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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136123/amyloid-network-topology-characterizes-the-progression-of-alzheimer-s-disease-during-the-predementia-stages
#1
Joana B Pereira, Tor Olof Strandberg, Sebastian Palmqvist, Giovanni Volpe, Danielle van Westen, Eric Westman, Oskar Hansson
There is increasing evidence showing that the accumulation of the amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide into extracellular plaques is a central event in Alzheimer's disease (AD). These abnormalities can be detected as lowered levels of Aβ42 in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and are followed by increased amyloid burden on positron emission tomography (PET) several years before the onset of dementia. The aim of this study was to assess amyloid network topology in nondemented individuals with early stage Aβ accumulation, defined as abnormal CSF Aβ42 levels and normal Florbetapir PET (CSF+/PET-), and more advanced Aβ accumulation, defined as both abnormal CSF Aβ42 and Florbetapir PET (CSF+/PET+)...
November 9, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134612/altered-connectivity-patterns-among-resting-state-networks-in-patients-with-ischemic-white-matter-lesions
#2
Ju-Rong Ding, Xin Ding, Bo Hua, Xingzhong Xiong, Yuqiao Wen, Zhongxiang Ding, Qingsong Wang, Paul Thompson
White matter lesions (WMLs) have been associated with cognitive and motor decline. Resting state networks (RSNs) are spatially coherent patterns in the human brain and their interactions sustain our daily function. Therefore, investigating the altered intra- and inter-network connectivity among the RSNs may help to understand the association of WMLs with impaired cognitive and motor function. Here, we assessed alterations in functional connectivity patterns based on six well-defined RSNs-the default mode network (DMN), dorsal attention network (DAN), frontal-parietal control network (FPCN), auditory network (AN), sensory motor network (SMN) and visual network (VN)-in 15 patients with ischemic WMLs and 15 controls...
November 14, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130326/resting-state-network-functional-connectivity-patterns-associated-with-the-mindful-attention-awareness-scale
#3
Elena Bilevicius, Stephen D Smith, Jennifer Kornelsen
Mindfulness refers to attending to moment-to-moment experiences with acceptance and no judgment. Several scales have been developed to quantify different components of mindfulness. The Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS) is particularly sensitive to trait mindfulness and is proposed to measure the attentional component of mindfulness. The purpose of the current study was to identify the neural correlates of the MAAS in four resting state networks related to attention-the default mode network (DMN), the salience network (SN), and the left and right central executive network (lCEN and rCEN)...
November 12, 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117910/increased-resting-state-global-functional-connectivity-density-of-default-mode-network-in-schizophrenia-subjects-treated-with-electroconvulsive-therapy
#4
Huan Huang, Yuchao Jiang, Mengqing Xia, Yingying Tang, Tianhong Zhang, Huiru Cui, Junjie Wang, Yu Li, Lihua Xu, Adrian Curtin, Jianhua Sheng, Yuping Jia, Dezhong Yao, Chunbo Li, Cheng Luo, Jijun Wang
Modified electroconvulsive therapy (MECT) has been widely applied to help treat schizophrenia patients who are treatment-resistant to pharmaceutical therapy. Although the technique is increasingly prevalent, the underlying neural mechanisms have not been well clarified. We conducted a longitudinal study to investigate the alteration of global functional connectivity density (gFCD) in schizophrenia patients undergoing MECT using resting state fMRI (functional magnetic resonance imaging). Two groups of schizophrenia inpatients were recruited...
November 6, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117709/detecting-perfusion-pattern-based-on-the-background-low-frequency-fluctuation-in-resting-state-functional-mri-data-and-its-influence-on-resting-state-networks-an-iterative-post-processing-approach
#5
Tianyi Qian, Davide Zanchi, Cristelle Rodriguez, Marine Ackermann, Panteleimon Giannakopoulos, Sven Haller
INTRODUCTION: RS-fMRI is based on the assumption that the vascular response and the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) response are homogenous across the entire brain. However, this a priori hypothesis is not consistent with the well-known variability of cerebral vascular territories. In order to explore whether the RS networks are influenced by varied vascular speed in different vascular territories, we assessed the time-shift maps that give an estimate of the local timing of the vascular response and check whether local differences in this timing have an impact on the estimates of RS networks...
