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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444137/effects-of-serotonin-transporter-gene-variation-on-impulsivity-mediated-by-default-mode-network-a-family-study-of-depression
#1
Jiook Cha, Guia Guffanti, Jay Gingrich, Ardesheer Talati, Priya Wickramaratne, Myrna Weissman, Jonathan Posner
Serotonergic neurotransmission, potentially through effects on the brain's default mode network (DMN), may regulate aspects of attention including impulse control. Indeed, genetic variants of the serotonin transporter (5-HTT) have been implicated in impulsivity and related psychopathology. Yet it remains unclear the mechanism by which the 5-HTT genetic variants contribute to individual variability in impulse control. Here, we tested whether DMN connectivity mediates an association between the 5-HTT genetic variants and impulsivity...
April 21, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443736/brain-resting-state-functional-connectivity-is-preserved-under-sevoflurane-anesthesia-in-patients-with-pervasive-developmental-disorders-a-pilot-study
#2
Lakshmikumar Venkat Raghavan, Suparna Bharadwaj, Vincent Wourms, Audrey Tan, Michael T Jurkiewicz, David J Mikulis, Adrian P Crawley
Background Functional connectivity studies play a huge role in understanding the relationship between the network connections and the behavioral phenotype of patients with Pervasive developmental disorders (PDD). However, some patients with PDD may not tolerate the imaging procedure while awake and they often need general anesthesia. General anesthesia is a confounding factor in functional imaging studies due to its effect on the functional connectivity. The objective of this study is to look at the resting state functional connectivity (RS-FC) under sevoflurane anesthesia in patients with pervasive developmental disorders...
April 26, 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440813/instability-of-default-mode-network-connectivity-in-major-depression-a-two-sample-confirmation-study
#3
T Wise, L Marwood, A M Perkins, A Herane-Vives, R Joules, D J Lythgoe, W-M Luh, S C R Williams, A H Young, A J Cleare, D Arnone
Major depression is associated with altered static functional connectivity in various brain networks, particularly the default mode network (DMN). Dynamic functional connectivity is a novel tool with little application in affective disorders to date, and holds the potential to unravel fluctuations in connectivity strength over time in major depression. We assessed stability of connectivity in major depression between the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), key nodes in the DMN that are implicated in ruminative cognitions...
April 25, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432773/transition-of-the-functional-brain-network-related-to-increasing-cognitive-demands
#4
Karolina Finc, Kamil Bonna, Monika Lewandowska, Tomasz Wolak, Jan Nikadon, Joanna Dreszer, Włodzisław Duch, Simone Kühn
Network neuroscience provides tools that can easily be used to verify main assumptions of the global workspace theory (GWT), such as the existence of highly segregated information processing during effortless tasks performance, engagement of multiple distributed networks during effortful tasks and the critical role of long-range connections in workspace formation. A number of studies support the assumptions of GWT by showing the reorganization of the whole-brain functional network during cognitive task performance; however, the involvement of specific large scale networks in the formation of workspace is still not well-understood...
April 22, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428146/the-correlation-between-mood-states-and-functional-connectivity-within-the-default-mode-network-can-differentiate-internet-gaming-disorder-from-healthy-controls
#5
Guangheng Dong, Hui Li, Lingxiao Wang, Marc N Potenza
The default-mode network (DMN) has been suggested to support a baseline state of brain activity. However, whether connectivity within the DMN is associated with mood states remains incompletely understood. The current study examined the correlation between mood state and the functional connectivity (FC) among DMN regions, and examined if the FC can differentiate Internet gaming disorder (IGD) from healthy controls (HC). Resting state data were collected within 108 college students (IGD,41; HC,67). Negative correlations were observed between measures of: (1) Depression and FCs among ventral DMN regions; (2) Anger and FCs among dorsal DMN regions; and, (3) Anger and Depression and FCs of both the ventral and dorsal DMN...
