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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924828/a-network-based-neurobiological-model-of-ptsd-evidence-from-structural-and-functional-neuroimaging-studies
#1
REVIEW
Teddy J Akiki, Christopher L Averill, Chadi G Abdallah
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Although a fine-grained understanding of the neurobiology of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is yet to be elucidated, the last two decades have seen a rapid growth in the study of PTSD using neuroimaging techniques. The current review summarizes important findings from functional and structural neuroimaging studies of PTSD, by primarily focusing on their relevance towards an emerging network-based neurobiological model of the disorder. RECENT FINDINGS: PTSD may be characterized by a weakly connected and hypoactive default mode network (DMN) and central executive network (CEN) that are putatively destabilized by an overactive and hyperconnected salience network (SN), which appears to have a low threshold for perceived saliency, and inefficient DMN-CEN modulation...
September 19, 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923408/altered-functional-connectivity-in-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#2
Hana Burianová, Nahla L Faizo, Marcus Gray, Julia Hocking, Graham Galloway, David Reutens
Growing evidence of altered functional connectivity suggests that mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) alters not only hippocampal networks, but also a number of resting state networks. These highly coherent, yet functionally distinct brain circuits interact dynamically with each other in order to mediate consciousness, memory, and attention. However, little is currently known about the modulation of these networks by epileptiform activity, such as interictal spikes and seizures. The objective of the study was to use simultaneous EEG-fMRI to investigate functional connectivity in three resting state networks: default mode network (DMN), salience network (SN), and dorsal attentional network (DAN) in patients with mTLE compared to a healthy cohort, and in relation to the onset of interictal spikes and the period immediately prior to the spikes...
September 8, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916779/statistical-modeling-of-the-default-mode-brain-network-reveals-a-segregated-highway-structure
#3
Paul E Stillman, James D Wilson, Matthew J Denny, Bruce A Desmarais, Shankar Bhamidi, Skyler J Cranmer, Zhong-Lin Lu
We investigate the functional organization of the Default Mode Network (DMN) - an important subnetwork within the brain associated with a wide range of higher-order cognitive functions. While past work has shown the whole-brain network of functional connectivity follows small-world organizational principles, subnetwork structure is less well understood. Current statistical tools, however, are not suited to quantifying the operating characteristics of functional networks as they often require threshold censoring of information and do not allow for inferential testing of the role that local processes play in determining network structure...
September 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914659/relationship-between-alpha-rhythm-and-the-default-mode-network-an-eeg-fmri-study
#4
Anthony D Bowman, Joseph C Griffis, Kristina M Visscher, Allan C Dobbins, Timothy J Gawne, Mark W DiFrancesco, Jerzy P Szaflarski
PURPOSE: Reports of the relationship between the default mode network (DMN) and alpha power are conflicting. Our goal was to assess this relationship by analyzing concurrently obtained EEG/functional MRI data using hypothesis-independent methods. METHODS: We collected functional MRI and EEG data during eyes-closed rest in 20 participants aged 19 to 37 (10 females) and performed independent component analysis on the functional MRI data and a Hamming-windowed fast Fourier transform on the EEG data...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912568/intrinsic-neural-network-dysfunction-in-quiescent-crohn-s-disease
#5
Anne K Thomann, Martin Griebe, Philipp A Thomann, Dusan Hirjak, Matthias P Ebert, Kristina Szabo, Wolfgang Reindl, Robert C Wolf
Psychological factors and comorbidities play an important role in inflammatory bowel diseases. Such comorbidity could be associated with a specific neural phenotype. Brain regions associated with emotion regulation and self-referential processing, including areas assigned to the "default mode network" (DMN), could be promising candidates in this regard. We investigated the functional integrity of multiple intrinsic neural networks in remitted patients with Crohn's disease (CD) and sought to establish relationships between neural network connectivity and psychiatric symptoms...
