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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921216/neural-correlates-of-rumination-in-adolescents-with-remitted-major-depressive-disorder-and-healthy-controls
#1
Katie L Burkhouse, Rachel H Jacobs, Amy T Peters, Olu Ajilore, Edward R Watkins, Scott A Langenecker
The aim of the present study was to use fMRI to examine the neural correlates of engaging in rumination among a sample of remitted depressed adolescents, a population at high risk for future depressive relapse. A rumination induction task was used to assess differences in the patterns of neural activation during rumination versus a distraction condition among 26 adolescents in remission from major depressive disorder (rMDD) and in 15 healthy control adolescents. Self-report depression and rumination, as well as clinician-rated depression, were also assessed among all participants...
December 5, 2016: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918910/altered-dynamics-of-brain-connectivity-in-major-depressive-disorder-at-rest-and-during-task-performance
#2
Fabio Sambataro, Eleonora Visintin, Nadja Doerig, Janis Brakowski, Martin Grosse Holtforth, Erich Seifritz, Simona Spinelli
Major depressive disorder (MDD) has been associated with alterations in several functional brain networks. Previous studies investigating brain networks in MDD during the performance of a task have yielded inconsistent results with the function of the brain at rest. In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging at rest and during a goal-directed task to investigate dynamics of functional connectivity in 19 unmedicated patients with MDD and 19 healthy controls across both experimental paradigms...
November 17, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917679/the-default-mode-network-in-healthy-individuals-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#3
Lauren Elizabeth Mak, Luciano Minuzzi, Glenda MacQueen, Geoffrey Hall, Sidney Kennedy, Roumen Milev
OBJECTIVE: When the brain is not engaged in goal-directed activities and at "rest", there are still measureable patterns of activity. One resting state network, the default mode network (DMN) is responsible for a self-referential introspective state. There are many factors that influence normal changes in brain activity. The purpose of this review is to summarize differences in DMN functional connectivity in healthy individuals by age, sex, cognitive function and analysis type to characterize what is "normal"...
December 4, 2016: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917569/distinct-intrinsic-functional-brain-network-abnormalities-in-methamphetamine-dependent-patients-with-and-without-a-history-of-psychosis
#4
Jonathan C Ipser, Anne Uhlmann, Paul Taylor, Brian H Harvey, Don Wilson, Dan J Stein
Chronic methamphetamine use is associated with executive functioning deficits that suggest dysfunctional cognitive control networks (CCNs) in the brain. Likewise, abnormal connectivity between intrinsic CCNs and default mode networks (DMNs) has also been associated with poor cognitive function in clinical populations. Accordingly, we tested the extent to which methamphetamine use predicts abnormal connectivity between these networks, and whether, as predicted, these abnormalities are compounded in patients with a history of methamphetamine-associated psychosis (MAP)...
December 5, 2016: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915993/directed-functional-connectivity-of-posterior-cingulate-cortex-and-whole-brain-in-alzheimer-s-disease-and-mild-cognitive-impairment
#5
Enyan Yu, Zhengluan Liao, Dewang Mao, Qi Zhang, Gongjun Ji, Yumei Li, Zhongxiang Ding
BACKGROUND: Impaired functional connectivity in the default mode network (DMN) is supposedly involved in Alzheimer's disease (AD) progression. The posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) might be an imaging marker for monitoring AD progression. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the alterations in the directed functional connectivity between the PCC and whole brain in patients with AD, patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and healthy controls. METHODS: A total of 116 enrolled participants were divided into three groups: AD (n=32), MCI (n=26), and controls (n=58)...
