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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160817/impact-of-high-dose-multi-strain-probiotic-supplementation-on-neurocognitive-performance-and-central-nervous-system-immune-activation-of-hiv-1-infected-individuals
#1
Giancarlo Ceccarelli, Jason M Brenchley, Eugenio Nelson Cavallari, Giuseppe Corano Scheri, Mariangela Fratino, Claudia Pinacchio, Ivan Schietroma, Saeid Najafi Fard, Carolina Scagnolari, Ivano Mezzaroma, Vincenzo Vullo, Gabriella d'Ettorre
BACKGROUND: Gut microbiota has metabolic activity which influences mucosal homeostasis, local and systemic immune responses, and other anatomical systems (i.e., brain). The effects of dysbiosis are still poorly studied in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 (HIV-1) positive subjects and insufficient data are available on the impairment of the gut-brain axis, despite neurocognitive disorders being commonly diagnosed in these patients. This study evaluated the impact of a probiotic supplementation strategy on intrathecal immune activation and cognitive performance in combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) treated HIV-1 infected subjects...
November 21, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157586/does-comorbid-obstructive-sleep-apnea-impair-the-effectiveness-of-cognitive-and-behavioral-therapy-for-insomnia
#2
Alexander Sweetman, Leon Lack, Sky Lambert, Michael Gradisar, Jodie Harris
AIMS: Comorbid insomnia and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) represents a highly prevalent and debilitating condition; however, physicians and researchers are still uncertain about the most effective treatment approach. Several research groups have suggested that these patients should initially receive treatment for their insomnia before the sleep apnea is targeted. The current study aims to determine whether Cognitive and Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia (CBT-i) can effectively treat insomnia in patients with comorbid OSA and whether its effectiveness is impaired by the presence of OSA...
November 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156493/virtual-reality-for-stroke-rehabilitation
#3
REVIEW
Kate E Laver, Belinda Lange, Stacey George, Judith E Deutsch, Gustavo Saposnik, Maria Crotty
BACKGROUND: Virtual reality and interactive video gaming have emerged as recent treatment approaches in stroke rehabilitation with commercial gaming consoles in particular, being rapidly adopted in clinical settings. This is an update of a Cochrane Review published first in 2011 and then again in 2015. OBJECTIVES: Primary objective: to determine the efficacy of virtual reality compared with an alternative intervention or no intervention on upper limb function and activity...
November 20, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156491/long-term-calcineurin-inhibitor-therapy-and-brain-function-in-patients-after-liver-transplantation
#4
Henning Pflugrad, Anna-Kristina Schrader, Anita Blanka Tryc, Xiaoqi Ding, Heinrich Lanfermann, Elmar Jäckel, Harald Schrem, Jan Beneke, Hannelore Barg-Hock, Jürgen Klempnauer, Karin Weissenborn
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Calcineurin inhibitors (CNI) frequently induce neurological complications early after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). We hypothesize that long-term CNI therapy after OLT causes dose-dependent cognitive dysfunction and alteration of brain structure. METHODS: Eighty-five OLT patients (20 with CNI free, 35 with CNI low dose and 30 with standard dose CNI immunosuppression) underwent psychometric testing and cerebral magnetic resonance tomography about 10 years after OLT to assess brain function and structural brain alterations...
November 20, 2017: Liver Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155369/virtual-rehabilitation-with-children-challenges-for-clinical-adoption-from-the-field
#5
Stephanie Glegg
Virtual, augmented, and mixed reality environments are increasingly being developed and used to address functional rehabilitation goals related to physical, cognitive, social, and psychological impairments. For example, a child with an acquired brain injury may participate in virtual rehabilitation to address impairments in balance, attention, turn taking, and engagement in therapy. The trend toward virtual rehabilitation first gained momentum with the adoption of commercial off-the-shelf active video gaming consoles (e...