November 8, 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113406/altered-dmn-functional-connectivity-and-regional-homogeneity-in-partial-epilepsy-patients-a-seventy-cases-study
#6
Chong-Yu Hu, Xiaoping Gao, Lili Long, Xiaoyan Long, Chaorong Liu, Yayu Chen, Yuanyuan Xie, Chujuan Liu, Bo Xiao, Zhe-Yu Hu
Purpose: Clinically diagnosed partial epilepsy is hard to be functionally diagnosed by regular electroencephalograph (EEG) and conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). By collecting transient brain regional signals, blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) function MRI (BOLD-fMRI) can provide brain function change information with high accuracy. By using resting state BOLD-fMRI technique, we aim to investigate the changes of brain function in partial epilepsy patients. Methods: BOLD-fMRI scanning was performed in 70 partial epilepsy and 70 healthy people...
October 6, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110183/integrated-cross-network-connectivity-of-amygdala-insula-and-subgenual-cingulate-associated-with-facial-emotion-perception-in-healthy-controls-and-remitted-major-depressive-disorder
#7
Lisanne M Jenkins, Jonathan P Stange, Alyssa Barba, Sophie R DelDonno, Leah R Kling, Emily M Briceño, Sara L Weisenbach, K Luan Phan, Stewart A Shankman, Robert C Welsh, Scott A Langenecker
Emotion perception deficits could be due to disrupted connectivity of key nodes in the salience and emotion network (SEN), including the amygdala, subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC), and insula. We examined SEN resting-state (rs-)fMRI connectivity in rMDD in relation to Facial Emotion Perception Test (FEPT) performance. Fifty-two medication-free people ages 18 to 23 years participated. Twenty-seven had major depressive disorder (MDD) in remission (rMDD, 10 males), as MDD is associated with emotion perception deficits and alterations in rsfMRI...
November 6, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105239/different-shades-of-default-mode-disturbance-in-schizophrenia-subnodal-covariance-estimation-in-structure-and-function
#8
Jérémy Lefort-Besnard, Danielle S Bassett, Jonathan Smallwood, Daniel S Margulies, Birgit Derntl, Oliver Gruber, Andre Aleman, Renaud Jardri, Gaël Varoquaux, Bertrand Thirion, Simon B Eickhoff, Danilo Bzdok
Schizophrenia is a devastating mental disease with an apparent disruption in the highly associative default mode network (DMN). Interplay between this canonical network and others probably contributes to goal-directed behavior so its disturbance is a candidate neural fingerprint underlying schizophrenia psychopathology. Previous research has reported both hyperconnectivity and hypoconnectivity within the DMN, and both increased and decreased DMN coupling with the multimodal saliency network (SN) and dorsal attention network (DAN)...
November 3, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103838/cognitive-and-behavioral-comorbidities-in-rolandic-epilepsy-and-their-relation-with-default-mode-network-s-functional-connectivity-and-organization
#9
Isabell Ofer, Julia Jacobs, Nathalie Jaiser, Burak Akin, Jürgen Hennig, Andreas Schulze-Bonhage, Pierre LeVan
OBJECTIVE: Rolandic epilepsy (RE) is characterized by typical interictal-electroencephalogram (EEG) patterns mainly localized in centrotemporal and parietooccipital areas. An aberrant intrinsic organization of the default mode network (DMN) due to repeated disturbances from spike-generating areas may be able to account for specific cognitive deficits and behavioral problems in RE. The aim of the present study was to investigate cognitive development (CD) and socioemotional development (SED) in patients with RE during active disease in relation to DMN connectivity and network topology...
November 2, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103509/physicochemical-study-of-ascorbic-acid-2-glucoside-loaded-hyaluronic-acid-dissolving-microneedles-irradiated-by-electron-beam-and-gamma-ray
#10
Suyong Kim, Jeongwon Lee, F Lahiji Shayan, Seohyun Kim, Inyoung Huh, Yonghao Ma, Huisuk Yang, Geonwoo Kang, Hyungil Jung
A dissolving microneedle (DMN) patch encapsulated with ascorbic acid 2-glucoside (AA2G) in a needle-shaped hyaluronic acid (HA) backbone was fabricated and sterilized by electron beam (e-beam, 5-40kGy) and gamma ray (γ-ray, 5-30kGy). DMN structures maintained their morphologies and fracture force regardless of e-beam and γ-ray irradiation doses. Both e-beam (40kGy) and γ-ray (20 and 30kGy) met the product sterility requirements for cosmetics and vaccines; however, γ-ray irradiation significantly degraded the encapsulated AA2G, while e-beam maintained AA2G activity...
