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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326037/differences-on-brain-connectivity-in-adulthood-are-present-in-subjects-with-iron-deficiency-anemia-in-infancy
#1
Cecilia Algarin, Keerthana Deepti Karunakaran, Sussanne Reyes, Cristian Morales, Betsy Lozoff, Patricio Peirano, Bharat Biswal
Iron deficiency continues to be the most prevalent micronutrient deficit worldwide. Since iron is involved in several processes including myelination, dopamine neurotransmission and neuronal metabolism, the presence of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) in infancy relates to long-lasting neurofunctional effects. There is scarce data regarding whether these effects would extend to former iron deficient anemic human adults. Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a novel technique to explore patterns of functional connectivity...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323821/comparing-resting-state-fmri-de-noising-approaches-using-multi-and-single-echo-acquisitions
#2
Ottavia Dipasquale, Arjun Sethi, Maria Marcella Laganà, Francesca Baglio, Giuseppe Baselli, Prantik Kundu, Neil A Harrison, Mara Cercignani
Artifact removal in resting state fMRI (rfMRI) data remains a serious challenge, with even subtle head motion undermining reliability and reproducibility. Here we compared some of the most popular single-echo de-noising methods-regression of Motion parameters, White matter and Cerebrospinal fluid signals (MWC method), FMRIB's ICA-based X-noiseifier (FIX) and ICA-based Automatic Removal Of Motion Artifacts (ICA-AROMA)-with a multi-echo approach (ME-ICA) that exploits the linear dependency of BOLD on the echo time...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314821/phases-of-hyper-and-hypo-connectivity-in-the-default-mode-and-salience-networks-track-with-amyloid-and-tau-in-clinically-normal-individuals
#3
Aaron P Schultz, Jasmeer P Chhatwal, Trey Hedden, Elizabeth C Mormino, Bernard J Hanseeuw, Jorge Sepulcre, Willem Huijbers, Molly LaPoint, Rachel F Buckley, Keith A Johnson, Reisa A Sperling
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by two hallmark molecular pathologies: amyloid aβ1-42, and Tau neurofibrillary tangles. To date, studies of functional connectivity MRI (fcMRI) in preclinical AD have relied on associations with in-vivo measures of amyloid pathology. With the recent advent of in-vivo Tau-PET tracers it is now possible to extend investigations on fcMRI in a sample of cognitively normal elderly humans to regional measures of Tau. We modeled fcMRI measures across four major cortical association networks (Default Mode (DMN), Salience, Dorsal Attention (DAN), and Frontoparietal Control (FPCN)) as a function of global cortical amyloid (PiB-PET) and regional Tau (AV1451-PET) in entorhinal, inferior temporal (IT), and inferior parietal (IP) cortex...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304298/exercise-training-and-functional-connectivity-changes-in-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-healthy-elders
#4
Theresa J Chirles, Katherine Reiter, Lauren R Weiss, Alfonso J Alfini, Kristy A Nielson, J Carson Smith
BACKGROUND: Effective interventions are needed to improve brain function in mild cognitive impairment (MCI), an early stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The posterior cingulate cortex (PCC)/precuneus is a hub of the default mode network (DMN) and is preferentially vulnerable to disruption of functional connectivity in MCI and AD. OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether 12 weeks of aerobic exercise could enhance functional connectivity of the PCC/precuneus in MCI and healthy elders...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304293/coordinate-based-meta-analysis-of-the-default-mode-and-salience-network-for-target-identification-in-non-invasive-brain-stimulation-of-alzheimer-s-disease-and-behavior-variant-frontotemporal-dementia-networks
#5
Michela Pievani, Lorenzo Pini, Clarissa Ferrari, Francesca B Pizzini, Ilaria Boscolo Galazzo, Chiara Cobelli, Maria Cotelli, Rosa Manenti, Giovanni B Frisoni
BACKGROUND: The accurate choice of the site of non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) is an important factor in trial design. OBJECTIVE: Based on the observation that Alzheimer's disease (AD) and behavioral frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) affect specific large-scale networks, i.e., the default mode network (DMN) and the salience network (SN), respectively, we aimed to identify population-average coordinates of these networks that could be used as potential targets in NIBS trials aiming to modulate these circuits...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297595/decreased-resting-state-activity-in-the-precuneus-is-associated-with-depressive-episodes-in-recurrent-depression
#6
Chun-Hong Liu, Xin Ma, Zhen Yuan, Lu-Ping Song, Bing Jing, Hong-Yu Lu, Li-Rong Tang, Jin Fan, Martin Walter, Cun-Zhi Liu, Lihong Wang, Chuan-Yue Wang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate alterations in resting-state spontaneous brain activity in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) experiencing multiple episodes. METHODS: Between May 2007 and September 2014, 24 recurrent and 22 remitted patients diagnosed with MDD with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I), and 69 healthy controls matched for age, sex, and educational level participated in this study. Among them, 1 healthy control was excluded due to excessive head motion...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294457/structural-and-functional-brain-network-correlates-of-depressive-symptoms-in-premanifest-huntington-s-disease
#7
Peter McColgan, Adeel Razi, Sarah Gregory, Kiran K Seunarine, Alexandra Durr, Raymund A C Roos, Blair R Leavitt, Rachael I Scahill, Chris A Clark, Doug R Langbehn, Geraint Rees, Sarah J Tabrizi
Depression is common in premanifest Huntington's disease (preHD) and results in significant morbidity. We sought to examine how variations in structural and functional brain networks relate to depressive symptoms in premanifest HD and healthy controls. Brain networks were constructed using diffusion tractography (70 preHD and 81 controls) and resting state fMRI (92 preHD and 94 controls) data. A sub-network associated with depression was identified in a data-driven fashion and network-based statistics was used to investigate which specific connections correlated with depression scores...
