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Chronic psychosocial stress

Sanju Silwal, Ragnhild Dybdahl, Roshan Chudal, Andre Sourander, Lars Lien
BACKGROUND: In 2015, Nepal was hit by two major earthquakes, which caused 8900 deaths and displaced more than 450,000 people. We assessed the prevalence of post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and depressive symptoms and explored potential risk factors among adolescents. METHODS: This cross-sectional study comprised 893 students aged 11-17 in school grades 7-10. They lived in two districts affected by the earthquakes: Sindhupalchok and Kathmandu. Psychiatric symptoms were assessed using Child PTSD symptom scale and Depression Self-Rating Scale...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Jayashri Kulkarni, Natalie Thomas, Abdul-Rahman Hudaib, Emorfia Gavrilidis, Jasmin Grigg, Raelene Tan, Jacinta Cheng, Amelia Arnold, Caroline Gurvich
BACKGROUND: Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a complex, severe and highly stigmatised psychiatric illness. Several lines of evidence highlight the causal link between chronic stress, glucocorticoid response to stress and glutamatergic overactivity as a key event in the pathophysiology of BPD. Therefore, molecular mechanisms capable of regulating glutamate excitotoxicity represent novel and potentially promising treatment targets. Memantine-HCl is a voltage-dependent N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor 'channel blocker' that selectively blocks pathological glutamate overactivity...
March 16, 2018: CNS Drugs
Femke M van Haalen, Elon H C van Dijk, Olaf M Dekkers, Maurice B Bizino, Greet Dijkman, Nienke R Biermasz, Camiel J F Boon, Alberto M Pereira
Objective: Central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC), a specific form of macular degeneration, has been reported as presenting manifestation of Cushing's syndrome. Furthermore, CSC has been associated with both exogenous hypercortisolism and endogenous Cushing's syndrome. It is important to know whether CSC patients should be screened for Cushing's syndrome. Although hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis hyperactivity in CSC has been suggested, no detailed evaluation of the HPA axis has been performed in a large cohort of CSC patients...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Maria L Pacella, Jeffrey M Girard, Aidan G C Wright, Brian Suffoletto, Clifton W Callaway
OBJECTIVES: Psychosocial factors and responses to injury modify the transition from acute to chronic pain. Specifically, posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms (PTSS; reexperiencing, avoidance, and hyperarousal symptoms) exacerbate and co-occur with chronic pain. Yet no study has prospectively considered the associations among these psychological processes and pain reports using experience sampling methods (ESM) during the acute aftermath of injury. This study applied ESM via daily text messaging to monitor and detect relationships among psychosocial factors and post-injury pain across the first 14-days after emergency department (ED) discharge...
March 7, 2018: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
Robert Rosen, Thomas Stewart
Primary hyperhidrosis has a prevalence of 3-5% in the United States. It is a psychosocially disabling condition leading to low self-esteem, chronic stress and depressive symptoms. Several medical and surgical treatments exist, including botulinum toxin A, which internationally, has been shown effectively and safely to treat this condition achieving high patient satisfaction. In Australia, botulinum toxin A has been available under the Medicare benefits scheme for axillary hyperhidrosis since 2013, but efficacy and treatment satisfaction had not been evaluated...
March 2018: Internal Medicine Journal
Alessio Polacchini, Damiano Girardi, Alessandra Falco, Nunzia Zanotta, Manola Comar, Nicola Alberto De Carlo, Enrico Tongiorgi
Chronic psychosocial stress at workplace is an important factor in the development of physical and mental illness. Objective biological measures of chronic stress are still lacking, but inflammatory response and growth factors are increasingly considered as potential stress biomarkers. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between psychophysical strain and serum levels of 48 chemokines, cytokines and growth factors measured using a multiplex immunoassay, and serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) measured by ELISA...
February 2018: Neurobiology of Stress
Andrea Norcini Pala, Francesca Dell'Amore, Patrizia Steca, Lauren Clinton, Theodorus Sandfort, Christine Rael
The experience of sexual orientation stigma (e.g., homophobic discrimination and physical aggression) generates minority stress, a chronic form of psychosocial stress. Minority stress has been shown to have a negative effect on gay and bisexual men's (GBM's) mental and physical health, increasing the rates of depression, suicidal ideation, and HIV risk behaviors. In conservative religious settings, such as Italy, sexual orientation stigma can be more frequently and/or more intensively experienced. However, minority stress among Italian GBM remains understudied...
