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Olfactory Marker Protein

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550945/pre-birth-sense-of-smell-in-the-wild-boar-the-ontogeny-of-the-olfactory-mucosa
#1
Domenico Fulgione, Martina Trapanese, Maria Buglione, Daniela Rippa, Gianluca Polese, Viviana Maresca, Valeria Maselli
Animals recognize their surrounding environments through the sense of smell by detecting thousands of chemical odorants. Wild boars (Sus scrofa) completely depend on their ability to recognize chemical odorants: to detect food, during scavenging and searching partners, during breeding periods and to avoid potential predators. Wild piglets must be prepared for the chemical universe that they will enter after birth, and they show intense neuronal activity in the olfactory mucosa. With this in mind, we investigated the morpho-functional embryonic development of the olfactory mucosa in the wild boar (in five stages before birth)...
May 17, 2017: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500734/differentiation-of-human-olfactory-bulb-derived-neural-stem-cells-toward-oligodendrocyte
#2
Hany E Marei, Zeinab Shouman, Asma Althani, Nahla Afifi, Abd-Elmaksoud A, Samah Lashen, Anwarul Hasan, Thomas Caceci, Roberto Rizzi, Carlo Cenciarelli, Patrizia Casalbore
In the central nervous system (CNS), oligodendrocytes are the glial element in charge of myelin formation. Obtaining an overall presence of oligodendrocyte precursor cells/oligodendrocytes (OPCs/OLs) in culture from different sources of NSCs is an important research area, because OPCs/OLs may provide a promising therapeutic strategy for diseases affecting myelination of axons. The present study was designed to differentiate human olfactory bulb NSCs (OBNSCs) into OPCs/OLs and using expression profiling (RT-qPCR) gene, immunocytochemistry, and specific protein expression to highlight molecular mechanism(s) underlying differentiation of human OBNSCs into OPCs/OLs...
May 13, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499977/human-neural-stem-progenitor-cells-derived-from-the-olfactory-epithelium-express-the-trkb-receptor-and-migrate-in-response-to-bdnf
#3
Leonardo Ortiz-López, Jorge Julio González-Olvera, Nelly Maritza Vega-Rivera, Maria García-Anaya, Ana Karen Carapia-Hernández, Julio César Velázquez-Escobar, Gerardo Bernabé Ramírez-Rodríguez
Neurogenesis constitutively occurs in the olfactory epithelium of mammals, including humans. The fact that new neurons in the adult olfactory epithelium derive from resident neural stem/progenitor cells suggests a potential use for these cells in studies of neural diseases, as well as in neuronal cell replacement therapies. In this regard, some studies have proposed that the human olfactory epithelium is a source of neural stem/progenitor cells for autologous transplantation. Although these potential applications are interesting, it is important to understand the cell biology and/or whether human neural stem/progenitor cells in the olfactory epithelium sense external signals, such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), that is also found in other pro-neurogenic microenvironments...
May 10, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428987/microarray-profiling-and-co-expression-network-analysis-of-the-lncrnas-and-mrnas-associated-with-acute-leukemia-in-adults
#4
Hui Cheng, Chong Mei Huang, Yang Wang, Xiao Xia Hu, Xiao Qian Xu, Xian Min Song, Gu Sheng Tang, Li Chen, Jian Min Yang
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) are common types of acute leukemia in adults and cause low survival rate and poor outcome after 5 years despite high rates of complete remission (CR) with modern chemotherapeutic regimens. To understand the distinct mechanisms in leukemogenesis for ALL and AML and to identify markers for diagnosis and treatment, lncRNA and mRNA expression profiles of AML and ALL patients and healthy controls were generated using microarray analysis. For comparison, the differentially expressed mRNA functions were annotated using gene ontology (GO) and pathway analysis...
April 21, 2017: Molecular BioSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425952/antioxidant-and-anti-senescence-effect-of-metformin-on-mouse-olfactory-ensheathing-cells-moecs-may-be-associated-with-increased-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-levels-an-ex-vivo-study
#5
Agnieszka Śmieszek, Zuzanna Stręk, Katarzyna Kornicka, Jakub Grzesiak, Christine Weiss, Krzysztof Marycz
Metformin, the popular anti-diabetic drug was shown to exert multiple biological effects. The most recent metformin gained attention as an agent that mobilizes endogenous progenitor cells and enhances regenerative potential of organisms, for example by promoting neurogenesis. In the present study, we examined the role of metformin on mouse olfactory ensheathing cells (mOECs) derived from animals receiving metformin for eight weeks at a concentration equal to 2.8 mg/day. The mOECs expanded ex vivo were characterized in terms of their cellular phenotype, morphology, proliferative activity, viability and accumulation of oxidative stress factors...