September 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911257/fatigue-in-multiple-sclerosis-the-contribution-of-resting-state-functional-connectivity-reorganization
#6
Alvino Bisecco, Federica Di Nardo, Renato Docimo, Giuseppina Caiazzo, Alessandro d'Ambrosio, Simona Bonavita, Rocco Capuano, Leonardo Sinisi, Mario Cirillo, Fabrizio Esposito, Gioacchino Tedeschi, Antonio Gallo
OBJECTIVES: To investigate resting-state functional connectivity (RS-FC) of the default-mode network (DMN) and of sensorimotor network (SMN) network in relapsing remitting (RR) multiple sclerosis (MS) patients with fatigue (F) and without fatigue(NF). METHODS: In all, 59 RRMS patients and 29 healthy controls (HC) underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocol including resting-state fMRI (RS-fMRI). Functional connectivity of the DMN and SMN was evaluated by independent component analysis (ICA)...
September 1, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906364/altered-default-mode-network-configuration-in-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-after-earthquake-a-resting-stage-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study
#7
Xiao-Dong Zhang, Yan Yin, Xiao-Lei Hu, Lian Duan, Rongfeng Qi, Qiang Xu, Guang-Ming Lu, Ling-Jiang Li
The neural substrates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are still not fully elucidated. Hence, this study is to explore topological alterations of the default mode network (DMN) in victims with PTSD after a magnitude of 8.0 earthquake using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI).This study was approved by the local ethical review board, and all participants signed written informed consent. Sixty-two PTSD victims from the 2008 Sichuan earthquake and 62 matched exposed controls underwent rs-fMRI...
September 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900210/alterations-of-brain-functional-architecture-associated-with-psychopathic-traits-in-male-adolescents-with-conduct-disorder
#8
Weidan Pu, Qiang Luo, Yali Jiang, Yidian Gao, Qingsen Ming, Shuqiao Yao
Psychopathic traits of conduct disorder (CD) have a core callous-unemotional (CU) component and an impulsive-antisocial component. Previous task-driven fMRI studies have suggested that psychopathic traits are associated with dysfunction of several brain areas involved in different cognitive functions (e.g., empathy, reward, and response inhibition etc.), but the relationship between psychopathic traits and intrinsic brain functional architecture has not yet been explored in CD. Using a holistic brain-wide functional connectivity analysis, this study delineated the alterations in brain functional networks in patients with conduct disorder...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890001/association-between-resting-state-brain-network-topological-organization-and-creative-ability-evidence-from-a-multiple-linear-regression-model
#9
Bingqing Jiao, Delong Zhang, Aiying Liang, Bishan Liang, Zengjian Wang, Junchao Li, Yuxuan Cai, Mengxia Gao, Zhenni Gao, Song Chang, Ruiwang Huang, Ming Liu
Previous studies have indicated a tight linkage between resting-state functional connectivity of the human brain and creative ability. This study aimed to further investigate the association between the topological organization of resting-state brain networks and creativity. Therefore, we acquired resting-state fMRI data from 22 high-creativity participants and 22 low-creativity participants (as determined by their Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking scores). We then constructed functional brain networks for each participant and assessed group differences in network topological properties before exploring the relationships between respective network topological properties and creative ability...
September 7, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888769/inter-vender-and-test-retest-reliabilities-of-resting-state-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-implications-for-multi-center-imaging-studies
#10
Hyeong Su An, Won-Jin Moon, Jae-Kyun Ryu, Ju Yeon Park, Won Sung Yun, Jin Woo Choi, Geon-Ho Jahng, Jang-Yeon Park
This prospective multi-center study aimed to evaluate the inter-vendor and test-retest reliabilities of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI) by assessing the temporal signal-to-noise ratio (tSNR) and functional connectivity. Study included 10 healthy subjects and each subject was scanned using three 3T MR scanners (GE Signa HDxt, Siemens Skyra, and Philips Achieva) in two sessions. The tSNR was calculated from the time course data. Inter-vendor and test-retest reliabilities were assessed with intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) derived from variant component analysis...
