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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446229/expanding-protection-motivation-theory-investigating-an-application-to-animal-owners-and-emergency-responders-in-bushfire-emergencies
#1
Rachel Westcott, Kevin Ronan, Hilary Bambrick, Melanie Taylor
BACKGROUND: Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) was developed by Rogers in 1975, to describe how individuals are motivated to react in a self-protective way towards a perceived health threat. Rogers expected the use of PMT to diversify over time, which has proved true over four decades. The purpose of this paper is to explore how PMT can be used and expanded to inform and improve public safety strategies in natural hazards. As global climate change impacts on the Australian environment, natural hazards seem to be increasing in scale and frequency, and Emergency Services' public education campaigns have necessarily escalated to keep pace with perceived public threat...
April 26, 2017: BMC Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432864/plutonium-in-the-atmosphere-a-global-perspective
#2
REVIEW
P Thakur, H Khaing, S Salminen-Paatero
A number of potential source terms have contributed plutonium isotopes to the atmosphere. The atmospheric nuclear weapon tests conducted between 1945 and 1980 and the re-entry of the burned SNAP-9A satellite in 1964, respectively. It is generally believed that current levels of plutonium in the stratosphere are negligible and compared with the levels generally found at surface-level air. In this study, the time trend analysis and long-term behavior of plutonium isotopes ((239+240)Pu and (238)Pu) in the atmosphere were assessed using historical data collected by various national and international monitoring networks since 1960s...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416662/adapt-to-more-wildfire-in-western-north-american-forests-as-climate-changes
#3
Tania Schoennagel, Jennifer K Balch, Hannah Brenkert-Smith, Philip E Dennison, Brian J Harvey, Meg A Krawchuk, Nathan Mietkiewicz, Penelope Morgan, Max A Moritz, Ray Rasker, Monica G Turner, Cathy Whitlock
Wildfires across western North America have increased in number and size over the past three decades, and this trend will continue in response to further warming. As a consequence, the wildland-urban interface is projected to experience substantially higher risk of climate-driven fires in the coming decades. Although many plants, animals, and ecosystem services benefit from fire, it is unknown how ecosystems will respond to increased burning and warming. Policy and management have focused primarily on specified resilience approaches aimed at resistance to wildfire and restoration of areas burned by wildfire through fire suppression and fuels management...
April 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411563/spatio-temporal-trends-in-fire-weather-in-the-french-alps
#4
S Dupire, T Curt, S Bigot
The Alpine area is particularly sensitive to climatic and environmental changes that might impact socio-ecosystems and modify the regime of natural hazards. Among them, wildfire is of major importance as it threatens both ecosystems and human lives and infrastructures. Wildfires result from complex interactions between available vegetation fuels, climate and weather, and humans who decide of the land use and are the main source of fire ignitions. The changes in fire weather during the past decades are rather unknown in the French Alps especially due to their complex topography...
April 12, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407537/co2-emissions-from-the-2010-russian-wildfires-using-gosat-data
#5
Meng Guo, Jing Li, Jiawei Xu, Xiufeng Wang, Hongshi He, Li Wu
In the summer of 2010, more than 6 hundred wildfires broke out in western Russia because of an unprecedented intense heat wave that resulted from strong atmospheric blocking. The present study evaluated the CO2 emissions using GOSAT (Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite) data from July 23 to August 18, 2010 for western Russia. The results demonstrated that the GOSAT CAI (Cloud and Aerosol Imager) was well-suited for the identification of smoke plumes and that the GOSAT FTS (Fourier-Transform Spectrometer) TIR (Thermal InfraRed) could be used to calculate the height of the plumes at approximately 800 hPa (1...
April 10, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401610/the-potential-for-mycobiont-sharing-between-shrubs-and-seedlings-to-facilitate-tree-establishment-after-wildfire-at-alaska-arctic-treeline
#6
Rebecca E Hewitt, F Stuart Chapin, Teresa N Hollingsworth, D Lee Taylor
Root-associated fungi, particularly ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF), are critical symbionts of all boreal tree species. Although climatically-driven increases in wildfire frequency and extent have been hypothesized to increase vegetation transitions from tundra to boreal forest, fire reduces mycorrhizal inoculum. Therefore, changes in mycobiont inoculum may potentially limit tree-seedling establishment beyond current treeline. We investigated whether ectomycorrhizal shrubs that resprout after fire support similar fungal taxa to those that associate with tree seedlings that establish naturally after fire...
April 12, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396440/floodplains-as-an-achilles-heel-of-amazonian-forest-resilience
#7
Bernardo M Flores, Milena Holmgren, Chi Xu, Egbert H van Nes, Catarina C Jakovac, Rita C G Mesquita, Marten Scheffer
The massive forests of central Amazonia are often considered relatively resilient against climatic variation, but this view is challenged by the wildfires invoked by recent droughts. The impact of such fires that spread from pervasive sources of ignition may reveal where forests are less likely to persist in a drier future. Here we combine field observations with remotely sensed information for the whole Amazon to show that the annually inundated lowland forests that run through the heart of the system may be trapped relatively easily into a fire-dominated savanna state...