January 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089542/effects-of-sad-and-happy-music-on-mind-wandering-and-the-default-mode-network
#11
Liila Taruffi, Corinna Pehrs, Stavros Skouras, Stefan Koelsch
Music is a ubiquitous phenomenon in human cultures, mostly due to its power to evoke and regulate emotions. However, effects of music evoking different emotional experiences such as sadness and happiness on cognition, and in particular on self-generated thought, are unknown. Here we use probe-caught thought sampling and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the influence of sad and happy music on mind-wandering and its underlying neuronal mechanisms. In three experiments we found that sad music, compared with happy music, is associated with stronger mind-wandering (Experiments 1A and 1B) and greater centrality of the nodes of the Default Mode Network (DMN) (Experiment 2)...
October 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089479/earliest-accumulation-of-%C3%AE-amyloid-occurs-within-the-default-mode-network-and-concurrently-affects-brain-connectivity
#12
Sebastian Palmqvist, Michael Schöll, Olof Strandberg, Niklas Mattsson, Erik Stomrud, Henrik Zetterberg, Kaj Blennow, Susan Landau, William Jagust, Oskar Hansson
It is not known exactly where amyloid-β (Aβ) fibrils begin to accumulate in individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recently, we showed that abnormal levels of Aβ42 in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) can be detected before abnormal amyloid can be detected using PET in individuals with preclinical AD. Using these approaches, here we identify the earliest preclinical AD stage in subjects from the ADNI and BioFINDER cohorts. We show that Aβ accumulation preferentially starts in the precuneus, medial orbitofrontal, and posterior cingulate cortices, i...
October 31, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079506/evaluating-functional-connectivity-of-executive-control-network-and-frontoparietal-network-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#13
Qinghua Zhao, Hong Lu, Hichem Metmer, Will X Y Li, Jianfeng Lu
Investigating the early Alzheimer's disease (AD) more emphasizes sensitive and specific biomarkers, which can help the clinicians to monitor the progression and treatments of AD. Among these biomarkers, default mode network (DMN) functional connectivity is gaining more attention as a potential noninvasive biomarker to diagnose incipient Alzheimer's disease. However, besides changed functional connectivity of DMN, other functional networks haven't yet been examined systematically. Recent brain imaging studies reported that a number of reproducible and robust functional networks, which were distributed in distant neuroanatomic areas...
October 24, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078281/multimodal-mapping-of-the-brain-s-functional-connectivity-and-the-adult-outcome-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#14
Gustavo Sudre, Eszter Szekely, Wendy Sharp, Steven Kasparek, Philip Shaw
We have a limited understanding of why many children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder do not outgrow the disorder by adulthood. Around 20-30% retain the full syndrome as young adults, and about 50% show partial, rather than complete, remission. Here, to delineate the neurobiology of this variable outcome, we ask if the persistence of childhood symptoms into adulthood impacts on the brain's functional connectivity. We studied 205 participants followed clinically since childhood. In early adulthood, participants underwent magnetoencephalography (MEG) to measure neuronal activity directly and functional MRI (fMRI) to measure hemodynamic activity during a task-free period (the "resting state")...