April 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421248/indications-for-cellular-migration-from-the-central-nervous-system-to-its-draining-lymph-nodes-in-cd11c-gfp-bone-marrow-chimeras-following-eae
#6
Fridtjof Schiefenhövel, Kerstin Immig, Carolin Prodinger, Ingo Bechmann
The concept as to how the brain maintains its immune privilege has initially been based on observations that it is lacking classical lymph vessels and later, the absence of dendritic cells (DC). This view has been challenged by several groups demonstrating drainage/migration of injected tracers and cells into cervical lymph nodes (CLNs) and the presence of brain antigens in CLNs in the course of various brain pathologies. Using CD11c-diphtheria toxin receptor (DTR)-green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic (tg) mice, we have shown the existence of CD11c(+) cells, a main DC marker, within the brain parenchyma...
April 18, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370142/morphological-study-of-a-connexin-43-gfp-reporter-mouse-highlights-glial-heterogeneity-amacrine-cells-and-olfactory-ensheathing-cells
#7
Panos Theofilas, Christian Steinhäuser, Martin Theis, Amin Derouiche
Connexin 43 (Cx43) is the main astrocytic connexin and forms the basis of the glial syncytium. The morphology of connexin-expressing cells can be best studied in transgenic mouse lines expressing cytoplasmic fluorescent reporters, since immunolabeling the plaques can obscure the shapes of the individual cells. The Cx43kiECFP mouse generated by Degen et al. (FASEBJ 26:4576, 2012) expresses cytosolic ECFP and has previously been used to establish that Cx43 may not be expressed by all astrocytes within a population, and this can vary in a region-dependent way...
March 30, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322448/superior-turbinate-eosinophilia-correlates-with-olfactory-deficit-in-chronic-rhinosinusitis-patients
#8
Jennifer Lavin, Jin-Young Min, Alcina K Lidder, Julia He Huang, Atsushi Kato, Kent Lam, Eric Meen, Joan S Chmiel, James Norton, Lydia Suh, Mahboobeh Mahdavinia, Kathryn E Hulse, David B Conley, Rakesh K Chandra, Stephanie Shintani-Smith, Robert C Kern, Robert P Schleimer, Bruce K Tan
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate if molecular markers of eosinophilia in olfactory-enriched mucosa are associated with olfactory dysfunction. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study of tissue biopsies from 99 patients, and an additional 30 patients who underwent prospective olfactory testing prior to sinonasal procedures. METHODS: Tissue biopsies were processed for analysis of inflammatory markers using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR)...
March 21, 2017: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322281/identification-of-a-novel-fast-acting-gabaergic-antidepressant
#9
K M J McMurray, M J Ramaker, A M Barkley-Levenson, P S Sidhu, P K Elkin, M K Reddy, M L Guthrie, J M Cook, V H Rawal, L A Arnold, S C Dulawa, A A Palmer
Current pharmacotherapies for depression exhibit slow onset, side effects and limited efficacy. Therefore, identification of novel fast-onset antidepressants is desirable. GLO1 is a ubiquitous cellular enzyme responsible for the detoxification of the glycolytic byproduct methylglyoxal (MG). We have previously shown that MG is a competitive partial agonist at GABA-A receptors. We examined the effects of genetic and pharmacological inhibition of GLO1 in two antidepressant assay models: the tail suspension test (TST) and the forced swim test (FST)...