December 1, 2016: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913429/heritability-of-the-effective-connectivity-in-the-resting-state-default-mode-network
#6
Junhai Xu, Xuntao Yin, Haitao Ge, Yan Han, Zengchang Pang, Baolin Liu, Shuwei Liu, Karl Friston
The default mode network (DMN) is thought to reflect endogenous neural activity, which is considered as one of the most intriguing phenomena in cognitive neuroscience. Previous studies have found that key regions within the DMN are highly interconnected. Here, we characterized the genetic influences on causal or directed information flow within the DMN during the resting state. In this study, we recruited 46 pairs of twins and collected fMRI imaging data using a 3.0 T scanner. Dynamic causal modeling was conducted for each participant, and a structural equation model was used to calculate the heritability of DMN in terms of its effective connectivity...
November 23, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911308/the-effects-of-gene-mutations-on%C3%A2-default%C3%A2-mode-network-in%C3%A2-familial%C3%A2-alzheimer-s-disease
#7
Xiaozhen Li, Eric Westman, Steinunn Thordardottir, Anne Kinhult Ståhlbom, Ove Almkvist, Kaj Blennow, Lars-Olof Wahlund, Caroline Graff
Familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD) mutations have very high penetrance but age at onset and rate of disease progression differ. Neuroimaging and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examinations in mutation carriers (MCs) may provide an opportunity to identify early biomarkers that can be used to track disease progression from presymptomatic to the dementia stages of disease. The default mode network (DMN) is a resting state neuronal network composed of regions known to associate with amyloid deposition in AD. We hypothesized that functional connectivity in the DMN might change at pre-clinical stages in FAD MCs and correlate with changes in CSF biomarkers as a consequence of AD brain pathology...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897031/abnormal-coupling-between-dmn-and-delta-and-beta-band-eeg-in-psychotic-patients
#8
Anja Baenninger, Vanessa A Palzes, Brian J Roach, Daniel H Mathalon, Judith Ford, Thomas Koenig
Common-phase synchronization of neuronal oscillations is a mechanism by which distributed brain regions can be integrated into transiently stable networks. Based on the hypothesis that schizophrenia is characterized by deficits in functional integration within neuronal networks, this study aimed to explore whether psychotic patients exhibit differences in brain regions involved in integrative mechanisms. We report an EEG-informed fMRI analysis of eyes-open resting state data collected from patients and healthy controls at two study sites...
November 29, 2016: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894619/expression-of-pro-fibrotic-and-anti-fibrotic-molecules-in-dimethylnitrosamine-induced-hepatic-fibrosis
#9
Roberta Sferra, Antonella Vetuschi, Simona Pompili, Eugenio Gaudio, Silvia Speca, Giovanni Latella
BACKGROUND: Hepatic fibrosis is characterized by a progressive accumulation of fibrillar extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, produced by activated myofibroblasts which are modulated by both profibrotic and antifibrotic factors. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate in vivo the expression of pro-fibrotic molecules like avβ6 integrin, transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), Smad3, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) and mammalian target of Rapamycin (mTOR), as well as anti-fibrotic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) in an experimental model of chronic hepatitis-associated fibrosis induced by intraperitoneal administration of dimethylnitrosamine (DMN) in mice...
November 11, 2016: Pathology, Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887859/olanzapine-modulation-of-long-and-short-range-functional-connectivity-in-the-resting-brain-in-a-sample-of-patients-with-schizophrenia
#10
Wenbin Guo, Feng Liu, Jindong Chen, Renrong Wu, Lehua Li, Zhikun Zhang, Jingping Zhao
Treatment effects of antipsychotic drugs on cerebral function are seldom examined. Exploring functional connectivity (FC) in drug-free schizophrenia patients before and after antipsychotic treatment can improve the understanding of antipsychotic drug mechanisms. A total of 17 drug-free patients with recurrent schizophrenia and 24 healthy controls underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans. Long- and short-range FC strengths (FCS) were calculated for each participant. Compared with the controls, the patients at baseline exhibited increased long-range positive FCS (lpFCS) in the bilateral inferior parietal lobule (IPL) and decreased lpFCS in the brain regions of the default-mode network (DMN) regions and sensorimotor circuits of the brain...