April 10, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395261/size-fractionation-as-a-tool-for-separating-charcoal-of-different-fuel-source-and-recalcitrance-in-the-wildfire-ash-layer
#8
Giovanni Mastrolonardo, Victoria A Hudspith, Ornella Francioso, Cornelia Rumpel, Daniela Montecchio, Stefan H Doerr, Giacomo Certini
Charcoal is a heterogeneous material exhibiting a diverse range of properties. This variability represents a serious challenge in studies that use the properties of natural charcoal for reconstructing wildfires history in terrestrial ecosystems. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that particle size is a sufficiently robust indicator for separating forest wildfire combustion products into fractions with distinct properties. For this purpose, we examined two different forest environments affected by contrasting wildfires in terms of severity: an eucalypt forest in Australia, which experienced an extremely severe wildfire, and a Mediterranean pine forest in Italy, which burned to moderate severity...
April 7, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392107/strigolactone-and-karrikin-independent-smxl-proteins-are-central-regulators-of-phloem-formation
#9
Eva-Sophie Wallner, Vadir López-Salmerón, Ilya Belevich, Gernot Poschet, Ilona Jung, Karin Grünwald, Iris Sevilem, Eija Jokitalo, Rüdiger Hell, Yrjö Helariutta, Javier Agustí, Ivan Lebovka, Thomas Greb
Plant stem cell niches, the meristems, require long-distance transport of energy metabolites and signaling molecules along the phloem tissue. However, currently it is unclear how specification of phloem cells is controlled. Here we show that the genes SUPPRESSOR OF MAX2 1-LIKE3 (SMXL3), SMXL4, and SMXL5 act as cell-autonomous key regulators of phloem formation in Arabidopsis thaliana. The three genes form an uncharacterized subclade of the SMXL gene family that mediates hormonal strigolactone and karrikin signaling...
April 24, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390084/mapping-and-exploring-variation-in-post-fire-vegetation-recovery-following-mixed-severity-wildfire-using-airborne-lidar
#10
Christopher E Gordon, Owen F Price, Elizabeth M Tasker
There is a public perception that large high severity wildfires decrease biodiversity and increase fire hazard by homogenising vegetation composition and increasing the cover of mid-story vegetation. But a growing literature suggests that vegetation responses are nuanced. LiDAR technology provides a promising remote sensing tool to test hypotheses about post-fire vegetation regrowth because vegetation cover can be quantified within different height strata at fine-scales over large areas. We assess the usefulness of airborne LiDAR data for measuring post-fire mid-story vegetation regrowth over a range of spatial resolutions (10x10m, 30x30m, 50x50m, 100x100m cell size) and investigate the effect of fire severity on regrowth amount and spatial pattern following a mixed severity wildfire in Warrumbungle National Park, Australia...
April 8, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384294/genetic-diversity-and-divergence-at-the-arbutus-unedo-l-ericaceae-westernmost-distribution-limit
#11
Maria Margarida Ribeiro, Andrea Piotti, Alexandra Ricardo, Daniel Gaspar, Rita Costa, Laura Parducci, Giovanni Giuseppe Vendramin
Mediterranean forests are fragile ecosystems vulnerable to recent global warming and reduction of precipitation, and a long-term negative effect is expected on vegetation with increasing drought and in areas burnt by fires. We investigated the spatial distribution of genetic variation of Arbutus unedo in the western Iberia Peninsula, using plastid markers with conservation and provenance regions design purposes. This species is currently undergoing an intense domestication process in the region, and, like other species, is increasingly under the threat from climate change, habitat fragmentation and wildfires...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380537/effects-of-carbohydrate-and-nitrogen-supplementation-on-fermentation-of-cheatgrass-in-a-dual-flow-continuous-culture-system
#12
L G Silva, P D B Benedeti, E M Paula, F Malekjahani, P M Amaral, L D S Mariz, T Shenkoru, A P Faciola
Cheatgrass (CG; ), an introduced winter annual grass, is an aggressive invader of the sagebrush community in the Western United States. Because of its greater flammability, mature CG constitutes a fire hazard leading to repeated wildfires. One fuel-reduction strategy is livestock grazing. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of urea, molasses, or a combination of urea and molasses supplementation of a CG-based diet on digestibility, microbial fermentation, bacterial protein synthesis, and nutrient flow using a dual-flow continuous culture system...
March 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377830/methods-to-reduce-forest-residue-volume-after-timber-harvesting-and-produce-black-carbon
#13
Deborah S Page-Dumroese, Matt D Busse, James G Archuleta, Darren McAvoy, Eric Roussel
Forest restoration often includes thinning to reduce tree density and improve ecosystem processes and function while also reducing the risk of wildfire or insect and disease outbreaks. However, one drawback of these restoration treatments is that slash is often burned in piles that may damage the soil and require further restoration activities. Pile burning is currently used on many forest sites as the preferred method for residue disposal because piles can be burned at various times of the year and are usually more controlled than broadcast burns...