September 6, 2017: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882062/remodeling-of-sensorimotor-brain-connectivity-in-gpr88-deficient-mice
#11
Tanzil Arefin, Anna E Mechling, Carole Aura Meirsman, Thomas Bienert, Neele Saskia Huebner, Hsu-Lei Lee, Sami Ben Hamida, Aliza Ehrlich, Daniel Roquet, Juergen Hennig, Dominik von Elverfeldt, Brigitte Lina Kieffer, Laura-Adela Harsan
Recent studies have demonstrated that orchestrated gene activity and expression supports synchronous activity of brain networks. However, there is a paucity of information on the consequences of single gene function on overall brain functional organization and connectivity, and how this translates at behavioral level. Here we combined mouse mutagenesis with functional and structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to determine whether targeted inactivation of a single gene would modify whole brain connectivity in live animals...
September 7, 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877857/reduced-mind-wandering-in-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease
#12
Tal Geffen, Avner Thaler, Gadi Gilam, Eti Ben Simon, Nimrod Sarid, Tanya Gurevich, Nir Giladi, Hertzel Shabtai, Jennifer Zitser, Eduardo A Schilman, Haggai Sharon
BACKGROUND: Mind Wandering (MW) refers to the process of disengaging from the immediate external environment and participating in internally driven mentation. This process has been suggested to be supported by a distributed set of brain regions, collectively referred to as the Default Mode Network (DMN). Recently, reduced recruitment and connectivity of the DMN has been described in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients compared to healthy controls. We thus aimed to explore whether PD patients with normal cognitive test scores show differential MW capabilities compared to healthy controls...
September 1, 2017: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869465/inflection-point-in-course-of-mild-cognitive-impairment-increased-functional-connectivity-of-default-mode-network
#13
Xin Li, Wuhai Tao, Junying Zhang, Yaojing Chen, Chao Ma, Zhen Liu, Caishui Yang, Wenxiao Wang, Kewei Chen, Jun Wang, Zhanjun Zhang
The alteration of the default mode network (DMN) functional connectivity (FC) has been reported in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) as a predictor of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, no studies exist that examined stage-dependent DMN FC changes throughout the course of aMCI. The present study aims to characterize patterns of DMN FC over three aMCI stages as first defined. Utilizing the extreme groups approach on the performance of memory tasks, aMCI subjects were divided into mild, moderate, and severe stages...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861338/increased-default-mode-variability-is-related-to-reduced-task-performance-and-is-evident-in-adults-with-adhd
#14
Athanasia M Mowinckel, Dag Alnæs, Mads L Pedersen, Sigurd Ziegler, Mats Fredriksen, Tobias Kaufmann, Edmund Sonuga-Barke, Tor Endestad, Lars T Westlye, Guido Biele
Insufficient suppression and connectivity of the default mode network (DMN) is a potential mediator of cognitive dysfunctions across various disorders, including attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, it remains unclear if alterations in sustained DMN suppression, variability and connectivity during prolonged cognitive engagement are implicated in adult ADHD pathophysiology, and to which degree methylphenidate (MPH) remediates any DMN abnormalities. This randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, cross-over clinical trial of MPH (clinicaltrials...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856339/cognitive-control-of-emotion-in-older-adults-a-review
#15
Crystal Lantrip, Jason H Huang
Prior studies have found that compared to younger peers, older adults become happier and regulate emotions better as they age. However, research has also demonstrated that successful emotion regulation relies on well-functioning neural networks including the cognitive control network (CCN) and default mode network (DMN), which include brain structures that tend to deteriorate in the aging process. This dichotomy of improved stress management and emotion control in conjunction with deterioration in relevant neural networks and structures is interesting and worthy of further discussion and study...
2017: Clin Psychiatry (Wilmington)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853069/peculiarities-in-interaction-of-independent-components-of-resting-state-fmri-signal-in-patients-with-mild-depressions
#16
M E Mel'nikov, D D Bezmaternykh, E D Petrovskii, L I Kozlova, M B Shtark, A A Savelov, O S Shubina, K A Natarova
Some aspects of resting-state fMRI signal can be the key markers of depression. fMRI was recoded over 4 min in evidently healthy persons (N=21) and in patients with mild depression (N=21). The data were separated into the independent spatial components, and the strength of their association with established brain networks was analyzed. The patients with mild depression were characterized with greater correlations between the components representing the ventral and dorsal subdivisions of default mode network (DMN), whereas correlations between the components relating to cerebellum and to the left hemisphere language system were less pronounced...
