-engineering is still rather limited. This study presented the characterization of SWR in the artificial soil affected by the polyacrylamide (PAM) and drought stress...
November 16, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156258/developing-an-online-tool-for-identifying-at-risk-populations-to-wildfire-smoke-hazards
#13
Ambarish Vaidyanathan, Fuyuen Yip, Paul Garbe
Wildfire episodes pose a significant public health threat in the United States. Adverse health impacts associated with wildfires occur near the burn area as well as in places far downwind due to wildfire smoke exposures. Health effects associated with exposure to particulate matter arising from wildfires can range from mild eye and respiratory tract irritation to more serious outcomes such as asthma exacerbation, bronchitis, and decreased lung function. Real-time operational forecasts of wildfire smoke concentrations are available but they are not readily integrated with information on vulnerable populations necessary to identify at-risk communities during wildfire smoke episodes...
November 16, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149208/synergistic-effects-of-the-components-of-global-change-increased-vegetation-dynamics-in-open-forest-steppe-grasslands-driven-by-wildfires-and-year-to-year-precipitation-differences
#14
Miklós Kertész, Réka Aszalós, Attila Lengyel, Gábor Ónodi
Climate change and land use change are two major elements of human-induced global environmental change. In temperate grasslands and woodlands, increasing frequency of extreme weather events like droughts and increasing severity of wildfires has altered the structure and dynamics of vegetation. In this paper, we studied the impact of wildfires and the year-to-year differences in precipitation on species composition changes in semi-arid grasslands of a forest-steppe complex ecosystem which has been partially disturbed by wildfires...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147694/emerging-investigator-series-the-effect-of-wildfire-on-streamwater-mercury-and-organic-carbon-in-a-forested-watershed-in-the-southeastern-united-states
#15
Allison M Jensen, Todd M Scanlon, Ami L Riscassi
Wildfires alter forested ecosystems, which include large stores of mercury (Hg) and organic carbon, two compounds that are closely linked in vegetation, soils, and streamwater. Studies have shown that wildfires release elevated levels of mercury to the atmosphere which can be locally redeposited and leave charred organic material (vegetation and litter) on the soil surface. Both can contribute to the elevated mobilization of Hg into lakes and streams. However, no studies have conducted a detailed examination of hydrological transport of Hg following a wildfire...
November 17, 2017: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146414/predicting-chronic-climate-driven-disturbances-and-their-mitigation
#16
REVIEW
Nate G McDowell, Sean T Michaletz, Katrina E Bennett, Kurt C Solander, Chonggang Xu, Reed M Maxwell, Craig D Allen, Richard S Middleton
Society increasingly demands the stable provision of ecosystem resources to support our population. Resource risks from climate-driven disturbances, including drought, heat, insect outbreaks, and wildfire, are growing as a chronic state of disequilibrium results from increasing temperatures and a greater frequency of extreme events. This confluence of increased demand and risk may soon reach critical thresholds. We explain here why extreme chronic disequilibrium of ecosystem function is likely to increase dramatically across the globe, creating no-analog conditions that challenge adaptation...
November 13, 2017: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132085/how-clear-cutting-affects-fire-severity-and-soil-properties-in-a-mediterranean-ecosystem
#17
Marcos Francos, Paulo Pereira, Jorge Mataix-Solera, Victoria Arcenegui, Meritxell Alcañiz, Xavier Úbeda
Forest management practices in Mediterranean ecosystems are frequently employed to reduce both the risk and severity of wildfires. However, these pre-fire treatments may influence the effects of wildfire events on soil properties. The aim of this study is to examine the short-term effects of a wildfire that broke out in 2015 on the soil properties of three sites: two exposed to management practices in different years - 2005 (site M05B) and 2015 (site M15B) - and one that did not undergo any management (NMB) and to compare their properties with those recorded in a plot (Control) unaffected by the 2015 wildfire...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127867/effects-of-ashes-from-a-brazilian-savanna-wildfire-on-water-soil-and-biota-an-ecotoxicological-approach
#18
Eduardo C Oliveira-Filho, Darlan Q Brito, Zelia M B Dias, Mayara S Guarieiro, Esther L Carvalho, Maria L Fascineli, Cintia C Niva, Cesar K Grisolia
Wildfire is very common in Brazilian savannas, and its effects on water, soil and aquatic/soil organisms are poorly understood. In this study, we observed the effects of fire, especially of ashes, on surface soil and subsurface water in a typical Brazilian savanna (Cerrado sensu strictu) for one year. Soil analyses (pH, organic matter content, potential acidity, K, Ca, Mg and P) and subsurface water analyses (NO(3-), PO4(3-) Mg(2+), Ca(2+) and K(+)) were assessed. We evaluated the ecotoxicological effects of ashes on three different endpoints and species, in fish Danio rerio (embryonic development), aquatic snail Biomphalaria glabrata (reproduction) and a soil species Enchytraeus sp...
November 8, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127668/coordination-through-databases-can-improve-prescribed-burning-as-a-conservation-tool-to-promote-forest-biodiversity
#19
Ellinor Ramberg, Joachim Strengbom, Gustaf Granath
Prescribed fires are a common nature conservation practice. They are executed by several parties with limited coordination among them, and little consideration for wildfire occurrences and habitat requirements of fire-dependent species. Here, we gathered data on prescribed fires and wildfires in Sweden during 2011-2015 to (i) evaluate the importance and spatial extent of prescribed fires compared to wildfires and (ii) illustrate how a database can be used as a management tool for prescribed fires. We found that on average only 0...
November 10, 2017: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122354/potentials-and-limitations-of-remote-fire-monitoring-in-protected-areas
#20
João Flávio Costa Dos Santos, Joyce Machado Nunes Romeiro, José Batuíra de Assis, Fillipe Tamiozzo Pereira Torres, José Marinaldo Gleriani
Protected areas (PAs) play an important role in maintaining the biodiversity and ecological processes of the site. One of the greatest challenges for the PA management in several biomes in the world is wildfires. The objective of this work was to evaluate the potentialities and limitations of the use of data obtained by orbital remote sensing in the monitoring fire occurrence in PAs. Fire Occurrence Records (FORs) were analyzed in Serra do Brigadeiro State Park, Minas Gerais, Brazil, from 2007 to 2015, using photo interpreted data from TM, ETM(+) and OLI sensors of the Landsat series and the Hot Spot Database (HSD) from the Brazilian Institute of Space Research - INPE...
November 6, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
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