March 15, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293181/from-anomalies-to-essential-scientific-revolution-intrinsic-brain-activity-in-the-light-of-kuhn-s-philosophy-of-science
#8
REVIEW
Marek Havlík
The first step toward a modern understanding of fMRI resting brain activity was made by Bharat Biswal in 1995. This surprising, and at first rejected, discovery is now associated with many resting state networks, notably the famous default mode network (DMN). Resting state activity and DMN significantly reassessed our traditional beliefs and conventions about the functioning of the brain. For the majority of the twentieth century, neuroscientists assumed that the brain is mainly the "reactive engine" to the environment operating mostly through stimulation...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290076/brain-functional-connectivity-in-lung-cancer-population-an-exploratory-study
#9
M Simó, X Rifà-Ros, L Vaquero, P Ripollés, N Cayuela, J Jové, A Navarro, F Cardenal, J Bruna, Antoni Rodríguez-Fornells
The present study aimed to explore the functional connectivity differences in Resting State Networks (RSNs) induced by cancer and chemotherapy in Lung Cancer (LC) patients using an Independent Component Analysis (ICA). Three matched groups of 15 LC patients following Chemotherapy (C+), 15 LC patients before Chemotherapy (C-) and 15 Healthy Controls (HC) were included. Analysis was performed using ICA and a multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) to classify groups based on profiles of functional connectivity. We found significant differences in four of the RSN identified: Default Mode Network (DMN), Predominantly Left and Right Anterior Temporal Network, and Cerebellum Network...
March 13, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289811/caffeine-impact-on-working-memory-related-network-activation-patterns-in-early-stages-of-cognitive-decline
#10
Sven Haller, Marie-Louise Montandon, Cristelle Rodriguez, Dominik Moser, Simona Toma, Jeremy Hofmeister, Panteleimon Giannakopoulos
PURPOSE: Recent evidence indicates that caffeine may have a beneficial effect on cognitive decline and dementia. The current investigation assessed the effect of acute caffeine administration on working memory during the earliest stage of cognitive decline in elderly participants. METHODS: The study includes consecutive 45 elderly controls and 18 individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI, 71.6 ± 4.7 years, 7 females). During neuropsychological follow-up at 18 months, 24 controls remained stable (sCON, 70...
March 13, 2017: Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289373/reentrant-information-flow-in-electrophysiological-rat-default-mode-network
#11
Wei Jing, Daqing Guo, Yunxiang Zhang, Fengru Guo, Pedro A Valdés-Sosa, Yang Xia, Dezhong Yao
Functional MRI (fMRI) studies have demonstrated that the rodent brain shows a default mode network (DMN) activity similar to that in humans, offering a potential preclinical model both for physiological and pathophysiological studies. However, the neuronal mechanism underlying rodent DMN remains poorly understood. Here, we used electrophysiological data to analyze the power spectrum and estimate the directed phase transfer entropy (dPTE) within rat DMN across three vigilance states: wakeful rest (WR), slow-wave sleep (SWS), and rapid-eye-movement sleep (REMS)...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287976/network-optimization-of-functional-connectivity-within-default-mode-network-regions-to-detect-cognitive-decline
#12
Wanpracha Art Chaovalitwongse, Daehan Won, Onur Seref, Paul Borghesani, Mary Katie Askren, Sherry Willis, Tom Grabowski
The rapid aging of the world's population is causing an increase in the prevalence of cognitive decline and degenerative brain disease in the elderly. Current diagnoses of amnestic and nonamnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), which may represent early stage Alzheimer's disease or related degenerative conditions, are based on clinical grounds. The recent emergence of advanced network analyses of functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) data taken at cognitive rest has provided insight that declining functional connectivity of the default mode network (DMN) may be correlated with neurological disorders, and particularly prodromal Alzheimer's disease...
March 7, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287615/patterns-of-default-mode-network-deactivation-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#13
Óscar F Gonçalves, José Miguel Soares, Sandra Carvalho, Jorge Leite, Ana Ganho-Ávila, Ana Fernandes-Gonçalves, Fernando Pocinho, Angel Carracedo, Adriana Sampaio
The objective of the present study was to research the patterns of Default Mode Network (DMN) deactivation in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) in the transition between a resting and a non-rest emotional condition. Twenty-seven participants, 15 diagnosed with OCD and 12 healthy controls (HC), underwent a functional neuroimaging paradigm in which DMN brain activation in a resting condition was contrasted with activity during a non-rest condition consisting in the presentation of emotionally pleasant and unpleasant images...
