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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730732/shared-atypical-default-mode-and-salience-network-functional-connectivity-between-autism-and-schizophrenia
#1
Heng Chen, Lucina Q Uddin, Xujun Duan, Junjie Zheng, Zhiliang Long, Youxue Zhang, Xiaonan Guo, Yan Zhang, Jingping Zhao, Huafu Chen
Schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are two prevalent neurodevelopmental disorders sharing some similar genetic basis and clinical features. The extent to which they share common neural substrates remains unclear. Resting-state fMRI data were collected from 35 drug-naïve adolescent participants with first-episode schizophrenia (15.6 ± 1.8 years old) and 31 healthy controls (15.4 ± 1.6 years old). Data from 22 participants with ASD (13.1 ± 3.1 years old) and 21 healthy controls (12...
July 21, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729938/abnormal-resting-state-effective-connectivity-within-the-default-mode-network-in-major-depressive-disorder-a-spectral-dynamic-causal-modeling-study
#2
Liang Li, Baojuan Li, Yuanhan Bai, Wenlei Liu, Huaning Wang, Hoi-Chung Leung, Ping Tian, Linchuan Zhang, Fan Guo, Long-Biao Cui, Hong Yin, Hongbing Lu, Qingrong Tan
INTRODUCTION: Understanding the neural basis underlying major depressive disorder (MDD) is essential for the diagnosis and treatment of this mental disorder. Aberrant activation and functional connectivity of the default mode network (DMN) have been consistently found in patients with MDD. It is not known whether effective connectivity within the DMN is altered in MDD. OBJECTS: The primary object of this study is to investigate the effective connectivity within the DMN during resting state in MDD patients before and after eight weeks of antidepressant treatment...
July 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727208/differential-expression-of-appetite-regulating-genes-in-avian-models-of-anorexia-and-obesity
#3
Jiaqing Yi, Jingwei Yuan, Elizabeth R Gilbert, Paul B Siegel, Mark A Cline
Chickens from lines that have been selected for low (LWS) or high (HWS) juvenile body weight for more than 57 generations provide a unique model to research appetite regulation. The LWS display different severities of anorexia while all HWS become obese. Herein we measured mRNA abundance of various factors in appetite-associated nuclei in the hypothalamus. The lateral hypothalamus (LHA), paraventricular nucleus (PVN), ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH), dorsomedial nucleus (DMN), and arcuate nucleus (ARC) were collected from 5 day-old chicks that were fasted for 180 minutes or provided continuous access to food...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712093/neurobiological-effect-of-selective-brain-cooling-after-concussive-injury
#4
Alexa Walter, Katie Finelli, Xiaoxiao Bai, Brian Johnson, Thomas Neuberger, Peter Seidenberg, Timothy Bream, Mark Hallett, Semyon Slobounov
The search for effective treatment facilitating recovery from concussive injury, as well as reducing risk for recurrent concussion is an ongoing challenge. This study aimed to determine: a) feasibility of selective brain cooling to facilitate clinical symptoms resolution, and b) biological functions of the brain within athletes in acute phase of sports-related concussion. Selective brain cooling for 30 minutes using WElkins sideline cooling system was administered to student-athletes suffering concussive injury (n=12; tested within 5±3 days) and those without history of concussion (n=12)...
July 15, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707166/altered-dynamic-functional-connectivity-in-the-default-mode-network-in-patients-with-cirrhosis-and-minimal-hepatic-encephalopathy
#5
Hua-Jun Chen, Hai-Long Lin, Qiu-Feng Chen, Peng-Fei Liu
PURPOSE: Abnormal brain intrinsic functional connectivity (FC) has been documented in minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) by static connectivity analysis. However, changes in dynamic FC (dFC) remain unknown. We aimed to identify altered dFC within the default mode network (DMN) associated with MHE. METHODS: Resting-state functional MRI data were acquired from 20 cirrhotic patients with MHE and 24 healthy controls. DMN seed regions were defined using seed-based FC analysis (centered on the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC))...
