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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096673/apathy-and-intrinsic-functional-connectivity-networks-in-amnestic-mild-cognitive-impairment
#1
Soo Hyun Joo, Chang Uk Lee, Hyun Kook Lim
BACKGROUND: Although several prior works reported that apathy is associated with conversion to Alzheimer's disease in individuals with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), effects of apathy on the functional connectivity (FC) of the brain remain unclear. In this study, we assessed the pattern of association between apathy and default mode network (DMN), salience network and central executive network (CEN) in aMCI subjects. METHODS: Fifty subjects with aMCI and 50 controls (CONs) participated in this study...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089677/global-signal-regression-acts-as-a-temporal-downweighting-process-in-resting-state-fmri
#2
Alican Nalci, Bhaskar D Rao, Thomas T Liu
In resting-state functional MRI (rsfMRI), the correlation between blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signals across different brain regions is used to estimate the functional connectivity of the brain. This approach has led to the identification of a number of resting-state networks, including the default mode network (DMN) and the task positive network (TPN). Global signal regression (GSR) is a widely used pre-processing step in rsfMRI that has been shown to improve the spatial specificity of the estimated resting-state networks...
January 9, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088482/combined-spatiotemporal-ica-stica-for-continuous-and-dynamic-lag-structure-analysis-of-mreg-data
#3
Ville Raatikainen, Niko Huotari, Vesa Korhonen, Aleksi Rasila, Janne Kananen, Lauri Raitamaa, Tuija Keinänen, Jussi Kantola, Osmo Tervonen, Vesa Kiviniemi
This study investigated lag structure in the resting-state fMRI by applying a novel independent component (ICA) method to magnetic resonance encephalography (MREG) data. Briefly, the spatial ICA (sICA) was used for defining the frontal and back nodes of the default mode network (DMN), and the temporal ICA (tICA), which is enabled by the high temporal resolution of MREG (TR=100ms), was used to separate both neuronal and physiological components of these two spatial map regions. Subsequently, lag structure was investigated between the frontal (DMNvmpf) and posterior (DMNpcc) DMN nodes using both conventional method with all-time points and a sliding-window approach...
January 11, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073606/load-dependent-hyperdeactivation-of-the-default-mode-network-in-people-with-schizophrenia
#4
Britta Hahn, Alexander N Harvey, James M Gold, Thomas J Ross, Elliot A Stein
Schizophrenia is associated with impairment in a range of cognitive functions. Neuroimaging studies have reported lower, but also higher, task-induced activation accompanying impaired performance. Differences in task-load and the ability of people with schizophrenia (PSZ) to stay engaged in the cognitive operations probed appear to underlie such discrepancies. Similarly, task-induced deactivation of the default mode network (DMN) was weaker in PSZ relative to healthy control subjects (HCS) in most studies, but some reported greater deactivation...
January 7, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069540/multi-modal-analysis-of-functional-connectivity-and-cerebral-blood-flow-reveals-shared-and-unique-effects-of-propofol-in-large-scale-brain-networks
#5
Maolin Qiu, Dustin Scheinost, Ramachandran Ramani, R Todd Constable
Anesthesia-induced changes in functional connectivity and cerebral blow flow (CBF) in large-scale brain networks have emerged as key markers of reduced consciousness. However, studies of functional connectivity disagree on which large-scale networks are altered or preserved during anesthesia, making it difficult to find a consensus amount studies. Additionally, pharmacological alterations in CBF could amplify or occlude changes in connectivity due to the shared variance between CBF and connectivity. Here, we used data-driven connectivity methods and multi-modal imaging to investigate shared and unique neural correlates of reduced consciousness for connectivity in large-scale brain networks...
January 6, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068619/characterization-of-brain-blood-flow-and-the-amplitude-of-low-frequency-fluctuations-in-major-depressive-disorder-a-multimodal-meta-analysis
#6
Wenbin Li, Ziqi Chen, Min Wu, Hongyan Zhu, Lei Gu, Youjin Zhao, Weihong Kuang, Feng Bi, Graham J Kemp, Qiyong Gong
BACKGROUND: In healthy subjects, there is an association between amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF). To date, no published meta-analysis has investigated changes in the regional ALFF in medication-free depressed patients. METHODS: In this study, we aimed to explore whether resting-state rCBF and ALFF changes co-occur in the depressed brain without the potential confound of medication. Using signed differential mapping (SDM), we conducted two meta-analyses, one of rCBF studies and one of ALFF studies, involving medication-free patients with major depressive disorder (MDD)...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054651/alerted-default-mode-functional-connectivity-changes-in-the-aftermath-of-social-stress
#7
Benjamin Clemens, Lisa Wagels, Magdalena Bauchmüller, Rene Bergs, Ute Habel, Nils Kohn
Stress affects the brain at a network level: the salience network is supposedly upregulated, while at the same time the executive control network is downregulated. While theoretically described, the effects in the aftermath of stress have thus far not been tested empirically. Here, we compared for the first time resting-state functional connectivity in a large sample of healthy volunteers before and after a mild social stressor. Following the theoretical prediction, we focused on connectivity of the salience network (SN), the executive control network (ECN) and the default mode network (DMN)...
