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María Díez-Cirarda, Antonio P Strafella, Jinhee Kim, Javier Peña, Natalia Ojeda, Alberto Cabrera-Zubizarreta, Naroa Ibarretxe-Bilbao
The objective was to assess dynamic functional connectivity (FC) and local/global connectivity in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients with mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI) and with normal cognition (PD-NC). The sample included 35 PD patients and 26 healthy controls (HC). Cognitive assessment followed an extensive neuropsychological battery. For resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) analysis, independent component analysis (ICA) was performed and components were located in 7 networks: Subcortical (SC), Auditory (AUD), Somatomotor (SM), visual (VI), cognitive-control (CC), default-mode (DMN), and cerebellar (CB)...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Zheng Zhang, Delong Zhang, Zengjian Wang, Junchao Li, Yuting Lin, Song Chang, Ruiwang Huang, Ming Liu
Previous studies have reported the essence of the sensory-based properties of human brain function, in which mental imagery is of great importance. In this study, we explored the association between the activities of two special regions, i.e., the primary visual area (PVA), which is the classically dominant sensory region, and the default mode network (DMN), which is the classical supra-sensory region, with a focus on their linkage in visual mental imagery. For this purpose, we collected fMRI data from 30 healthy participants (15 males; 22...
March 7, 2018: Neuroscience
Oliver G Bosch, Fabrizio Esposito, Dario Dornbierer, Michael M Havranek, Robin von Rotz, Michael Kometer, Philipp Staempfli, Boris B Quednow, Erich Seifritz
According to the triple network hypothesis the brain is equipped with three core neurocognitive networks: the default mode (DMN), the salience (SN), and the central executive (CEN) network. Moreover, the so called dorsal nexus, has met growing interest as it is a hub region connecting these three networks. Assessment of resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) of these networks enables the elucidation of drug-induced brain alterations. Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a GHB/GABA-B receptor agonist that induces a paradoxical state of mixed stimulation and sedation at moderate doses, which makes it a valuable tool to investigate neural signatures of subjective drug effects...
March 7, 2018: NeuroImage
Takahiro Ezaki, Michiko Sakaki, Takamitsu Watanabe, Naoki Masuda
Executive functions, a set of cognitive processes that enable flexible behavioral control, are known to decay with aging. Because such complex mental functions are considered to rely on the dynamic coordination of functionally different neural systems, the age-related decline in executive functions should be underpinned by alteration of large-scale neural dynamics. However, the effects of age on brain dynamics have not been firmly formulated. Here, we investigate such age-related changes in brain dynamics by applying "energy landscape analysis" to publicly available functional magnetic resonance imaging data from healthy younger and older human adults...
March 9, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Jeremy Hogeveen, Marie K Krug, Matthew V Elliott, Marjorie Solomon
BACKGROUND: Internalizing symptoms like anxiety and depression are common and impairing in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Here, we test the hypothesis that aberrant functional connectivity among three brain networks (salience network [SN], default mode network [DMN], and frontoparietal network [FPN]) plays a role in the pathophysiology of internalizing in ASD. METHODS: We examined the association between resting-state functional connectivity and internalizing in 102 adolescents and young adults with ASD (n = 49) or typical development (n = 53)...
January 31, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
Kwun Kei Ng, Yingwei Qiu, June Chi-Yan Lo, Evelyn Siew-Chuan Koay, Woon-Puay Koh, Michael Wei-Liang Chee, Juan Zhou
We investigated the influence of the apolipoprotein E-ɛ4 allele (APOE-ɛ4) on longitudinal age-related changes in brain functional connectivity (FC) and cognition, in view of mixed cross-sectional findings. One hundred and twenty-two healthy older adults (aged 58-79; 25 APOE-ɛ4 carriers) underwent task-free fMRI scans at baseline. Seventy-eight (16 carriers) had at least one follow-up (every 2 years). Changes in intra- and internetwork FCs among the default mode (DMN), executive control (ECN), and salience (SN) networks, as well as cognition, were quantified using linear mixed models...
March 8, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Shigeyuki Kan, Satoru Miyauchi
Emerging evidence indicates that cortical midline structures (CMS) (which consist of the orbitomedial prefrontal cortex (OMPFC), dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and precuneus/posterior cingulate cortex (pC/PCC)) have a critical role in generating a model of the self. These regions also serve as hub regions for the default mode network (DMN) or salience network (SN). Furthermore, regions of the CMS overlap with pain-related regions such as the so-called "pain matrix," suggesting that pain has unique attributes compared to other sensations like vision...