July 13, 2017: Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705767/common-and-distinct-dysfunctional-patterns-contribute-to-triple-network-model-in-schizophrenia-and-depression-a-preliminary-study
#6
Yuchao Jiang, Mingjun Duan, Xi Chen, Xin Chang, Hui He, YingJia Li, Cheng Luo, Dezhong Yao
BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia (SCH) and depression (DEP) are prevalent psychiatric disorders and share common and distinguished elements in their pathophysiology. A triple network model composed of the default mode network (DMN), salience network (SN) and central executive network (CEN) may represent a major abnormality across several psychiatric disorders including SCH and DEP. However, common and distinct dysfunctional patterns between SCH and DEP across three core networks remain unclear...
July 10, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705691/functional-connectivity-within-and-between-intrinsic-networks-correlates-with-trait-mind-wandering
#7
Christine A Godwin, Michael A Hunter, Matthew A Bezdek, Gregory Lieberman, Seth Elkin-Frankston, Victoria L Romero, Katie Witkiewitz, Vincent P Clark, Eric H Schumacher
Individual differences across a variety of cognitive processes are functionally associated with individual differences in intrinsic networks such as the default mode network (DMN). Furthermore, the extent to which these networks correlate or anticorrelate has been associated with performance in a variety of circumstances. Despite the established role of the DMN in mind wandering processes, little research has investigated how large-scale brain networks at rest relate to mind wandering tendencies outside the laboratory...
July 10, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703882/centrifugal-lithography-self-shaping-of-polymer-microstructures-encapsulating-biopharmaceutics-by-centrifuging-polymer-drops
#8
Huisuk Yang, Suyong Kim, Geonwoo Kang, Shayan F Lahiji, Mingyu Jang, Young Mi Kim, Jae-Myung Kim, Sang-Nae Cho, Hyungil Jung
Polymeric microstructures encapsulating biopharmaceutics must be fabricated in a controlled environment to preserve the biological activity. There is increasing demand for simple methods designed to preserve the biological activity by utilizing the natural properties of polymers. Here, the paper shows that centrifugal lithography (CL) can be used for the fabrication of such microstructures in a single centrifugation, by engineering the self-shaping properties of hyaluronic acid (HA). In this method, HA drops are self-shaped into hourglass-microstructures to produce two dissolving microneedles (DMN), which facilitate transdermal delivery via implantation on the skin...
July 13, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700819/posterior-dopamine-d2-3-receptors-and-brain-network-functional-connectivity
#9
Atsuko Nagano-Saito, Jennifer I Lissemore, Paul Gravel, Marco Leyton, Felix Carbonell, Chawki Benkelfat
Recent studies suggest that dopaminergic tone influences resting state activity in multiple brain networks. Although dopamine receptors and transporters have been identified in the posteromedial and parietal cortices, which are linked to functional networks such as the default mode network (DMN), the relationship between dopamine receptor distribution in these posterior regions and resting-state connectivity has yet to be explored. Here, we used a multi-modal neuroimaging strategy, combining resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) and [18F]-fallypride high-resolution positron emission tomography (PET), to examine the association between within-network functional connectivity and the dopamine D2/3 receptor distribution in the posterior portion of the brain in 13 healthy adults...
July 12, 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692408/preliminary-findings-of-altered-functional-connectivity-of-the-default-mode-network-linked-to-functional-outcomes-one-year-after-pediatric-traumatic-brain-injury
#10
Jaclyn A Stephens, Cynthia F Salorio, Anita D Barber, Sarah R Risen, Stewart H Mostofsky, Stacy J Suskauer
PURPOSE AND METHOD: This study examined functional connectivity of the default mode network (DMN) and examined brain-behavior relationships in a pilot cohort of children with chronic mild to moderate traumatic brain injury (TBI). RESULTS: Compared to uninjured peers, children with TBI demonstrated less anti-correlated functional connectivity between DMN and right Brodmann Area 40 (BA 40). In children with TBI, more anomalous less anti-correlated) connectivity between DMN and right BA 40 was linked to poorer performance on response inhibition tasks...