April 18, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425563/differences-in-interregional-brain-connectivity-in-children-with-unilateral-hearing-loss
#6
Matthew E Jung, Miranda Colletta, Rebecca Coalson, Bradley L Schlaggar, Judith E C Lieu
OBJECTIVES: To identify functional network architecture differences in the brains of children with unilateral hearing loss (UHL) using resting-state functional-connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fcMRI). STUDY DESIGN: Prospective observational study. METHODS: Children (7 to 17 years of age) with severe to profound hearing loss in one ear, along with their normal hearing (NH) siblings, were recruited and imaged using rs-fcMRI. Eleven children had right UHL; nine had left UHL; and 13 had normal hearing...
April 20, 2017: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424396/-the-center-of-sadness-pain-and-recognition
#7
Richi Niida, Masaru Mimura
The posterior cingulate cortex (Brodmann area, BA 23) is the hub of the default mode network (DMN). Moreover, its network connectivity decreases early in Alzheimer disease. The anterior cingulate cortex (BA 24) is connected to networks such as the DMN, working memory network (WMN), and salience network (SN) and plays a role in network coordination. The subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC) on the rostral region of the anterior cingulated cortex is suggested to be associated with depression.
April 2017: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422992/the-evolution-of-cost-efficiency-in-neural-networks-during-recovery-from-traumatic-brain-injury
#8
Arnab Roy, Rachel A Bernier, Jianli Wang, Monica Benson, Jerry J French, David C Good, Frank G Hillary
A somewhat perplexing finding in the systems neuroscience has been the observation that physical injury to neural systems may result in enhanced functional connectivity (i.e., hyperconnectivity) relative to the typical network response. The consequences of local or global enhancement of functional connectivity remain uncertain and this is particularly true for the overall metabolic cost of the network. We examine the hyperconnectivity hypothesis in a sample of 14 individuals with TBI with data collected at approximately 3, 6, and 12 months following moderate and severe TBI...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413981/default-mode-network-connectivity-and-related-white-matter-disruption-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-patients-concurrent-with-amnestic-mild-cognitive-impairment
#9
Di Qi, Ailin Wang, Yaojing Chen, Kewei Chen, Sisi Zhang, Junying Zhang, Xin Li, Lin Ai, Zhanjun Zhang
BACKGROUND: As a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD), Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) itself causes cognitive impairment and has higher prevalence of mild cognitive impairment (MCI). OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore the cognition especially the episodic memory difference, the DMN functional connectivity and DMN-related white matter integrity in patients with both T2DM and amnestic MCI (T2DM-MCI) as compared to patients with T2DM only. METHOD: Focusing especially on T2DM population, we investigated the default mode network (DMN) through resting functional magnetic resonance imaging among 22 elderly T2DM-MCI patients and 24 elderly T2DM patients...
April 17, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408294/resilience-and-cross-network-connectivity-a-neural-model-for-post-trauma-survival
#10
Marcella Brunetti, Laura Marzetti, Gianna Sepede, Filippo Zappasodi, Vittorio Pizzella, Fabiola Sarchione, Federica Vellante, Giovanni Martinotti, Massimo Di Giannantonio
Literature on the neurobiological bases of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) considers medial Prefrontal cortex (mPFC), a core region of the Default Mode Network (DMN), as a region involved in response regulation to stressors. Disrupted functioning of the DMN has been recognized at the basis of the pathophysiology of a number of mental disorders. Furthermore, in the evaluation of the protective factors to trauma consequence, an important role has been assigned to resilience. Our aim was to investigate the specific relation of resilience and PTSD symptoms severity with resting state brain connectivity in a traumatized population using magnetoencephalography (MEG), a non-invasive imaging technique with high temporal resolution and documented advantages in clinical applications...