March 2018: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
Xiangfei Geng, Junhai Xu, Baolin Liu, Yonggang Shi
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a mental disorder characterized by at least 2 weeks of low mood, which is present across most situations. Diagnosis of MDD using rest-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data faces many challenges due to the high dimensionality, small samples, noisy and individual variability. To our best knowledge, no studies aim at classification with effective connectivity and functional connectivity measures between MDD patients and healthy controls. In this study, we performed a data-driving classification analysis using the whole brain connectivity measures which included the functional connectivity from two brain templates and effective connectivity measures created by the default mode network (DMN), dorsal attention network (DAN), frontal-parietal network (FPN), and silence network (SN)...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Thibo Billiet, Iris Elens, Charlotte Sleurs, Anne Uyttebroeck, Rudi D'Hooge, Jurgen Lemiere, Sabine Deprez
Background: This study aimed to assess functional and structural brain connectivity in adult childhood leukemia survivors and the link with cognitive functioning and previously identified risk factors such as intrathecal methotrexate dose and age at start of therapy. Methods: Thirty-one nonirradiated adult childhood leukemia survivors and 35 controls underwent cognitive testing and multimodal magnetic resonance imaging (resting state functional MRI, T1-weighted, diffusion-weighted, and myelin water imaging [MWI])...
March 5, 2018: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
ChunLei Wang, Yuan Pan, YanMei Liu, Ke Xu, LanXiang Hao, Fei Huang, Juan Ke, LiQin Sheng, HaiRong Ma, WeiFeng Guo
Independent component analysis (ICA) is one of the most popular and valid methods to investigate the default mode network (DMN), an intrinsic network which attracts particular attention in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). However, previous studies present inconsistent results regarding the topographical organization of the DMN in aMCI. Therefore, we conducted a quantitative, voxel-wise meta-analysis of resting-state ICA studies using Seed-based d Mapping to establish the most consistent pattern of DMN functional connectivity alterations in aMCI...
March 6, 2018: Neurological Sciences
Nicolai Franzmeier, Julia Hartmann, Alexander N W Taylor, Miguel Á Araque-Caballero, Lee Simon-Vermot, Lana Kambeitz-Ilankovic, Katharina Bürger, Cihan Catak, Daniel Janowitz, Claudia Müller, Birgit Ertl-Wagner, Robert Stahl, Martin Dichgans, Marco Duering, Michael Ewers
BACKGROUND: Recent evidence derived from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies suggests that functional hubs (i.e., highly connected brain regions) are important for mental health. We found recently that global connectivity of a hub in the left frontal cortex (LFC connectivity) is associated with relatively preserved memory abilities and higher levels of protective factors (education, IQ) in normal aging and Alzheimer's disease. These results suggest that LFC connectivity supports reserve capacity, alleviating memory decline...
March 6, 2018: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
Rotem Monsa, Michael Peer, Shahar Arzy
BACKGROUND: Conversion disorder (CD), or functional neurological disorder, is manifested as a neurological disturbance that is not macroscopically visible in clinical structural neuroimaging, and is instead ascribed to underlying psychological stress. Known for many years in neuropsychiatry, a comprehensive explanation to the way by which psychological stress leads to a neurological deficit of a structural-like origin is still a mystery. METHODS: We applied whole-brain network-based data-driven analyses on resting-state functional MRI, recorded in seven CD patients with unilateral paresis and hypoesthesia as compared to 15 age-matched healthy controls...
March 6, 2018: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
Andrea N Goldstein-Piekarski, Brooke R Staveland, Tali M Ball, Jerome Yesavage, Mayuresh S Korgaonkar, Leanne M Williams
Default mode network (DMN) dysfunction (particularly within the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC)) has been implicated in major depressive disorder (MDD); however, its contribution to treatment outcome has not been clearly established. Here we tested the role of DMN functional connectivity as a general and differential biomarker for predicting treatment outcomes in a large, unmedicated adult sample with MDD. Seventy-five MDD outpatients completed fMRI scans before and 8 weeks after randomization to escitalopram, sertraline, or venlafaxine-XR...
March 6, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
Shayan Fakhraei Lahiji, Yoojung Jang, Yonghao Ma, Manita Dangol, Huisuk Yang, Mingyu Jang, Hyungil Jung
Dissolving microneedle (DMN) is referred to a microscale needle that encapsulates drug(s) within a biodegradable polymer matrix and delivers it into the skin in a minimally invasive manner. Although vast majority of studies have emphasized DMN as an efficient drug delivery system, the activity of DMN-encapsulated proteins or antigens can be significantly affected due to a series of thermal, physical and chemical stress factors during DMN fabrication process and storage period. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of DMN fabrication parameters including polymer type, polymer concentration, fabrication and storage temperature, and drying conditions on the activity of the encapsulated therapeutic proteins by employing lysozyme (LYS) as a model protein...