November 2017: IEEE Pulse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154509/technology-assisted-rehabilitation-interventions-following-pediatric-brain-injury
#6
Shari L Wade, Megan E Narad, Emily L Shultz, Brad G Kurowski, Aimee E Miley, Jessica M Aguilar, Anna-Lynne R Adlam
INTRODUCTION: Following traumatic brain injury (TBI), children experience a variety of physical, motor, speech, and cognitive deficits that can have a long-term detrimental impact. The emergence and popularity of new technologies has led to research into the development of various apps, gaming systems, websites, and robotics that might be applied to rehabilitation. The objective of this narrative review was to describe the current literature technologically-assisted interventions for the rehabilitation of motor, neurocognitive, behavioral, and family impairments following pediatric TBI...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153989/psen1-mutant-ipsc-derived-model-reveals-severe-astrocyte-pathology-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#7
Minna Oksanen, Andrew J Petersen, Nikolay Naumenko, Katja Puttonen, Šárka Lehtonen, Max Gubert Olivé, Anastasia Shakirzyanova, Stina Leskelä, Timo Sarajärvi, Matti Viitanen, Juha O Rinne, Mikko Hiltunen, Annakaisa Haapasalo, Rashid Giniatullin, Pasi Tavi, Su-Chun Zhang, Katja M Kanninen, Riikka H Hämäläinen, Jari Koistinaho
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder and the leading cause of cognitive impairment. Due to insufficient understanding of the disease mechanisms, there are no efficient therapies for AD. Most studies have focused on neuronal cells, but astrocytes have also been suggested to contribute to AD pathology. We describe here the generation of functional astrocytes from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) derived from AD patients with PSEN1 ΔE9 mutation, as well as healthy and gene-corrected isogenic controls...
November 12, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152685/cerebral-palsy-an-overview
#8
REVIEW
Sheffali Gulati, Vishal Sondhi
Cerebral palsy (CP) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by abnormalities of muscle tone, movement and motor skills, and is attributed to injury to the developing brain. The clinical features of this entity evolve over time and the specific CP syndrome may be recognizable only after 3-5 y of age; although suggestive signs and symptoms may be present at an earlier age. The management involves neurological rehabilitation (addressing muscle tonal abnormalities, and devising physical and occupational therapies) and diagnosis and management of co-morbidities (including epilepsy, impairment of cognition, vision, hearing, and disturbances of growth and gastrointestinal function)...
November 20, 2017: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151273/post-treatment-with-methylene-blue-is-effective-against-delayed-encephalopathy-after-acute-carbon-monoxide-poisoning
#9
Ningjun Zhao, Pengchong Liang, Xiaoying Zhuo, Chenglei Su, Xuemei Zong, Bingnan Guo, Han Dong, Xianliang Yan, Shuqun Hu, Quanguang Zhang, Xu Tie
Delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning (DEACMP) is the most severe and clinically intractable complication that occurs following acute carbon monoxide poisoning. Unfortunately, the mechanism of DEACMP is still vague. Growing evidence indicates that delayed cerebral damage following CO poisoning is related to oxidative stress, abnormal neuro-inflammation, apoptosis and immune-mediated injury. Our recent report indicated that methylene blue (MB) may be a promising therapeutic agent in the prevention of neuronal cell death and cognitive deficits following transient global cerebral ischaemia (GCI)...
November 19, 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151092/conversion-factitious-disorder-and-malingering-a-distinct-pattern-or-a-continuum
#10
Silvio Galli, Laurent Tatu, Julien Bogousslavsky, Selma Aybek
This chapter is aimed at highlighting the recent findings concerning physiopathology, diagnosis, and management of conversion, factitious disorder, and malingering. Conversion disorder is the unintentional production of neurological symptom, whereas malingering and factitious disorder represent the voluntary production of symptoms with internal or external incentives. They have a close history and this has been frequently confounded. Practitioners are often confronted to medically unexplained symptoms; they represent almost 30% of neurologist's consultation...