July 10, 2017: Developmental Neurorehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691850/-default-mode-functional-connectivity-is-associated-with-social-functioning-in-schizophrenia-correction-to-fox-et-al-2017
#11
(no author information available yet)
Reports an error in "Default mode functional connectivity is associated with social functioning in schizophrenia" by Jaclyn M. Fox, Samantha V. Abram, James L. Reilly, Shaun Eack, Morris B. Goldman, John G. Csernansky, Lei Wang and Matthew J. Smith (Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 2017[May], Vol 126[4], 392-405). In the article, the email address of corresponding author Matthew J. Smith was set as matthewsmith@northwestern.edu. It should have been mattjsmi@umich.edu. The online version of this article has been corrected...
July 2017: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690587/brain-connectivity-patterns-dissociate-action-of-specific-acupressure-treatments-in-fatigued-breast-cancer-survivors
#12
Richard E Harris, Eric Ichesco, Chelsea Cummiford, Johnson P Hampson, Thomas L Chenevert, Neil Basu, Suzanna M Zick
Persistent fatigue is a pernicious symptom in many cancer survivors. Existing treatments are limited or ineffective and often lack any underlying biologic rationale. Acupressure is emerging as a promising new intervention for persistent cancer-related fatigue; however, the underlying mechanisms of action are unknown. Our previous investigations suggested that fatigued breast cancer survivors have alterations in brain neurochemistry within the posterior insula and disturbed functional connectivity to the default mode network (DMN), as compared to non-fatigued breast cancer survivors...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689258/differences-in-dynamic-and-static-functional-connectivity-between-young-and-elderly-healthy-adults
#13
Ji Eun Park, Seung Chai Jung, Kyeoung Hwa Ryu, Joo Young Oh, Ho Sung Kim, Choong-Gon Choi, Sang Joon Kim, Woo Hyun Shim
PURPOSE: Brain connectivity is highly dynamic, but functional connectivity (FC) studies using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) assume it to be static. This study assessed differences in dynamic FC between young healthy adults (YH) and elderly healthy adults (EH) compared to static FC. METHODS: Using rs-fMRI data from 12 YH and 31 EH, FC was assessed in six functional regions (subcortical, auditory [AUD], sensorimotor [SM], visuospatial [VS], cognitive control [CC], and default mode network [DMN])...
July 8, 2017: Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688741/stronger-default-mode-network-connectivity-is-associated-with-poorer-clinical-insight-in-youth-at-ultra-high-risk-for-psychotic-disorders
#14
Sarah V Clark, Vijay A Mittal, Jessica A Bernard, Aral Ahmadi, Tricia Z King, Jessica A Turner
Impaired clinical insight (CI) is a common symptom of psychotic disorders and a promising treatment target. However, to date, our understanding of how variability in CI is tied to underlying brain dysfunction in the clinical high-risk period is limited. Developing a stronger conception of this link will be a vital first step for efforts to determine if CI can serve as a useful prognostic indicator. The current study investigated whether variability in CI is related to major brain networks in adolescents and young adults at ultra high-risk (UHR) of developing psychosis...
July 5, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688383/the-photodissociation-of-n-n-dimethylnitrosamine-at-355-nm-the-effect-of-excited-state-conformational-changes-on-product-vector-correlations
#15
Masroor Hossain, Aidan J Klobuchar, Jeffrey A Bartz
In a photodissociation experiment, the dynamics associated with creating reaction products with specific energies can be understood by a study of the product vector correlations. Upon excitation to the S1 state, N,N-dimethylnitrosamine (DMN) undergoes an excited-state geometry change from planar to pyramidal around the central N. The significant geometry change affects the vector correlations in the photoproducts. Using polarized lasers for 355 nm photodissociation of DMN and for NO photoproduct excitation in a velocity-mapped ion imaging apparatus reveals new vector correlation details among the parent transition dipole (μ), photofragment velocity (v), and photofragment angular momentum (j)...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687473/brain-functional-alterations-in-type-2-diabetes-a-systematic-review-of-fmri-studies
#16
REVIEW
Helen Macpherson, Melissa Formica, Elizabeth Harris, Robin M Daly
Type 2 Diabetes (T2DM) is emerging as a major global health issue. T2DM can adversely affect cognition and increase dementia risk. This systematic review aimed to examine the functional brain changes that may underlie cognitive dysfunction in adults with T2DM. Studies were restricted to those which used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Nineteen independent studies were identified, mostly comprised of middle aged or older adults. Resting-state studies demonstrated that compared to controls, connectivity of the Default Mode Network (DMN) was reduced and the majority of task-based studies identified reduced activation in T2DM patients in regions relevant to task performance...