April 10, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402561/the-role-of-the-default-mode-network-in-component-processes-underlying-the-wandering-mind
#11
Giulia L Poerio, Mladen Sormaz, Hao-Ting Wang, Daniel Margulies, Elizabeth Jefferies, Jonathan Smallwood
Experiences such as mind-wandering illustrate that cognition is not always tethered to events in the here-and-now. Although converging evidence emphasises the default mode network (DMN) in mind-wandering, its precise contribution remains unclear. The DMN comprises cortical regions that are maximally distant from primary sensory and motor cortex, a topological location that may support the stimulus-independence of mind-wandering. The DMN is functionally heterogeneous, comprising regions engaged by memory, social cognition, and planning; processes relevant to mind-wandering content...
March 21, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396874/frequency-specific-effects-of-apoe-%C3%AE%C2%B54-allele-on-resting-state-networks-in-nondemented-elders
#12
Ying Liang, Zhenzhen Li, Jing Wei, Chunlin Li, Xu Zhang, Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative
We applied resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine the Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) ε4 allele effects on functional connectivity of the default mode network (DMN) and the salience network (SN). Considering the frequency specific effects of functional connectivity, we decomposed the brain network time courses into two bands: 0.01-0.027 Hz and 0.027-0.08 Hz. All scans were acquired by the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroscience Initiative (ADNI). Thirty-two nondemented subjects were divided into two groups based on the presence (n = 16) or absence (n = 16) of the ApoE ε4 allele...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391039/divergent-functional-connectivity-during-attentional-processing-in-lewy-body-dementia-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#13
Xenia Kobeleva, Michael Firbank, Luis Peraza, Peter Gallagher, Alan Thomas, David J Burn, John O'Brien, John-Paul Taylor
Attention and executive dysfunction are features of Lewy body dementia (LBD) but their neuroanatomical basis is poorly understood. To investigate underlying dysfunctional attention-executive network (EXEC) interactions, we examined functional connectivity (FC) in 30 patients with LBD, 20 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), and 21 healthy controls during an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment. Participants performed a modified Attention Network Test (ANT), where they were instructed to press a button in response to the majority direction of arrows, which were either all pointing in the same direction or with one pointing in the opposite direction...
March 18, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390165/default-mode-and-task-positive-networks-connectivity-during-the-n-back-task-in-remitted-depressed-patients-with-or-without-emotional-residual-symptoms
#14
Pauline Delaveau, Tiago Arruda Sanchez, Ricardo Steffen, Karine Deschet, Maritza Jabourian, Vincent Perlbarg, Emerson Leandro Gasparetto, Stéphanie Dubal, Jorge Costa E Silva, Philippe Fossati
Clinical remission of depression may be associated with emotional residual symptoms. We studied the association of emotional blunting, rumination with neural networks dynamics in remitted depressed patients and cognitive performance during an N-Back task. Twenty-six outpatients in remission of depression (Hamilton Depressive rating scale score <7) performed an N-Back task during fMRI assessment. All patients had been treated by paroxetine for a minimum of 4 months. Two subgroups of patients [Nonemotionally blunted (NEB) = 14 and emotionally blunted (EB) = 12] were determined...
April 8, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389409/anti-obesity-effect-of-a-novel-caffeine-loaded-dissolving-microneedle-patch-in-high-fat-diet-induced-obese-c57bl-6j-mice
#15
Manita Dangol, Suyong Kim, Cheng Guo Li, Shayan Fakhraei Lahiji, Mingyu Jang, Yonghao Ma, Inyoung Huh, Hyungil Jung
Natural products such as caffeine have been found to be effective in reducing body weight through lipolysis. Here, we report the successful loading of caffeine onto dissolving microneedle following inhibition of its crystal growth by hyaluronic acid (HA), the matrix material of the dissolving microneedle (DMN). Further, the anti-obesity activity of caffeine was evaluated in high-fat diet-induced obese C57BL/6J mice. After 6weeks of caffeine loaded dissolving microneedle patch (CMP) administration, lipolysis improved significantly as shown by leptin and adiponectin activity, which resulted in considerable weight loss of about 12...