October 31, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075206/abnormal-resting-state-functional-connectivity-of-insular-subregions-and-disrupted-correlation-with-working-memory-in-adults-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#15
Qihua Zhao, Hui Li, Xiaoyan Yu, Fang Huang, Yanfei Wang, Lu Liu, Qingjiu Cao, Qiujin Qian, Yufeng Zang, Li Sun, Yufeng Wang
OBJECTIVES: Executive function (EF) deficits are major impairments in adults with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Previous studies have shown that the insula is involved in cognitive and EFs. However, the insula is highly heterogeneous in function, and few studies have focused on functional networks which related to specific insular subregions in adults with ADHD. We explored the functional networks of the insular subregions [anterior insula (AI), mid-insula (MI), and posterior insula (PI)]...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074385/how-the-brain-connects-in-response-to-acute-stress-a-review-at-the-human-brain-systems-level
#16
REVIEW
J van Oort, I Tendolkar, E J Hermans, P C Mulders, C F Beckmann, A H Schene, G Fernández, P F van Eijndhoven
The brain's response to stress is a matter of extensive neurocognitive research in an attempt to unravel the mechanistic underpinnings of neural adaptation. In line with the broadly defined concept of acute stress, a wide variety of induction procedures are used to mimic stress experimentally. We set out to review commonalities and diversities of the stress-related functional activity and connectivity changes of functional brain networks in healthy adults across procedures. The acute stress response is consistently associated with both increased activity and connectivity in the salience network (SN) and surprisingly also with increased activity in the default mode network (DMN), while most studies show no changes in the central executive network...
October 24, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073748/comparing-the-effects-of-bupropion-and-escitalopram-on-excessive-internet-game-play-in-patients-with-major-depressive-disorder
#17
Beomwoo Nam, Sujin Bae, Sun Mi Kim, Ji Seon Hong, Doug Hyun Han
Objective: Several studies have suggested the efficacy of bupropion and escitalopram on reducing the excessive internet game play. We hypothesized that both bupropion and escitalopram would be effective on reducing the severity of depressive symptoms and internet gaming disorder (IGD) symptoms in patients with both major depressive disorder and IGD. However, the changes in brain connectivity between the default mode network (DMN) and the salience network were different between bupropion and escitalopram due to their different pharmacodynamics...
November 30, 2017: Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: the Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073458/resting-state-fmri-correlates-of-theory-of-mind-impairment-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#18
Francesca Trojsi, Federica Di Nardo, Gabriella Santangelo, Mattia Siciliano, Cinzia Femiano, Carla Passaniti, Giuseppina Caiazzo, Michele Fratello, Mario Cirillo, Maria Rosaria Monsurrò, Fabrizio Esposito, Gioacchino Tedeschi
Theory of Mind (ToM), the ability to recognize thoughts and emotions of another, may be one of the cognitive domains affected in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a neurodegenerative disease now recognized as a multi-system disorder. The present study aimed to identify early dysfunctions of brain resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI) networks in a group of ALS patients longitudinally explored for impairment of "cognitive" and "affective" ToM subcomponents. RS-fMRI connectivity was investigated in a group of 21 patients with ALS (i...
October 3, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070626/momentary-level-of-slow-default-mode-network-activity-is-associated-with-distinct-propagation-and-connectivity-patterns-in-the-anesthetized-mouse-cortex
#19
Minseok Kang, Young-Beom Lee, Bakul Gohel, Kwangsun Yoo, Peter Lee, Jinyong Chung, Yong Jeong
Complex spatiotemporal changes of slow spontaneous activity occur in the form of propagating waves in the cortex, leading to the transient formation of a specific activation topography, followed by a transition in the topography. The topographies resemble the stimulation-induced activation patterns and the underlying structural projections, suggesting that they contain motifs of task-related activation. However, little is known about how propagation-mediated transitions between topographies are structured in terms of functional connectivity...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065697/altered-functional-connectivity-between-precuneus-and-motor-systems-in-parkinson-s-disease-patients
#20
Raissa Benocci Thibes, Natalia P Novaes, Leandro T Lucato, Kenia R Campanholo, Luciano M Melo, Claudia C Leite, Edson Amaro, Egberto Reis Barbosa, Edson Bor-Seng-Shu, Ellison Fernando Cardoso, João Ricardo Sato
INTRODUCTION: Parkinson's Disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder that affects motor skills and cognition. As brain structure and function are compromised, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) can be a helpful tool to further investigate how intrinsic connectivity is impaired on the disease. The precuneus and medial prefrontal cortex are hub regions involved on the Default Mode Network, a system which is active during rest and related to cognitive processes. We hypothesized that PD patients would present a decrease in functional connectivity amongst these two regions and the rest of the brain...
October 25, 2017: Brain Connectivity
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