2018: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151048/early-vasopressor-use-following-traumatic-injury-a-systematic-review
#11
Mathieu Hylands, Augustin Toma, Nicolas Beaudoin, Anne Julie Frenette, Frédérick D'Aragon, Émilie Belley-Côté, Emmanuel Charbonney, Morten Hylander Møller, Jon Henrik Laake, Per Olav Vandvik, Reed Alexander Siemieniuk, Bram Rochwerg, François Lauzier, Robert S Green, Ian Ball, Damon Scales, Srinivas Murthy, Joey S W Kwong, Gordon Guyatt, Sandro Rizoli, Pierre Asfar, François Lamontagne
OBJECTIVES: Current guidelines suggest limiting the use of vasopressors following traumatic injury; however, wide variations in practice exist. Although excessive vasoconstriction may be harmful, these agents may help reduce administration of potentially harmful resuscitation fluids. This systematic review aims to compare early vasopressor use to standard resuscitation in adults with trauma-induced shock. DESIGN: Systematic review. DATA SOURCES: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, ClinicalTrials...
November 17, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150233/management-of-first-depression-or-generalized-anxiety-disorder-episode-in-adults-in-primary-care-a-systematic-metareview
#12
Damien Driot, Michel Bismuth, Adrien Maurel, Julie Soulie-Albouy, Jordan Birebent, Stéphane Oustric, Julie Dupouy
CONTEXT: General Practitioners (GPs) are the leading antidepressants prescribers in Europe and in France. Difficulties in implementing existing recommendations in daily practice have been described. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to elaborate two algorithms to guide GPs in the patient management for a first major depressive disorder (MDD) or generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) episode in primary care. DATA SOURCES: PubMed, Cochrane, and ISI Web of Science were explored using mainly the following keywords: depressive disorder, anxiety disorders, antidepressive agents or antidepressant...
November 14, 2017: La Presse Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149717/usefulness-of-the-montreal-cognitive-assessment-moca-to-monitor-cognitive-impairments-in-depressed-patients-receiving-electroconvulsive-therapy
#13
Rémi Moirand, Filipe Galvao, Maxime Lecompte, Emmanuel Poulet, Frédéric Haesebaert, Jerome Brunelin
There is a lack of consensual tools for evaluating the cognitive side-effects in patients with depression who are treated with electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). The objective of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and of the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) to monitor cognitive changes in patients with depression receiving ECT. Cognitive functioning was assessed prospectively in 48 patients with unipolar or bipolar depression before and after an ECT course...
November 7, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149257/eleven-telomere-epigenetic-clock-and-biomarker-composite-quantifications-of-biological-aging-do-they-measure-the-same-thing
#14
Daniel W Belsky, Terrie E Moffitt, Alan A Cohen, David L Corcoran, Morgan E Levine, Joseph A Prinz, Jonathan Schaefer, Karen Sugden, Benjamin Williams, Richie Poulton, Avshalom Caspi
The geroscience hypothesis posits that therapies to slow biological processes of aging can prevent disease and extend healthy years of life. To test such "gero-protective" therapies in humans, outcome measures are needed that can assess extension of disease-free lifespan. This need has spurred development of different methods to quantify biological aging. But different methods have not been systematically compared in the same humans. We implemented seven methods to quantify biological aging using repeated-measures physiological and genomic data in 964 middle-aged humans in the Dunedin Study...
November 15, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149149/decreased-regional-grey-matter-volume-in-women-with-chronic-whiplash-associated-disorders-relationships-with-cognitive-deficits-and-disturbed-pain-processing
#15
Iris Coppieters, Robby De Pauw, Karen Caeyenberghs, Lieven Danneels, Jeroen Kregel, Astrid Pattyn, Mira Meeus, Barbara Cagnie
BACKGROUND: Patients with chronic whiplash-associated disorders (CWAD) are characterized by pain of traumatic origin, cognitive deficits, and central sensitization (CS). Previous neuroimaging studies revealed altered grey matter volume (GMV) in mild traumatic brain injury patients and chronic pain conditions also characterized by CS. It can therefore be hypothesized that GMV alterations also play a role in the persistent complaints of CWAD. However, brain alterations remain poorly investigated in these patients...