November 22, 2016: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886212/structural-and-functional-connectivity-of-default-mode-network-underlying-the-cognitive-impairment-in-late-onset-depression
#11
Yingying Yin, Xiaofu He, Mingze Xu, Zhenghua Hou, Xiaopeng Song, Yuxiu Sui, Zhi Liu, Wenhao Jiang, Yingying Yue, Yuqun Zhang, Yijun Liu, Yonggui Yuan
To identify the association between the functional and structural changes of default mode network (DMN) underlying the cognitive impairment in Late-onset depression (LOD), 32 LOD patients and 39 normal controls were recruited and underwent resting-state fMRI, DTI scans, and cognitive assessments. Seed-based correlation analysis was conducted to explore the functional connectivity (FC) of the DMN. Deterministic tractography between FC-impaired regions was performed to examine the structural connectivity (SC)...
November 25, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886204/characterization-of-structural-connectivity-of-the-default-mode-network-in-dogs-using-diffusion-tensor-imaging
#12
Jennifer L Robinson, Madhura Baxi, Jeffrey S Katz, Paul Waggoner, Ronald Beyers, Edward Morrison, Nouha Salibi, Thomas S Denney, Vitaly Vodyanoy, Gopikrishna Deshpande
Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) provides us an insight into the micro-architecture of white-matter tracts in the brain. This method has proved promising in understanding and investigating the neuronal tracts and structural connectivity between the brain regions in primates as well as rodents. The close evolutionary relationship between canines and humans may have spawned a unique bond in regard to social cognition rendering them useful as an animal model in translational research. In this study, we acquired diffusion data from anaesthetized dogs and created a DTI-based atlas for a canine model which could be used to investigate various white matter diseases...
November 25, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885406/abnormal-connectivity-in-the-sensorimotor-network-predicts-attention-deficits-in-traumatic-brain-injury
#13
Elena Shumskaya, Marcel A J van Gerven, David G Norris, Pieter E Vos, Roy P C Kessels
The aim of this study was to explore modifications of functional connectivity in multiple resting-state networks (RSNs) after moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) and evaluate the relationship between functional connectivity patterns and cognitive abnormalities. Forty-three moderate/severe TBI patients and 34 healthy controls (HC) underwent resting-state fMRI. Group ICA was applied to identify RSNs. Between-subject analysis was performed using dual regression. Multiple linear regressions were used to investigate the relationship between abnormal connectivity strength and neuropsychological outcome...
November 24, 2016: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880789/targeting-ruminative-thinking-in-adolescents-at-risk-for-depressive-relapse-rumination-focused-cognitive-behavior-therapy-in-a-pilot-randomized-controlled-trial-with-resting-state-fmri
#14
Rachel H Jacobs, Edward R Watkins, Amy T Peters, Claudia G Feldhaus, Alyssa Barba, Julie Carbray, Scott A Langenecker
: This pilot randomized control trial was designed to examine whether Rumination-Focused Cognitive Behavior Therapy (RFCBT) reduces rumination and residual depressive symptoms among adolescents with a history of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) who are at risk for relapse. We also examined whether these changes in symptoms were associated with changes in functional connectivity of the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), a key node in the default mode network (DMN). Thirty-three adolescents (ages 12-18) were randomized to eight weeks of RFCBT or an assessment only (AO) control...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873550/self-and-other-body-perception-in-anorexia-nervosa-the-role-of-posterior-dmn-nodes
#15
Esther Via, Ximena Goldberg, Isabel Sánchez, Laura Forcano, Ben J Harrison, Christopher G Davey, Jesús Pujol, Ignacio Martínez-Zalacaín, Fernando Fernández-Aranda, Carles Soriano-Mas, Narcís Cardoner, José M Menchón
OBJECTIVES: Body image distortion is a core symptom of anorexia nervosa (AN), which involves alterations in self- (and other's) evaluative processes arising during body perception. At a neural level, self-related information is thought to rely on areas of the so-called default mode network (DMN), which, additionally, shows prominent synchronised activity at rest. METHODS: Twenty female patients with AN and 20 matched healthy controls were scanned using magnetic resonance imaging when: (a) viewing video clips of their own body and another's body; (b) at rest...