2017: Scientifica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372736/hydrocarbons-in-particulate-samples-from-wildfire-events-in-central-portugal-in-summer-2010
#14
Ana Vicente, Ana Calvo, Ana P Fernandes, Teresa Nunes, Cristina Monteiro, Casimiro Pio, Célia Alves
In summer 2010, twenty eight (14 PM2.5 samples plus 14 samples PM2.5-10) smoke samples were collected during wildfires that occurred in central Portugal. A portable high-volume sampler was used to perform the sampling, on quartz fibre filters of coarse (PM2.5-10) and fine (PM2.5) smoke samples. The carbonaceous content (elemental and organic carbon) of particulate matter was analysed by a thermal-optical technique. Subsequently, the particulate samples were solvent extracted and fractionated by vacuum flash chromatography into three different classes of organic compounds (aliphatics, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and carbonyl compounds)...
March 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361058/-don-t-just-do-something%C3%A2-%C3%A2-%C3%A2-stand-there-emergency-responders-peri-incident-perceptions-of-animal-owners-in-bushfire
#15
Rachel Anne Nosworthy Westcott, Kevin Ronan, Hilary Bambrick, Melanie Taylor
INTRODUCTION: Narrowing the awareness-preparedness gap in bushfires (wildfires) means that new strategies and tactics will be needed to improve human safety and survival in this increasingly frequent and severe globally significant natural hazard. One way to do this is to explore the peri-event experiences of novel demographic groups living and working in at-risk areas to determine how best to strengthen a collaborative, mutually beneficial interface with emergency responders. Thus, this study included participants from one novel demographic, animal owners, in combination with emergency responders...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355225/aridity-influences-the-recovery-of-vegetation-and-shrubland-birds-after-wildfire
#16
Roger Puig-Gironès, Lluís Brotons, Pere Pons
Wildfires play a determining role in the composition and structure of many plant and animal communities. On the other hand, climate change is considered to be a major driver of current and future fire regime changes. Despite increases in drought in many areas of the world, the effects of aridity on post-fire colonization by animals have been rarely addressed. This study aims to analyse how a regional aridity gradient affects post-fire recovery of vegetation, bird species richness and the numbers of four early to middle-successional warbler species associated with the shrub cover...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347968/assessing-wildfire-exposure-in-the-wildland-urban-interface-area-of-the-mountains-of-central-argentina
#17
J P Argañaraz, V C Radeloff, A Bar-Massada, G I Gavier-Pizarro, C M Scavuzzo, L M Bellis
Wildfires are a major threat to people and property in Wildland Urban Interface (WUI) communities worldwide, but while the patterns of the WUI in North America, Europe and Oceania have been studied before, this is not the case in Latin America. Our goals were to a) map WUI areas in central Argentina, and b) assess wildfire exposure for WUI communities in relation to historic fires, with special emphasis on large fires and estimated burn probability based on an empirical model. We mapped the WUI in the mountains of central Argentina (810,000 ha), after digitizing the location of 276,700 buildings and deriving vegetation maps from satellite imagery...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321358/examining-the-potential-of-forest-residue-based-amendments-for-post-wildfire-rehabilitation-in-colorado-usa
#18
Charles C Rhoades, Kerri L Minatre, Derek N Pierson, Timothy S Fegel, M Francesca Cotrufo, Eugene F Kelly
Wildfire is a natural disturbance, though elemental losses and changes that occur during combustion and post-fire erosion can have long-term impacts on soil properties, ecosystem productivity, and watershed condition. Here we evaluate the potential of forest residue-based materials to rehabilitate burned soils. We compare soil nutrient and water availability, and plant recovery after application of 37 t ha(-1) of wood mulch, 20 t ha(-1) of biochar, and the combination of the two amendments with untreated, burned soils...
2017: Scientifica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319706/fire-spread-predictions-sweeping-uncertainty-under-the-rug
#19
Akli Benali, Ana C L Sá, Ana R Ervilha, Ricardo M Trigo, Paulo M Fernandes, José M C Pereira
Predicting fire spread and behavior correctly is crucial to minimize the dramatic consequences of wildfires. However, our capability of accurately predicting fire spread is still very limited, undermining the utility of such simulations to support decision-making. Improving fire spread predictions for fire management purposes, by using higher quality input data or enhanced models, can be expensive, unfeasible or even impossible. Fire managers would benefit from fast and inexpensive ways of improving their decision-making...
March 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294305/differential-impacts-of-wildfire-on-the-population-dynamics-of-an-old-forest-species
#20
Jeremy T Rockweit, Alan B Franklin, Peter C Carlson
Ecological disturbances shape and maintain natural communities, but climate change and human land use can alter disturbance regimes and affect population persistence and vital rates in unpredictable ways. Species inhabiting landscapes shaped by wildfire have evolved mechanisms allowing them to persist under this dynamic disturbance type, which creates habitats of varying quality for these species. We utilized data from a 26-year demographic study of northern spotted owls to analyze the influence of wildfire on apparent survival and recruitment rates...
March 14, 2017: Ecology
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