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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777198/aberrant-working-memory-processing-in-major-depression-evidence-from-multivoxel-pattern-classification
#1
Matti Gärtner, M Elisabetta Ghisu, Milan Scheidegger, Luisa Bönke, Yan Fan, Anna Stippl, Ana-Lucia Herrera-Melendez, Sophie Metz, Emilia Winnebeck, Maria Fissler, Anke Henning, Malek Bajbouj, Karsten Borgwardt, Thorsten Barnhofer, Simone Grimm
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is often accompanied by severe impairments in working memory (WM). Neuroimaging studies investigating the mechanisms underlying these impairments have produced conflicting results. It remains unclear whether MDD patients show hyper- or hypoactivity in WM-related brain regions and how potential aberrations in WM processing may contribute to the characteristic dysregulation of cognition-emotion interactions implicated in the maintenance of the disorder. In order to shed light on these questions and to overcome limitations of previous studies, we applied a multivoxel pattern classification approach to investigate brain activity in large samples of MDD patients (N = 57) and matched healthy controls (N = 61) during a WM task that incorporated positive, negative, and neutral stimuli...
May 2, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772217/altered-activity-and-information-flow-in-the-default-mode-network-of-pilocarpine-induced-epilepsy-rats
#2
Yan Cui, Shuang Yu, Tianjiao Zhang, Yangsong Zhang, Yang Xia, Dezhong Yao, Daqing Guo
Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is considered a brain activity disorder that is likely related to allomnesia and conscious disturbance. In rodents, TLE epileptiform discharges can be triggered by systemic administration of a dose of pilocarpine. However, how these pilocarpine-induced epileptiform discharges generate and propagate through the whole brain has not been well studied. In this study, we sought to assess alterations of activity and information flow in the default mode network (DMN) during TLE epileptiform discharges in pilocarpine-induced TLE rats...
May 14, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765316/noradrenergic-dysfunction-in-alzheimer-s-and-parkinson-s-diseases-an-overview-of-imaging-studies
#3
REVIEW
Andrew C Peterson, Chiang-Shan R Li
Noradrenergic dysfunction contributes to cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and Parkinson's Disease (PD). Conventional therapeutic strategies seek to enhance cholinergic and dopaminergic neurotransmission in AD and PD, respectively, and few studies have examined noradrenergic dysfunction as a target for medication development. We review the literature of noradrenergic dysfunction in AD and PD with a focus on human imaging studies that implicate the locus coeruleus (LC) circuit. The LC sends noradrenergic projections diffusely throughout the cerebral cortex and plays a critical role in attention, learning, working memory, and cognitive control...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765312/associations-between-daily-mood-states-and-brain-gray-matter-volume-resting-state-functional-connectivity-and-task-based-activity-in-healthy-adults
#4
Elmira Ismaylova, Jessica Di Sante, Jean-Philippe Gouin, Florence B Pomares, Frank Vitaro, Richard E Tremblay, Linda Booij
Numerous studies have shown differences in the functioning in the areas of the frontal-limbic circuitry between depressed patients and controls. However, current knowledge on frontal-limbic neural substrates of individual differences in mood states in everyday life in healthy individuals is scarce. The present study investigates anatomical, resting-state, and functional neural correlates of daily mood states in healthy individuals. We expected to observe associations between mood and the frontal-limbic circuitry and the default-mode network (DMN)...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761016/the-effects-of-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-on-resting-state-functional-brain-network-in-drug-naive-patients-with-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#5
Ping Li, Xiangyun Yang, Andrew J Greenshaw, Sufang Li, Jia Luo, Haiying Han, Jing Liu, Zhaoxi Zhong, Zhihua Guo, Hongfang Xiong, Shumin Yao, Yunhui Chen, Jing Sun, Zhanjiang Li
Objectives: Although cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), the treatment mechanisms remain poorly understood. This study aimed to investigate the effects of CBT on changes in the intrinsic whole-brain functional network of OCD patients. Materials and Methods: Twenty drug-naive and noncomorbid OCD patients were recruited, and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging was performed before and after 12 weeks of CBT...
May 2018: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760115/evidences-of-strong-sources-of-dfe-and-dmn-in-ryder-bay-western-antarctic-peninsula
#6
Johann Bown, Hans van Haren, Michael P Meredith, Hugh J Venables, Patrick Laan, J Alexander Brearley, Hein J W de Baar
The spatial distribution, biogeochemical cycling and external sources of dissolved iron and dissolved manganese (DFe and DMn) were investigated in Ryder Bay, a small coastal embayment of the West Antarctic Peninsula, during Austral summer (2013 and 2014). Dissolved concentrations were measured throughout the water column at 11 stations within Ryder Bay. The concentration ranges of DFe and DMn were large, between 0.58 and 32.7 nM, and between 0.18 and 26.2 nM, respectively, exhibiting strong gradients from the surface to the bottom...