December 2017: Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity
Judith Chew, John Carpenter, Anne M Haase
OBJECTIVE: Young people with chronic illnesses, such as epilepsy, tend to have poorer psychosocial outcomes compared to their peers. Nevertheless, not all young people experience difficulties adapting to living with epilepsy. The aim of this study was to examine family processes, as little is known about their impact on young people's adaptation to the condition. METHOD: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 15 young people, aged between 13 and 16 years old, to explore their experiences of living with epilepsy from the perspective of family resilience...
February 23, 2018: Social Work in Health Care
Mille Charlotte Hansen, Tine Aagaard, Henrik Wulff Christensen, Jan Hartvigsen
Background: Little is known about the physical and psychosocial work environment of chiropractors and their work-related health complaints, and this has never been described for Danish chiropractors. The aim of this study was, therefore, to describe work-related acute physical injuries, overuse complaints, and psychosocial stress in Danish chiropractic work settings. Methods: We developed a questionnaire specifically for this study and distributed it electronically in August 2016 using SurveyXact to all 575 members of the Danish Chiropractors' Association working in primary care clinics...
2018: Chiropractic & Manual Therapies
Sam E Wing, Gretchen Bandoli, Donatello Telesca, Jason G Su, Beate Ritz
BACKGROUND: Chronic health effects of traffic-related air pollution, like nitrogen dioxide (NO2 ), are well-documented. Animal models suggested that NO2 exposures dysregulate cortisol function. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the association between traffic-related NO2 exposure and adolescent human cortisol concentrations, utilizing measures of the cortisol diurnal slope. METHODS: 140 adolescents provided repeated salivary cortisol samples throughout one day...
February 15, 2018: Environmental Research
Maximus Berger, Robert-Paul Juster, Sabine Westphal, G Paul Amminger, Bernhard Bogerts, Kolja Schiltz, Sabine Bahn, Johann Steiner, Zoltan Sarnyai
Current pathophysiological models of schizophrenia suggest that stress contributes to the etiology and trajectory of the disorder. We investigated if allostatic load (AL), an integrative index of neuroendocrine, immune and metabolic dysregulation in response to chronic stress, is elevated in patients with schizophrenia (SCZ) and first-episode psychosis (FEP) and related to psychotic symptoms and social and occupational functioning. Additionally, we assessed the temporal dynamics of AL in response to treatment with second-generation antipsychotics...
February 5, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Ivy Timmermans, Johan Denollet, Susanne S Pedersen, Mathias Meine, Henneke Versteeg
BACKGROUND: Patients diagnosed with chronic diseases develop perceptions about their disease and its causes, which may influence health behavior and emotional well-being. This is the first study to examine patient-reported causes and their correlates in patients with heart failure. METHODS: European heart failure patients (N = 595) completed questionnaires, including the Brief Illness Perceptions Questionnaire. Using deductive thematic analysis, patient-reported causes were categorized into physical, natural, behavioral, psychosocial, supernatural and other...
February 6, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
Lisa M Christian, Jennifer M Kowalsky, Amanda M Mitchell, Kyle Porter
BACKGROUND: Postpartum is a period of unique psychosocial stress characterized by sleep disturbance, risk for depressed mood, and heightened parenting stress. However, data on effects of these exposures on inflammatory immune function are limited. METHODS: This study examined associations among sleep, psychosocial stress (i.e., parenting stress, general perceived stress), mood (i.e., depressive symptoms), serum cytokine levels, and LPS-stimulated proinflammatory cytokine production among 69 women (32 African American, 37 White) assessed at 7-10weeks postpartum...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Ming-Chih Yu, Chen-Yuan Chiang, Jen-Jyh Lee, Shun-Tien Chien, Chou-Jui Lin, Shih-Wei Lee, Chih-Bin Lin, Wen-Ta Yang, Ying-Hsun Wu, Yi-Wen Huang
Background: The proportion of treatment success among multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) patients enrolled between 1992 and 1996 was 51.2%, and that among patients enrolled between 2000 and April 2007 was 61%. To address the challenge of MDR-TB, the Taiwan MDR-TB Consortium (TMTC) was established in May 2007. To assess the performance of the TMTC, we analyzed the data of patients enrolled in its first 5 years. Methods: Comprehensive care was provided at no cost to patients, who were usually hospitalized for one month initially...