March 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285941/how-far-can-we-go-in-chronic-disorders-of-consciousness-differential-diagnosis-the-use-of-neuromodulation-in-detecting-internal-and-external-awareness
#14
Antonino Naro, Antonino Leo, Alfredo Manuli, Antonino Cannavò, Alessia Bramanti, Placido Bramanti, Rocco Salvatore Calabrò
Awareness generation and modulation may depend on a balanced information integration and differentiation across default mode network (DMN) and external awareness networks (EAN). Neuromodulation approaches, capable of shaping information processing, may highlight residual network activities supporting awareness, which are not detectable through active paradigms, thus allowing to differentiate chronic disorders of consciousness (DoC). We studied aftereffects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) by applying graph theory within canonical frequency bands to compare the markers of these networks in the electroencephalographic data from 20 patients with DoC...
March 8, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276637/functional-changes-of-neural-circuits-in-stroke-patients-with-dysphagia-a-meta-analysis
#15
Lu Liu, Yuan Xiao, Wenjing Zhang, Li Yao, Xin Gao, Shah Chandan, Su Lui
AIM: Dysphagia is a common problem in stroke patients with unclear pathogenesis. Several recent functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) studies had been carried out to explore the cerebral functional changes in dysphagic stroke patients. The aim of this study was to analysis these imaging findings using a Meta-analysis. METHODS: We used Seed-based d Mapping (SDM) to conduct a meta-analysis for dysphagic stroke patients prior to any kind of special treatment for dysphagia...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Evidence-based Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268279/optimizing-rtms-treatment-of-a-balance-disorder-with-eeg-neural-synchrony-and-functional-connectivity
#16
Guofa Shou, Han Yuan, Diamond Urbano, Yoon-Hee Cha, Lei Ding
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been increasingly used for its potential treatment effects across diverse mental disorders. However, the treatment effect is elusive and the rate of positive responders is not high, which make it in great demand of optimizing rTMS protocols to improve the treatment effects and the rate. In this regard, neural activity guided optimization has indicated great potential in several neuroimaging studies. In this paper, we present our ongoing work on optimizing rTMS treatment of a balance disorder, i...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263928/the-spatiotemporal-substrates-of-autobiographical-recollection-using-event-related-ica-to-study-cognitive-networks-in-action
#17
Chris Tailby, Genevieve Rayner, Sarah Wilson, Graeme Jackson
Higher cognitive functions depend upon dynamically unfolding brain network interactions. Autobiographical recollection - the autonoetic re-experiencing of context rich, emotionally laden, personally experienced episodes - is an excellent example of such a process. Autobiographical recollection unfolds over time, with different cognitive processes engaged at different times throughout. In this paper we apply a recently developed analysis technique - event related independent components analysis (eICA) - to study the spatiotemporal dynamics of neural activity supporting autobiographical recollection...
March 2, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262266/ptsd-in-court-ii-risk-factors-endophenotypes-and-biological-underpinnings-in-ptsd
#18
REVIEW
Gerald Young
The second article in the series of three for the journal on "PTSD in Court" especially concerns the biological bases that have been found to be associated with PTSD (posttraumatic stress disorder). The cohering concepts in this section relate to risk factors; candidate genes; polygenetics; "gene×environment" interactions; epigenetics; endophenotypes; biomarkers; and connective networks both structurally and functionally (in terms of intrinsic connectivity networks, ICNs, including the DMN, SN, and CEN; that is, default mode, salience, and central executive networks, respectively)...
March 2, 2017: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255464/impairments-in-brain-perfusion-metabolites-functional-connectivity-and-cognition-in-severe-asymptomatic-carotid-stenosis-patients-an-integrated-mri-study
#19
Tao Wang, Feng Xiao, Guangyao Wu, Jian Fang, Zhenmeng Sun, Hongliang Feng, Junjian Zhang, Haibo Xu
Carotid artery stenosis without transient ischemic attack (TIA) or stroke is considered as "asymptomatic." However, recent studies have demonstrated that these asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis (aCAS) patients had cognitive impairment in tests of executive function, psychomotor speed, and memory, indicating that "asymptomatic" carotid stenosis may not be truly asymptomatic. In this study, when 19 aCAS patients compared with 24 healthy controls, aCAS patients showed significantly poorer performance on global cognition, memory, and executive function...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245732/cortical-plasticity-after-brachial-plexus-injury-and-repair-a-resting-state-functional-mri-study
#20
Dhananjaya I Bhat, B Indira Devi, Komal Bharti, Rajanikant Panda
OBJECTIVE The authors aimed to understand the alterations of brain resting-state networks (RSNs) in patients with pan-brachial plexus injury (BPI) before and after surgery, which might provide insight into cortical plasticity after peripheral nerve injury and regeneration. METHODS Thirty-five patients with left pan-BPI before surgery, 30 patients after surgery, and 25 healthy controls underwent resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI). The 30 postoperative patients were subdivided into 2 groups: 14 patients with improvement in muscle power and 16 patients with no improvement in muscle power after surgery...
March 2017: Neurosurgical Focus
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