April 4, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384853/protein-mediated-oxidative-stress-in-patients-with-diabetes-and-its-associated-neuropathy-correlation-with-protein-carbonylation-and-disease-activity-markers
#16
Ebtehal Almogbel, Naila Rasheed
INTRODUCTION: Free radicals have been implicated as Diabetes Mellitus (DM) contributors in type 2 DM and its associated Diabetes Mellitus Neuropathy (DMN). However, the potential for protein mediated oxidative stress to contribute disease pathogenesis remains largely unexplored. AIM: To investigate the status and contribution of protein mediated oxidative stress in patients with DM or DMN and to explore whether oxidative protein modification has a role in DM progression to DM associated neuropathy...
February 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383675/intrinsic-connectivity-network-based-classification-and-detection-of-psychotic-symptoms-in-youth-with-22q11-2-deletions
#17
Matthew Schreiner, Jennifer K Forsyth, Katherine H Karlsgodt, Ariana E Anderson, Nurit Hirsh, Leila Kushan, Lucina Q Uddin, Leah Mattiacio, Ioana L Coman, Wendy R Kates, Carrie E Bearden
22q11.2 Deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is a genetic disorder associated with numerous phenotypic consequences and is one of the greatest known risk factors for psychosis. We investigated intrinsic-connectivity-networks (ICNs) as potential biomarkers for patient and psychosis-risk status in 2 independent cohorts, UCLA (33 22q11DS-participants, 33 demographically matched controls), and Syracuse (28 22q11DS, 28 controls). After assessing group connectivity differences, ICNs from the UCLA cohort were used to train classifiers to distinguish cases from controls, and to predict psychosis risk status within 22q11DS; classifiers were subsequently tested on the Syracuse cohort...
April 5, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382944/dynamic-default-mode-network-across-different-brain-states
#18
Pan Lin, Yong Yang, Junfeng Gao, Nicola De Pisapia, Sheng Ge, Xiang Wang, Chun S Zuo, James Jonathan Levitt, Chen Niu
The default mode network (DMN) is a complex dynamic network that is critical for understanding cognitive function. However, whether dynamic topological reconfiguration of the DMN occurs across different brain states, and whether this potential reorganization is associated with prior learning or experience is unclear. To better understand the temporally changing topology of the DMN, we investigated both nodal and global dynamic DMN-topology metrics across different brain states. We found that DMN topology changes over time and those different patterns are associated with different brain states...
April 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377606/a-longitudinal-study-of-the-effect-of-short-term-meditation-training-on-functional-network-organization-of-the-aging-brain
#19
Francesca A Cotier, Ruibin Zhang, Tatia M C Lee
The beneficial effects of meditation on preserving age-related changes in cognitive functioning are well established. Yet, the neural underpinnings of these positive effects have not been fully unveiled. This study employed a prospective longitudinal design, and graph-based analysis, to study how an eight-week meditation training vs. relaxation training shaped network configuration at global, intermediate, and local levels using graph theory in the elderly. At the intermediate level, meditation training lead to decreased intra-connectivity in the default mode network (DMN), salience network (SAN) and somatomotor network (SMN) modules post training...
April 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375076/intranetwork-and-internetwork-connectivity-in-patients-with-alzheimer-disease-and-the-association-with-cerebrospinal-fluid-biomarker-levels
#20
Marina Weiler, Brunno Machado de Campos, Camila Vieira de Ligo Teixeira, Raphael Fernandes Casseb, Ana Flávia Mac Knight Carletti-Cassani, Jéssica Elias Vicentini, Thamires Naela Cardoso Magalhães, Leda Leme Talib, Orestes Vicente Forlenza, Marcio Luiz Figueredo Balthazar
BACKGROUND: In the last decade, many studies have reported abnormal connectivity within the default mode network (DMN) in patients with Alzheimer disease. Few studies, however, have investigated other networks and their association with pathophysiological proteins obtained from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). METHODS: We performed 3 T imaging in patients with mild Alzheimer disease, patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and healthy controls, and we collected CSF samples from the patients with aMCI and mild Alzheimer disease...
April 4, 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
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