June 28, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758374/age-and-alzheimer-s-pathology-disrupt-default-mode-network-functioning-via-alterations-in-white-matter-microstructure-but-not-hyperintensities
#7
Christopher A Brown, Yang Jiang, Charles D Smith, Brian T Gold
The default mode network (DMN) comprises defined brain regions contributing to internally-directed thought processes. Reductions in task-induced deactivation in the DMN have been associated with increasing age and poorer executive task performance, but factors underlying these functional changes remain unclear. We investigated contributions of white matter (WM) microstructure, WM hyperintensities (WMH) and Alzheimer's pathology to age-related alterations in DMN function. Thirty-five cognitively normal older adults and 29 younger adults underwent working memory task fMRI and diffusion tensor imaging...
April 19, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755402/default-mode-network-oscillatory-coupling-is-increased-following-concussion
#8
Benjamin T Dunkley, Karolina Urban, Leodante Da Costa, Simeon M Wong, Elizabeth W Pang, Margot J Taylor
Concussion is a common form of mild traumatic brain injury. Despite the descriptor "mild," a single injury can leave long-lasting and sustained alterations to brain function, including changes to localized activity and large-scale interregional communication. Cognitive complaints are thought to arise from such functional deficits. We investigated the impact of injury on neurophysiological and functionally specialized resting networks, known as intrinsic connectivity networks (ICNs), using magnetoencephalography...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755328/evidence-for-a-resting-state-network-abnormality-in-adults-who-stutter
#9
Amir H Ghaderi, Masoud N Andevari, Paul F Sowman
Neural network-based investigations of stuttering have begun to provide a possible integrative account for the large number of brain-based anomalies associated with stuttering. Here we used resting-state EEG to investigate functional brain networks in adults who stutter ( AWS ). Participants were 19 AWS and 52 age-, and gender-matched normally fluent speakers. EEGs were recorded and connectivity matrices were generated by LORETA in the theta (4-8 Hz), alpha (8-12 Hz), beta1 (12-20 Hz), and beta2 (20-30 Hz) bands...
2018: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750977/high-definition-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-changes-older-adults-subjective-sleep-and-corresponding-resting-state-functional-connectivity
#10
Jing Sheng, Chao Xie, Dong-Qiong Fan, Xu Lei, Jing Yu
With advanced age, older adults show functional deterioration in sleep. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), a noninvasive brain stimulation, modulates individuals' behavioral performance in various cognitive domains. However, the modulation effect and neural mechanisms of tDCS on sleep, especially for the elderly population are not clear. Here, we aimed to investigate whether high-definition transcranial direct current stimulation (HD-tDCS) could modulate community-dwelling older adults' subjective sleep and whether these potential improvements are associated with the large-scale brain activity alterations recorded by functional magnetic resonance imaging...
May 8, 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740305/whole-brain-functional-connectivity-pattern-homogeneity-mapping
#11
Lijie Wang, Jinping Xu, Chao Wang, Jiaojian Wang
Mounting studies have demonstrated that brain functions are determined by its external functional connectivity patterns. However, how to characterize the voxel-wise similarity of whole brain functional connectivity pattern is still largely unknown. In this study, we introduced a new method called functional connectivity homogeneity (FcHo) to delineate the voxel-wise similarity of whole brain functional connectivity patterns. FcHo was defined by measuring the whole brain functional connectivity patterns similarity of a given voxel with its nearest 26 neighbors using Kendall's coefficient concordance (KCC)...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740292/adolescent-gender-differences-in-cognitive-control-performance-and-functional-connectivity-between-default-mode-and-fronto-parietal-networks-within-a-self-referential-context
#12
Gabriela Alarcón, Jennifer H Pfeifer, Damien A Fair, Bonnie J Nagel
Ineffective reduction of functional connectivity between the default mode network (DMN) and frontoparietal network (FPN) during cognitive control can interfere with performance in healthy individuals-a phenomenon present in psychiatric disorders, such as depression. Here, this mechanism is studied in healthy adolescents by examining gender differences in task-regressed functional connectivity using functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and a novel task designed to place the DMN-supporting self-referential processing (SRP)-and FPN-supporting cognitive control-into conflict...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738855/diminished-neural-network-dynamics-in-amnestic-mild-cognitive-impairment
#13
Einat K Brenner, Frank G Hillary, Emily C Grossner, Rachel A Bernier, Nicholas Gilbert, K Sathian, Benjamin M Hampstead
Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is widely regarded as an intermediate stage between typical aging and dementia, with nearly 50% of patients with amnestic MCI (aMCI) converting to Alzheimer's dementia (AD) within 30 months of follow-up (Fischer et al., 2007). The growing literature using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging reveals both increased and decreased connectivity in individuals with MCI and connectivity loss between the anterior and posterior components of the default mode network (DMN) throughout the course of the disease progression (Hillary et al...