January 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045222/correspondent-functional-topography-of-the-human-left-inferior-parietal-lobule-at-rest-and-under-task-revealed-using-resting-state-fmri-and-coactivation-based-parcellation
#8
Jiaojian Wang, Sangma Xie, Xin Guo, Benjamin Becker, Peter T Fox, Simon B Eickhoff, Tianzi Jiang
The human left inferior parietal lobule (LIPL) plays a pivotal role in many cognitive functions and is an important node in the default mode network (DMN). Although many previous studies have proposed different parcellation schemes for the LIPL, the detailed functional organization of the LIPL and the exact correspondence between the DMN and LIPL subregions remain unclear. Mounting evidence indicates that spontaneous fluctuations in the brain are strongly associated with cognitive performance at the behavioral level...
January 3, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035927/integration-of-multilocus-genetic-risk-into-the-default-mode-network-longitudinal-trajectory-during-the-alzheimer-s-disease-process
#9
Fan Su, Hao Shu, Qing Ye, Chunming Xie, Baoyu Yuan, Zhijun Zhang, Feng Bai
The aim of the study was to investigate the cognitive significance of the changes in default mode network (DMN) during the process of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and the genetic basis that drives the alteration. Eighty-seven subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and 131 healthy controls (HC) were employed at baseline, and they had the genetic risk scores (GRS) based on the GWAS-validated AD-related top loci. Eleven MCIs who converted to AD (c-MCIs), 32 subjects who remained stable (nc-MCIs), and 56 HCs participated in the follow-up analyses after an average of 35 months...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035356/effect-of-yi-guan-jian-decoction-on-differentiation-of-bone-marrow-mesenchymalstem-cells-into-hepatocyte-like-cells-in-dimethylnitrosamine-induced-liver-cirrhosis-in-mice
#10
Yan Xiang, Bing-Yao Pang, Yuan Zhang, Qiao-Ling Xie, Ying Zhu, Ai-Jing Leng, Long-Qing Lu, Hai-Long Chen
Yi Guan Jian decoction (YGD) may induce the differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) into hepatocyte-like cells (HLCs); however, the underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. The present study aimed to investigate this process. To do this, a dimethylnitrosamine (DMN)-induced liver cirrhosis mouse model was established. The mice from the model group were randomly divided into three subgroups: i) Negative control, ii) hepatocyte growth factor and iii) YGD. The overall health, liver function and histological alterations were monitored...
February 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032005/dopaminergic-modulation-of-default-mode-network-brain-functional-connectivity-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#11
Richard B Silberstein, Andrew Pipingas, Maree Farrow, Florence Levy, Con K Stough
INTRODUCTION: Recent evidence suggests that attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with a range of brain functional connectivity abnormalities, with one of the most prominent being reduced inhibition of the default mode network (DMN) while performing a cognitive task. In this study, we examine the effects of a methylphenidate dose on brain functional connectivity in boys diagnosed with ADHD while they performed a cognitive task. METHOD: Brain functional connectivity was estimated using steady-state visual evoked potential partial coherence before and 90 min after the administration of a methylphenidate dose to 42 stimulant drug-naïve boys newly diagnosed with ADHD while they performed the A-X version of the continuous performance task (CPT A-X)...
December 2016: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030956/effects-of-long-duration-administration-of-1-isoflurane-on-resting-cerebral-blood-flow-and-default-mode-network-in-macaque-monkeys
#12
Chunxia Li, Xiaodong Zhang
Isoflurane is an inhalational anesthetic widely used in medical procedures or biomedical researches. The duration of anesthesia administration varies from minutes to hours. It is known isoflurane has dose-dependent effects on brain functionality and physiology and long-duration anesthesia administration could cause neurocognitive decline in animals and humans. However, the duration effect of isoflurane on the brain physiology and functionality still remains poorly understood. In the present study, cerebral blood flow (CBF) and functional connectivity of adult rhesus monkeys (maintained with 1% isoflurane for four hours) was examined using MRI...
December 28, 2016: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018192/differences-in-resting-state-functional-connectivity-between-young-adult-endurance-athletes-and-healthy-controls
#13
David A Raichlen, Pradyumna K Bharadwaj, Megan C Fitzhugh, Kari A Haws, Gabrielle-Ann Torre, Theodore P Trouard, Gene E Alexander
Expertise and training in fine motor skills has been associated with changes in brain structure, function, and connectivity. Fewer studies have explored the neural effects of athletic activities that do not seem to rely on precise fine motor control (e.g., distance running). Here, we compared resting-state functional connectivity in a sample of adult male collegiate distance runners (n = 11; age = 21.3 ± 2.5) and a group of healthy age-matched non-athlete male controls (n = 11; age = 20.6 ± 1.1), to test the hypothesis that expertise in sustained aerobic motor behaviors affects resting state functional connectivity in young adults...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017919/relationship-of-a-common-oxtr-gene-variant-to-brain-structure-and-default-mode-network-function-in-healthy-humans
#14
Junping Wang, Meredith N Braskie, George W Hafzalla, Joshua Faskowitz, Katie L McMahon, Greig I de Zubicaray, Margaret J Wright, Chunshui Yu, Paul M Thompson
A large body of research suggests that oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene polymorphisms may influence both social behaviors and psychiatric conditions related to social deficits, such as autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), schizophrenia, and mood and anxiety disorders. However, the neural mechanism underlying these associations is still unclear. Relative to controls, patients with these psychiatric conditions show differences in brain structure, and in resting state fMRI (rs-fMRI) signal synchronicity among default mode network (DMN) regions (also known as functional connectivity)...