March 21, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289379/dichotomous-distribution-of-putative-cholinergic-interneurons-in-mouse-accessory-olfactory-bulb
#10
Sarah Marking, Kurt Krosnowski, Tatsuya Ogura, Weihong Lin
Sensory information processing in the olfactory bulb (OB) relies on diverse populations of bulbar interneurons. In rodents, the accessory OB (AOB) is divided into two bulbar regions, the anterior (aAOB) and posterior (pAOB), which differ substantially in their circuitry connections and associated behaviors. We previously identified and characterized a large number of morphologically diverse cholinergic interneurons in the main OB (MOB) using transgenic mice to visualize the cell bodies of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT-expressing neurons and immunolabeling (Krosnowski et al...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280935/crypt-cell-markers-in-the-olfactory-organ-of-poecilia-reticulata-analysis-and-comparison-with-the-fish-model-danio-rerio
#11
Simone Bettini, Liliana Milani, Maurizio Lazzari, Maria Gabriella Maurizii, Valeria Franceschini
Olfactory crypt neurons have been observed in several bony fishes and chondrichtyans. Although their morphology is uniform in all fish, very few is known about their antigenic properties, usually studied in zebrafish, but quite overlooked in other species. We tested in Poecilia reticulata (guppy) the two antibodies recognized to mark zebrafish crypt cells: while anti-S100 showed an immunohistochemical pattern comparable to what reported in zebrafish, anti-TrkA gave no signal. Western blot analysis revealed that S100-antiserum bound an antigen of expected weight, probably belonging to the S100 family...
March 9, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279752/novel-spiroimidazopyridine-derivative-sak3-improves-methimazole-induced-cognitive-deficits-in-mice
#12
Husain Noreen, Yasushi Yabuki, Kohji Fukunaga
Methimazole (MMI) is a first-line therapy used to manage hyperthyroidism and Graves' disease. Despite its therapeutic benefit, chronic MMI administration can lead to hypothyroidism and perturb brain homeostasis in patients, resulting in neuropsychiatric disorders such as depression and cognitive dysfunction. We recently developed the spiroimidazopyridine derivative SAK3 as cognitive enhancer; however, mechanisms underlying its activity remained unclear. Here, we show that SAK3 potentially improves cognitive impairment seen following MMI-induced hypothyroidism...
March 6, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266018/cell-type-dependent-axonal-localization-of-translational-regulators-and-mrna-in-mouse-peripheral-olfactory-neurons
#13
Lulu I T Korsak, Katherine A Shepard, Michael R Akins
Local protein synthesis in mature axons may play a role in synaptic plasticity, axonal arborization, or functional diversity of the circuit. To gain insight into this question, we investigated the axonal localization of translational regulators and associated mRNAs in five parallel olfactory circuits, four in the main olfactory bulb and one in the accessory olfactory bulb. Axons in all four main olfactory bulb circuits exhibited axonal localization of Fragile X granules (FXGs), structures that comprise ribosomes, mRNA, and RNA binding proteins including Fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) and the related protein FXR2P...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237546/seasonal-variation-in-telencephalon-cell-proliferation-in-adult-female-tsinling-dwarf-skinks-scincella-tsinlingensis
#14
Chun Yang, Limin Wang, Xiangyang Xing, Yanyan Gao, Li Guo
In adult mammals, neurogenesis is limited to specific niches in the brain, but considerable adult neurogenesis occurs in many brain regions in non-mammalian vertebrates. Non-mammalian vertebrates provide invaluable comparative material for understanding the core mechanisms of adult neural stem cell maintenance and fate, but phylogenetic differences in adult neurogenesis remain poorly understood. Here we examine cell proliferation seasonality in the telencephalon of adult female tsinling dwarf skinks (Scincella tsinlingensis) by injecting wild animals caught in summer, autumn and spring, and animals caught in autumn and raised under winter conditions, with 5-Bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU)...
May 1, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193458/inactivation-of-the-olfactory-marker-protein-omp-gene-in-river-dolphins-and-other-odontocete-cetaceans
#15
Mark S Springer, John Gatesy
Various toothed whales (Odontoceti) are unique among mammals in lacking olfactory bulbs as adults and are thought to be anosmic (lacking the olfactory sense). At the molecular level, toothed whales have high percentages of pseudogenic olfactory receptor genes, but species that have been investigated to date retain an intact copy of the olfactory marker protein gene (OMP), which is highly expressed in olfactory receptor neurons and may regulate the temporal resolution of olfactory responses. One hypothesis for the retention of intact OMP in diverse odontocete lineages is that this gene is pleiotropic with additional functions that are unrelated to olfaction...