November 2017: Pain Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147822/psychiatric-sequelae-of-concussions
#16
REVIEW
David A Brent, Jeffrey Max
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this study was to review the frequency, risk factors, phenomenology, and course of prolonged recovery from concussion and of psychiatric sequelae in pediatric populations. RECENT FINDINGS: Youth with prolonged recovery from concussions have higher initial symptoms, a history of multiple and/or recent concussions, and a tendency to somatization. Depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, behavioral disorders, and perhaps, suicidal behavior disorder are more common as both short- and longer-term sequelae of concussions...
November 17, 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144110/effect-of-stabilization-exercise-on-back-pain-disability-and-quality-of-life-in-adult-with-scoliosis-a-systematic-review
#17
Malik H Alanazi, Eric C Parent, Elizabeth Dennett
INTRODUCTION: Adult Scoliosis (AS) is the most common spine deformity in adults. Back pain is the main symptom leading patients to seek medical consultation. Stabilization exercise has been shown effective for reducing back pain. No literature review has examined the effects of such exercises in adults with scoliosis. OBJECTIVES: To systematically review the effects of stabilization exercises on back pain, disability and quality of life in adults with scoliosis...
November 16, 2017: European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143590/exercise-therapy-in-multiple-sclerosis-and-its-effects-on-function-and-the-brain
#18
Ulrik Dalgas
Exercise therapy is a promising nonpharmacological therapy in people with multiple sclerosis (MS). Although exercise training may induce a transient worsening of symptoms in some MS patients, it is generally considered safe and does not increase the risk of relapses. Exercise training can lead to clinically relevant improvements in physical function, but should be considered an adjunct to specific task-based training. Exercise has also shown positive effects on the brain, including improvements in brain volume and cognition...
November 2017: Neurodegenerative Disease Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143135/the-mediating-role-of-spirituality-meaning-peace-faith-between-psychological-distress-and-mental-adjustment-in-cancer-patients
#19
Paula Jimenez-Fonseca, Urbano Lorenzo-Seva, Pere Joan Ferrando, Alberto Carmona-Bayonas, Carmen Beato, Teresa García, María Del Mar Muñoz, Avinash Ramchandani, Ismael Ghanem, Alejandra Rodríguez-Capote, Carlos Jara, Caterina Calderon
OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this study were (a) to determine the psychometric properties of the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Spiritual Well-Being (FACIT-Sp) scale and (b) to provide that FACIT scores behave one-dimensional to establish the mediating role of spiritual well-being in psychological distress and mental adjustment in a sample of patients with non-metastatic, resected cancer. METHOD: A total of 504 consecutive patients completed the FACIT-Sp, Brief Symptom Inventory, and Mini-Mental Adjustment to Cancer scales...
November 15, 2017: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142396/antioxidant-and-cholinesterase-inhibitory-activities-of-ethyl-acetate-extract-of-terminalia-chebula-cell-free-in-vitro-and-in-silico-studies
#20
Mohamed Asik Rajmohamed, Suganthy Natarajan, Premkumar Palanisamy, Akbarsha Mohammad Abdulkader, Archunan Govindaraju
Background: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder clinically characterized by memory loss and impaired cognitive function. Cholinergic enzyme deficiency and oxidative stress are the two major factors implicated in the pathogenesis of AD. The symptomatic treatment, as of now, is the use of cholinesterase inhibitors toward cholinergic "downturn." Therefore, there is a search for compounds that will be useful in focused therapies. There has been suggestion that Terminalia chebula fruit would be a potential source...
October 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
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