November 22, 2016: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870505/distinguishing-medication-free-subjects-with-unipolar-disorder-from-subjects-with-bipolar-disorder-state-matters
#16
Maria M Rive, Ronny Redlich, Lianne Schmaal, André F Marquand, Udo Dannlowski, Dominik Grotegerd, Dick J Veltman, Aart H Schene, Henricus G Ruhé
OBJECTIVES: Recent studies have indicated that pattern recognition techniques of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data for individual classification may be valuable for distinguishing between major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD). Importantly, medication may have affected previous classification results as subjects with MDD and BD use different classes of medication. Furthermore, almost all studies have investigated only depressed subjects. Therefore, we focused on medication-free subjects...
November 2016: Bipolar Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869302/brain-function-is-linked-to-ldl-cholesterol-in-older-adults-with-cardiovascular-risk
#17
Liesel-Ann C Meusel, Nicole D Anderson, Matthew D Parrott, William Yuen, Ekaterina Tchistiakova, Bradley J MacIntosh, Sid Feldman, Carol E Greenwood
OBJECTIVES: To determine how cardiovascular risk is associated with working memory task performance and task-related suppression of default-mode network (DMN) activity in cognitively intact older adults. DESIGN: A cross-sectional functional magnetic resonance imaging study of older adults with cardiovascular risk factors. SETTING: Rotman Research Institute, Baycrest Health Sciences. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty older adults with cardiovascular risk factors...
November 21, 2016: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867352/aberrant-functional-connectivity-between-the-amygdala-and-the-temporal-pole-in-drug-free-generalized-anxiety-disorder
#18
Wei Li, Huiru Cui, Zhipei Zhu, Li Kong, Qian Guo, Yikang Zhu, Qiang Hu, Lanlan Zhang, Hui Li, Qingwei Li, Jiangling Jiang, Jordan Meyers, Jianqi Li, Jijun Wang, Zhi Yang, Chunbo Li
The amygdala and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) play important roles in "emotion dysregulation," which has a profound impact on etiologic research of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). The present study analyzed both eyes-open and eyes-closed resting state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) of 43 subjects (21 GAD patients with medicine free and 22 matched healthy controls). The amygdala and the DLPFC were defined as regions of interest (ROI) to analyze functional connectivity (FC) in GAD patients compared with healthy controls...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864080/alterations-of-resting-state-functional-network-connectivity-in-the-brain-of-nicotine-and-alcohol-users
#19
Victor M Vergara, Jingyu Liu, Eric D Claus, Kent Hutchison, Vince Calhoun
Alcohol and nicotine intake result in neurological alterations at the circuit level. Resting state functional connectivity has shown great potential in identifying these alterations. However, current studies focus on specific seeds and leave out many brain regions where effects might exist. The present study uses a data driven technique for brain segmentation covering the whole brain. Functional magnetic-resonance-imaging (fMRI) data were collected from 188 subjects:51 non-substance consumption controls (CTR), 36 smoking-and-drinking subjects (SAD), 28 drinkers (DRN), and 73 smokers (SMK)...
November 15, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859905/multiple-region-directed-functional-connectivity-based-on-phase-delays
#20
Gadi Goelman, Rotem Dan
Network analysis is increasingly advancing the field of neuroimaging. Neural networks are generally constructed from pairwise interactions with an assumption of linear relations between them. Here, a high-order statistical framework to calculate directed functional connectivity among multiple regions, using wavelet analysis and spectral coherence has been presented. The mathematical expression for 4 regions was derived and used to characterize a quartet of regions as a linear, combined (nonlinear), or disconnected network...
November 16, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
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