March 2, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Mukesh Kumar, Shilpi Modi, Poonam Rana, Pawan Kumar, Ratnesh Kanwar, Tarun Sekhri, Maria D'souza, Subash Khushu
Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) is characterized by mild elevation of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) (range 5-10 μIU/ml) and normal free triiodothyronine (FT3) and free thyroxine (FT4). The cognitive function impairment is well known in thyroid disorders such as hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism, but little is known about deficits in brain functions in SCH subjects. Also, whether hormone-replacement treatment is necessary or not in SCH subjects is still debatable. In order to have an insight into the cognition of SCH subjects, intrinsic and extrinsic functional connectivity (FC) of the resting state networks (RSNs) was studied...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Danilo S Silva, Wagner M Avelar, Brunno M de Campos, Ana Paula B L Lino, Márcio L F Balthazar, Marcio J O Figueiredo, Fernando Cendes, Ana Carolina Coan
BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a widely accepted risk for causing stroke. However, recent studies show AF as a risk factor for dementia, even without causing stroke. The mechanisms by which dementia develops in stroke-free patients with AF are still poorly understood and the association of AF with abnormal function of brain networks activities, such as the default mode network (DMN), has not been previously studied. We aimed to determine whether, in the absence of stroke and dementia, patients with AF have abnormal resting-state brain networks compared to controls without AF...
March 2, 2018: Cerebrovascular Diseases
Jessika Nystedt, Peter Mannfolk, Petra Nilsson, Anders Bengtsson, Andreas Jönsen, Pia C Sundgren, Olof Strandberg
PURPOSE: To investigate resting state functional connectivity of lupus-patients and associated subgroups according to the ACR NPSLE case definitions (ACR ad Hoc 1999). Additionally, we investigated whether or not the observed alterations correlated with disease duration, SLE-disease activity index-2000 (SLEDAI-2k) and Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinical/ACR organ damage index (SDI)-scores. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Anatomical 3T MRI and resting state-fMRI (rs-fMRI) were performed in 61 female lupus-patients (mean age = 37...
March 2, 2018: Brain Connectivity
Stephan F Taylor, S Shaun Ho, Tessa Abagis, Mike Angstadt, Daniel F Maixner, Robert C Welsh, Luis Hernandez-Garcia
BACKGROUND: The subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC) has been implicated in major depressive disorder (MDD), and this study evaluated sgACC connectivity before and after repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) treatment. METHODS: Thirty-two MDD patients entered a sham-controlled, double-blinded, randomized trial of rTMS to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlFPC). Subjects underwent resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging before and after 20 sessions of high frequency rTMS...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Qing-Mei Kong, Hong Qiao, Chao-Zhong Liu, Ping Zhang, Ke Li, Li Wang, Ji-Tao Li, Yun'Ai Su, Ke-Qing Li, Chao-Gan Yan, Philip B Mitchell, Tian-Mei Si
OBJECTIVE: Growing evidence has implicated dysfunction of the thalamus and its projection cortical targets in depression. However, the anatomical specificity of thalamo-cortical connectivity in major depressive disorder (MDD) remains unknown due to the regional heterogeneity of the thalamus and limited methods to examine this. METHODS: Resting-state fMRI was collected on 70 MDD patients and 70 healthy controls. The thalamus was parcellated based on connectivity with six predefined cortical regions of interest (ROIs)...
February 28, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
Mireille Kamariza, Peyton Shieh, Christopher S Ealand, Julian S Peters, Brian Chu, Frances P Rodriguez-Rivera, Mohammed R Babu Sait, William V Treuren, Neil Martinson, Rainer Kalscheuer, Bavesh D Kana, Carolyn R Bertozzi
Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of death from an infectious bacterial disease. Poor diagnostic tools to detect active disease plague TB control programs and affect patient care. Accurate detection of live Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the causative agent of TB, could improve TB diagnosis and patient treatment. We report that mycobacteria and other corynebacteria can be specifically detected with a fluorogenic trehalose analog. We designed a 4- N,N -dimethylamino-1,8-naphthalimide-conjugated trehalose (DMN-Tre) probe that undergoes >700-fold increase in fluorescence intensity when transitioned from aqueous to hydrophobic environments...
February 28, 2018: Science Translational Medicine
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