August 29, 2017: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845420/task-related-modulations-of-bold-low-frequency-fluctuations-within-the-default-mode-network
#17
Silvia Tommasin, Daniele Mascali, Tommaso Gili, Ibrahim Eid Assan, Marta Moraschi, Michela Fratini, Richard G Wise, Emiliano Macaluso, Silvia Mangia, Federico Giove
Spontaneous low-frequency Blood-Oxygenation Level-Dependent (BOLD) signals acquired during resting state are characterized by spatial patterns of synchronous fluctuations, ultimately leading to the identification of robust brain networks. The resting-state brain networks, including the Default Mode Network (DMN), are demonstrated to persist during sustained task execution, but the exact features of task-related changes of network properties are still not well characterized. In this work we sought to examine in a group of 20 healthy volunteers (age 33 ± 6 years, 8 F/12 M) the relationship between changes of spectral and spatiotemporal features of one prominent resting-state network, namely the DMN, during the continuous execution of a working memory n-back task...
July 2017: Frontiers in Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844008/delay-discounting-is-predicted-by-scale-free-dynamics-of-default-mode-network-and-salience-network
#18
Zhiyi Chen, Yiqun Guo, Tingyong Feng
Resting-state functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (rs-fMRI) is frequently used as a powerful technology to detect individual differences in many cognitive functions. Recently, some studies have explored the association between scale-free dynamic properties of resting-state brain activation and individual personality traits. However, little is known about whether the scale-free dynamics of resting-state function networks is associated with delay discounting. To address this question, we calculated the Hurst exponent which quantifies long-term memory of the time series in resting-state networks (RSNs) identified via independent component analysis (ICA) and examined what relationship between delay discounting and the Hurst exponent of RSNs is...
August 24, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841856/neuropathy-specific-alterations-in-a-mexican-population-of-diabetic-patients
#19
Angélica Carbajal-Ramírez, Rebeca García-Macedo, Carlos Manlio Díaz-García, Carmen Sanchez-Soto, Araceli Méndez Padrón, Jorge Escobedo de la Peña, Miguel Cruz, Marcia Hiriart
BACKGROUND: Neuropathy is one of the major complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Our first aim was to determine the clinical characteristics of a population of diabetic patients with different types of neuropathy. Our next goal was to characterize the cytokine profile (IL-6 and IL-10), nerve growth factor (NGF) and circulating cell-adhesion molecules in these patients. Finally, we aimed to compare the renal function among the groups of neuropathic patients. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, we included 217 diabetic patients classified in three groups: sensory polyneuropathy with hypoesthesia (DShP) or hyperesthesia (DSHP), and motor neuropathy (DMN)...
August 25, 2017: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831711/altered-insula-default-mode-network-connectivity-in-fibromyalgia-a-resting-state-magnetoencephalographic-study
#20
Fu-Jung Hsiao, Shuu-Jiun Wang, Yung-Yang Lin, Jong-Ling Fuh, Yu-Chieh Ko, Pei-Ning Wang, Wei-Ta Chen
BACKGROUND: Fibromyalgia (FM) is a disabling chronic pain syndrome with unknown pathophysiology. Functional magnetic resonance imaging studies on FM have suggested altered brain connectivity between the insula and the default mode network (DMN). However, this connectivity change has not been characterized through direct neural signals for exploring the embedded spectrotemporal features and the pertinent clinical relevance. METHODS: We recorded the resting-state magnetoencephalographic activities of 28 patients with FM and 28 age- and sex-matched controls, and analyzed the source-based functional connectivity between the insula and the DMN at 1-40 Hz by using the minimum norm estimates and imaginary coherence methods...
August 23, 2017: Journal of Headache and Pain
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