January 31, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Frank Birklein, Violeta Dimova
Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) was described for the first time in the 19th century by Silas Weir Mitchell. After the exclusion of other causes, CRPS is characterised by a typical clinical constellation of pain, sensory, autonomic, motor, or trophic symptoms which can no longer be explained by the initial trauma. These symptoms spread distally and are not limited to innervation territories. If CRPS is not improved in the acute phase and becomes chronic, the visible symptoms change throughout because of the changing pathophysiology; the pain, however, remains...
November 2017: Pain Reports (Baltimore, Md.)
Kimberly T Sibille, Huaihou Chen, Emily J Bartley, Joseph Riley, Toni L Glover, Christopher D King, Hang Zhang, Yenisel Cruz-Almeida, Burel R Goodin, Adriana Sotolongo, Megan E Petrov, Matthew Herbert, Hailey W Bulls, Jeffrey C Edberg, Roland Staud, David Redden, Laurence A Bradley, Roger B Fillingim
Introduction: Individuals with osteoarthritis (OA) show increased morbidity and mortality. Telomere length, a measure of cellular aging, predicts increased morbidity and mortality. Telomeres shorten with persisting biological and psychosocial stress. Living with chronic OA pain is stressful. Previous research exploring telomere length in people with OA has produced inconsistent results. Considering pain severity may clarify the relationship between OA and telomeres. Objectives: We hypothesized that individuals with high OA chronic pain severity would have shorter telomeres than those with no or low chronic pain severity...
May 2017: Pain Reports (Baltimore, Md.)
Martin Picard, Bruce S McEwen
OBJECTIVE: Mitochondria are multifunctional life-sustaining organelles that represent a potential intersection point between psychosocial experiences and biological stress responses. This article provides a systematic review of the effects of psychological stress on mitochondrial structure and function. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature investigating the effects of psychological stress on mitochondrial function was conducted. The review focused on experimentally controlled studies allowing us to draw causal inference about the effect of induced psychological stress on mitochondria...
February 2018: Psychosomatic Medicine
Martin Picard, Bruce S McEwen
BACKGROUND: The integration of biological, psychological, and social factors in medicine has benefited from increasingly precise stress response biomarkers. Mitochondria, a subcellular organelle with its own genome, produce the energy required for life and generate signals that enable stress adaptation. An emerging concept proposes that mitochondria sense, integrate, and transduce psychosocial and behavioral factors into cellular and molecular modifications. Mitochondrial signaling might in turn contribute to the biological embedding of psychological states...
February 2018: Psychosomatic Medicine
Karmel W Choi, Kelly M Shaffer, Emily L Zale, Christopher J Funes, Karestan C Koenen, Tara Tehan, Jonathan Rosand, Ana-Maria Vranceanu
OBJECTIVES: Informal caregivers-that is, close family and friends providing unpaid emotional or instrumental care-of patients admitted to ICUs are at risk for posttraumatic stress disorder. As a first step toward developing interventions to prevent posttraumatic stress disorder in ICU caregivers, we examined the predictive validity of psychosocial risk screening during admission for caregiver posttraumatic stress disorder at 3 and 6 months post hospitalization. DESIGN: An observational, prospective study...
January 30, 2018: Critical Care Medicine
Kirsten M M Beyer, Aniko Szabo, Kelly Hoormann, Melinda Stolley
Chronic diseases-including cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and metabolic conditions such as diabetes and obesity-account for over 60% of overall global mortality. Sedentary time increases the risk for chronic disease incidence and mortality, while moderate to vigorous physical activity is known to decrease risk. Most Americans spend at least half of their time sedentary, with a trend toward increasingly sedentary lifestyles, and few Americans achieve recommended levels of physical activity. Time spent outdoors has been associated with reduced sedentary time and increased physical activity among children/youth and the elderly, but few population-based studies have examined this relationship among working age adults who may face greater constraints on active, outdoor time...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Behavioral Medicine
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