July 4, 2017: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675389/topologically-convergent-and-divergent-functional-connectivity-patterns-in-unmedicated-unipolar-depression-and-bipolar-disorder
#17
Y Wang, J Wang, Y Jia, S Zhong, M Zhong, Y Sun, M Niu, L Zhao, L Zhao, J Pan, L Huang, R Huang
Bipolar disorder (BD), particularly BD II, is frequently misdiagnosed as unipolar depression (UD), leading to inappropriate treatment and poor clinical outcomes. Although depressive symptoms may be expressed similarly in UD and BD, the similarities and differences in the architecture of brain functional networks between the two disorders are still unknown. In this study, we hypothesized that UD and BD II patients would show convergent and divergent patterns of disrupted topological organization of the functional connectome, especially in the default mode network (DMN) and the limbic network...
July 4, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666840/behavioral-activation-sensitivity-and-default-mode-network-subgenual-cingulate-cortex-connectivity-in-youth
#18
Allesandra S Iadipaolo, Hilary A Marusak, Kelsey Sala-Hamrick, Laura M Crespo, Moriah E Thomason, Christine A Rabinak
Increased resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) between the default mode network (DMN) and subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC) is consistently reported in adults and youth with psychopathologies related to affect dysregulation (e.g. depression, posttraumatic stress disorder). This pattern of increased rsFC is thought to underlie ruminative thought patterns through integration of negative affect (via sgACC) into self-referential operations supported by the DMN. Neurobiological studies in adults show that behavioral activation system (BAS) sensitivity is a potential protective factor against the development of psychopathology, particularly in the context of stress and trauma exposure...
June 27, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662161/absence-of-eeg-correlates-of-self-referential-processing-depth-in-als
#19
Tatiana Fomina, Sebastian Weichwald, Matthis Synofzik, Jenifer Just, Ludger Schöls, Bernhard Schölkopf, Moritz Grosse-Wentrup
Self-referential processing is a key cognitive process, associated with the serotonergic system and the default mode network (DMN). Decreased levels of serotonin and reduced activations of the DMN observed in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) suggest that self-referential processing might be altered in patients with ALS. Here, we investigate the effects of ALS on the electroencephalography correlates of self-referential thinking. We find that electroencephalography (EEG) correlates of self-referential thinking are present in healthy individuals, but not in those with ALS...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650620/influence-of-the-disposition-of-the-anisotropy-axes-into-the-magnetic-properties-of-mn-iii-dinuclear-compounds-with-benzoato-derivative-bridges
#20
Beltzane Garcia-Cirera, Silvia Gómez-Coca, Mercè Font-Bardia, Eliseo Ruiz, Montserrat Corbella
The two new Mn(III) dinuclear compounds [{Mn(H2O)(phen)}2(μ-4-CH3C6H4COO)2(μ-O)](ClO4)2·3CH3CN·H2O (1·3CH3CN·H2O) and [{Mn(H2O)(phen)}(μ-O)(μ-2-BrC6H4COO)2{Mn(NO3)(phen)}]NO3 (2) have been synthesized. Their structural data reveal significant differences in the shape of the coordination octahedron around the Mn(III) ions in both compounds. The different distortions from ideal geometry incite a very different magnetic behavior, affecting both the zero-field splitting parameters of the Mn(III) ions (DMn and EMn) and the magnetic interaction between them...
July 17, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
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