February 11, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152579/5htr3a-driven-gfp-labels-immature-olfactory-sensory-neurons
#16
Thomas E Finger, Dianna L Bartel, Nicole Shultz, Noah B Goodson, Charles A Greer
The ionotropic serotonin receptor, 5-HT3 , is expressed by many developing neurons within the central nervous system. Since the olfactory epithelium continues to generate new olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) throughout life, we investigated the possibility that 5-HT3 is expressed in the adult epithelium. Using a transgenic mouse in which the promoter for the 5-HT3a subunit drives expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP), we assessed the expression of this marker in the olfactory epithelium of adult mice...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122575/drug-induced-parkinson-s-disease-modulates-protein-kinase-a-and-olfactory-marker-protein-in-the-mouse-olfactory-bulb
#17
Carla Mucignat, Antonio Caretta
BACKGROUND: Olfaction is often affected in parkinsonian patients, but dopaminergic cells in the olfactory bulb are not affected by some Parkinson-inducing drugs. We investigated whether the drug MPTP produces the olfactory deficits typical of Parkinson and affects the olfactory bulb in mice. FINDINGS: Lesioned and control mice were tested for olfactory search, for motor and exploratory behavior. Brains and olfactory mucosa were investigated via immunohistochemistry for thyrosine hydroxylase, Olfactory Marker Protein and cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase as an intracellular pathway involved in dopaminergic neurotransmission...
January 26, 2017: Behavioral and Brain Functions: BBF
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087337/tunicamycin-impairs-olfactory-learning-and-synaptic-plasticity-in-the-olfactory-bulb
#18
Jia Tong, Fumino Okutani, Yoshihiro Murata, Mutsuo Taniguchi, Toshiharu Namba, Yu-Jie Wang, Hideto Kaba
Tunicamycin (TM) induces endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and inhibits N-glycosylation in cells. ER stress is associated with neuronal death in neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease, and most patients complain of the impairment of olfactory recognition. Here we examined the effects of TM on aversive olfactory learning and the underlying synaptic plasticity in the main olfactory bulb (MOB). Behavioral experiments demonstrated that the intrabulbar infusion of TM disabled aversive olfactory learning without affecting short-term memory...
March 6, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032594/structurally-related-odorant-ligands-of-the-olfactory-receptor-or51e2-differentially-promote-metastasis-emergence-and-tumor-growth
#19
Guenhaël Sanz, Isabelle Leray, Denise Grébert, Sharmilee Antoine, Adrien Acquistapace, Adeline Muscat, Abdelhak Boukadiri, Lluis M Mir
Olfactory receptors are G protein-coupled receptors. Some of them are expressed in tumor cells, such as the OR51E2 receptor overexpressed in LNCaP prostate cancer cells. It is considered a prostate tumor marker. We previously demonstrated that this receptor is able to promote LNCaP cell invasiveness in vitro upon stimulation with its odorant agonist β-ionone, leading to increased generation of metastases in vivo. In the present study, we show that even a relatively short exposure to β-ionone is sufficient to promote metastasis emergence...
January 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919008/phenotype-analysis-of-male-transgenic-mice-overexpressing-mutant-igfbp-2-lacking-the-cardin-weintraub-sequence-motif-reduced-expression-of-synaptic-markers-and-myelin-basic-protein-in-the-brain-and-a-lower-degree-of-anxiety-like-behaviour
#20
N Schindler, J Mayer, S Saenger, U Gimsa, C Walz, J Brenmoehl, D Ohde, E Wirthgen, A Tuchscherer, V C Russo, M Frank, T Kirschstein, F Metzger, A Hoeflich
Brain growth and function are regulated by insulin-like growth factors I and II (IGF-I and IGF-II) but also by IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs), including IGFBP-2. In addition to modulating IGF activities, IGFBP-2 interacts with a number of components of the extracellular matrix and cell membrane via a Cardin-Weintraub sequence or heparin binding domain (HBD1). The nature and the signalling elicited by these interactions are not fully understood. Here, we examined transgenic mice (H1d-hBP2) overexpressing a mutant human IGFBP-2 that lacks a specific heparin binding domain (HBD1) known as the Cardin-Weintraub sequence...
November 16, 2016: Growth Hormone & IGF Research
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