May 5, 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735156/subjective-cognitive-decline-is-associated-with-altered-default-mode-network-connectivity-in-individuals-with-a-family-history-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#14
Sander C J Verfaillie, Alexa Pichet Binette, Etienne Vachon-Presseau, Shirin Tabrizi, Mélissa Savard, Pierre Bellec, Rik Ossenkoppele, Philip Scheltens, Wiesje M van der Flier, John C S Breitner, Sylvia Villeneuve
BACKGROUND: Both subjective cognitive decline (SCD) and a family history of Alzheimer's disease (AD) portend risk of brain abnormalities and progression to dementia. Posterior default mode network (pDMN) connectivity is altered early in the course of AD. It is unclear whether SCD predicts similar outcomes in cognitively normal individuals with a family history of AD. METHODS: We studied 124 asymptomatic individuals with a family history of AD (age 64 ± 5 years)...
May 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731669/transcranial-light-emitting-diode-therapy-for-neuropsychological-improvement-after-traumatic-brain-injury-a-new-perspective-for-diffuse-axonal-lesion-management
#15
REVIEW
João Gustavo Rocha Peixoto Dos Santos, Wellingson Silva Paiva, Manoel Jacobsen Teixeira
The cost of traumatic brain injury (TBI) for public health policies is undeniable today. Even patients who suffer from mild TBI may persist with cognitive symptoms weeks after the accident. Most of them show no lesion in computed tomography or conventional magnetic resonance imaging, but microstructural white matter abnormalities (diffuse axonal lesion) can be found in diffusion tensor imaging. Different brain networks work together to form an important part of the cognition process, and they can be affected by TBI...
2018: Medical Devices: Evidence and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730491/default-mode-network-abnormalities-in-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-a-novel-network-restricted-topology-approach
#16
Teddy J Akiki, Christopher L Averill, Kristen M Wrocklage, J Cobb Scott, Lynnette A Averill, Brian Schweinsburg, Aaron Alexander-Bloch, Brenda Martini, Steven M Southwick, John H Krystal, Chadi G Abdallah
Disruption in the default mode network (DMN) has been implicated in numerous neuropsychiatric disorders, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, studies have largely been limited to seed-based methods and involved inconsistent definitions of the DMN. Recent advances in neuroimaging and graph theory now permit the systematic exploration of intrinsic brain networks. In this study, we used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), diffusion MRI, and graph theoretical analyses to systematically examine the DMN connectivity and its relationship with PTSD symptom severity in a cohort of 65 combat-exposed US Veterans...
May 3, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29714526/brain-intrinsic-network-connectivity-in-individuals-with-frequent-tanning-behavior
#17
Ariel Ketcherside, Francesca M Filbey, Pamela M Aubert, John P Seibyl, Julianne L Price, Bryon Adinoff
BACKGROUND: Emergent studies suggest a bidirectional relationship between brain functioning and the skin. This neurocutaneous connection may be responsible for the reward response to tanning and, thus, may contribute to excessive tanning behavior. To date, however, this association has not yet been examined. OBJECTIVES: To explore whether intrinsic brain functional connectivity within the default mode network (DMN) is related to indoor tanning behavior. METHODS: Resting state functional connectivity (rsFC) was obtained in twenty adults (16 females) with a history of indoor tanning...
May 1, 2018: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713176/aberrant-brain-functional-connectome-in-patients-with-obstructive-sleep-apnea
#18
Li-Ting Chen, Xiao-Le Fan, Hai-Jun Li, Cheng-Long Ye, Hong-Hui Yu, Hui-Zhen Xin, Hong-Han Gong, De-Chang Peng, Li-Ping Yan
Objective: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is accompanied by widespread abnormal spontaneous regional activity related to cognitive deficits. However, little is known about the topological properties of the functional brain connectome of patients with OSA. This study aimed to use the graph theory approaches to investigate the topological properties and functional connectivity (FC) of the functional connectome in patients with OSA, based on resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI)...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709625/dynamic-functional-connectivity-markers-of-objective-trait-mindfulness
#19
Julian Lim, James Teng, Amiya Patanaik, Jesisca Tandi, Stijn A A Massar
While mindfulness is commonly viewed as a skill to be cultivated through practice, untrained individuals can also vary widely in dispositional mindfulness. Prior research has identified static neural connectivity correlates of this trait. Here, we use dynamic functional connectivity (DFC) analysis of resting-state fMRI to study time-varying connectivity patterns associated with naturally varying and objectively measured trait mindfulness. Participants were selected from the top and bottom tertiles of performers on a breath-counting task to form high trait mindfulness (HTM; N = 21) and low trait mindfulness (LTM; N = 18) groups...
April 27, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709491/resting-state-network-connectivity-and-metastability-predict-clinical-symptoms-in-schizophrenia
#20
Won Hee Lee, Gaelle E Doucet, Evan Leibu, Sophia Frangou
BACKGROUND: The functional architecture of resting-state networks (RSNs) is defined by their connectivity and metastability. Disrupted RSN connectivity has been amply demonstrated in schizophrenia while the role of metastability remains poorly defined. Here, we undertake a comprehensive characterisation of RSN organization in schizophrenia and test its contribution to the clinical profile of this disorder. METHODS: We extracted RSNs representing the default mode (DMN), central executive (CEN), salience (SAL), language (LAN), sensorimotor (SMN), auditory (AN) and visual (VN) networks from resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data obtained from patients with schizophrenia (n = 85) and healthy individuals (n = 48)...
April 27, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
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