December 23, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017917/intrinsic-inter-network-brain-dysfunction-correlates-with-symptom-dimensions-in-late-life-depression
#15
Wenjun Li, Yang Wang, B Douglas Ward, Piero G Antuono, Shi-Jiang Li, Joseph S Goveas
Prior studies have demonstrated dysfunctions within the core neurocognitive networks (the executive control [ECN], default mode [DMN] and salience [SN] networks) in late-life depression (LLD). Whether inter-network dysfunctional connectivity is present in LLD, and if such disruptions are associated with core symptom dimensions is unknown. A cross-sectional resting-state functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging investigation was conducted of LLD (n = 39) and age- and gender-equated healthy comparison (HC) (n = 29) participants...
December 12, 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017480/cognitive-reserve-moderates-the-association-between-functional-network-anti-correlations-and-memory-in-mci
#16
Nicolai Franzmeier, Katharina Buerger, Stefan Teipel, Yaakov Stern, Martin Dichgans, Michael Ewers
Cognitive reserve (CR) shows protective effects on cognitive function in older adults. Here, we focused on the effects of CR at the functional network level. We assessed in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) whether higher CR moderates the association between low internetwork cross-talk on memory performance. In 2 independent aMCI samples (n = 76 and 93) and healthy controls (HC, n = 36), CR was assessed via years of education and intelligence (IQ). We focused on the anti-correlation between the dorsal attention network (DAN) and an anterior and posterior default mode network (DMN), assessed via sliding time window analysis of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)...
February 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012706/anything-goes-regulation-of-the-neural-processes-underlying-response-inhibition-in-tbi-patients
#17
Laura Moreno-López, Anne E Manktelow, Barbara J Sahakian, David K Menon, Emmanuel A Stamatakis
Despite evidence for beneficial use of methylphenidate in response inhibition, no studies so far have investigated the effects of this drug in the neurobiology of inhibitory control in traumatic brain injury (TBI), even though impulsive behaviours are frequently reported in this patient group. We investigated the neural basis of response inhibition in a group of TBI patients using functional magnetic resonance imaging and a stop-signal paradigm. In a randomised double-blinded crossover study, the patients received either a single 30mg dose of methylphenidate or placebo and performed the stop-signal task...
December 21, 2016: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009983/abnormal-brain-functional-connectivity-leads-to-impaired-mood-and-cognition-in-hyperthyroidism-a-resting-state-functional-mri-study
#18
Ling Li, Mengmeng Zhi, Zhenghua Hou, Yuqun Zhang, Yingying Yue, Yonggui Yuan
Patients with hyperthyroidism frequently have neuropsychiatric complaints such as lack of concentration, poor memory, depression, anxiety, nervousness, and irritability, suggesting brain dysfunction. However, the underlying process of these symptoms remains unclear. Using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI), we depicted the altered graph theoretical metric degree centrality (DC) and seed-based resting-state functional connectivity (FC) in 33 hyperthyroid patients relative to 33 healthy controls...
December 21, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000557/the-resting-state-functional-connectivity-of-the-default-mode-networks-in-patients-with-obstructive-sleep-apnea-hypopnea-syndrome
#19
Ting Chen, Ming Yang, Bin Liu, Yu-Ting Liu, Hui-Xin Zhang, Chuan-Chuan Liu, Yue Zhu, Zhi-Chun Huang, Ti-Fei Yuan
Obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) is normally linked to cognitive and functional dysfunctions. In this study, we explored the resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) in the default mode network (DMN) to show the mechanism of neurophysiology in patients with OSAHS. Resting-state structural and functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging data were obtained from sixteen male moderate-to- severe patients with untreated OSAHS and 15 male matched healthy control subjects. The rsFC in the DMN was analyzed between OSAHS and healthy controls by the CONN software...
December 19, 2016: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995564/a-review-of-the-functional-and-anatomical-default-mode-network-in-schizophrenia
#20
REVIEW
Mao-Lin Hu, Xiao-Fen Zong, J John Mann, Jun-Jie Zheng, Yan-Hui Liao, Zong-Chang Li, Ying He, Xiao-Gang Chen, Jin-Song Tang
Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder characterized by impaired perception, delusions, thought disorder, abnormal emotion regulation, altered motor function, and impaired drive. The default mode network (DMN), since it was first proposed in 2001, has become a central research theme in neuropsychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia. In this review, first we define the DMN and describe its functional activity, functional and anatomical connectivity, heritability, and inverse correlation with the task positive network...
December 19, 2016: Neuroscience Bulletin
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