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tibial periostitis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069393/sclerostin-antibody-reverses-bone-loss-by-increasing-bone-formation-and-decreasing-bone-resorption-in-a-rat-model-of-male-osteoporosis
#1
Xiaodong Li, Michael S Ominsky, Kelly S Villasenor, Qing-Tian Niu, Frank J Asuncion, Xuechun Xia, Mario Grisanti, Thomas J Wronski, W Scott Simonet, Hua Zhu Ke
Sclerostin antibody (Scl-Ab) restored bone mass and strength in the ovariectomized rat model of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Increased bone mineral density (BMD) and decreased skeletal fragility fracture risk have been reported in postmenopausal osteoporotic women receiving Scl-Ab. In males, loss of androgen leads to rapid decreases in BMD and increased risk for fragility fractures. We hypothesized that Scl-Ab could reverse the loss of bone mass and strength caused by androgen ablation in the orchiectomized (ORX) rat model of male osteoporosis...
October 20, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888055/evaluation-of-loading-parameters-for-murine-axial-tibial-loading-stimulating-cortical-bone-formation-while-reducing-loading-duration
#2
David Sun, Michael D Brodt, Heather M Zannit, Nilsson Holguin, Matthew J Silva
Classic studies in bone mechanobiology have established the importance of loading parameters on the anabolic response. Most of these early studies were done using loading methods not currently in favor, and using non-murine species. Our objective was to re-examine the effects of several loading parameters on the response of cortical bone using the contemporary murine axial tibial compression model. We subjected tibias of 5-month old, female C57Bl/6 mice to cyclic (4 Hz) mechanical loading and examined bone formation responses using dynamic and static histomorphometry...
September 9, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750038/low-calcium-diet-increases-4t1-mammary-tumor-carcinoma-cell-burden-and-bone-pathology-in-mice
#3
Wendan Wang, Jody L Gordon, Kenneth A Philbrick, Xujuan Yang, Adam J Branscum, Christiane V Löhr, Wanda M Haschek, Russell T Turner, Urszula T Iwaniec, William G Helferich
Breast cancer metastasizes to bone in the majority of patients with advanced disease. We investigated the effects of inadequate dietary calcium (Ca) on bone turnover, tumor growth, and bone response to tumor in tibia inoculated with 4T1 mammary carcinoma cells. Nine-month-old female Balb/c mice were placed on an adequate Ca (5 g/kg diet, n = 30) or low Ca (80 mg/kg diet, n = 31) diet for 14 days, then injected intratibially with 1,000 4T1 cells (transfected with luciferase for bioluminescence imaging), and sacrificed at 5, 10, or 21 days post-inoculation (n = 7-10 mice/group)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623408/plexiform-neurofibroma-causing-an-ossifying-subperiosteal-haematoma-a-rare-case-in-the-tibia-of-an-11-year-old-girl
#4
Anton Lavell, Christopher W Jones, Daniel Wong, Peter Counsel, Richard Carey-Smith
Ossifying subperiosteal haematoma is an exceedingly rare manifestation of Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1). We report an interesting case of plexiform neurofibroma causing a rapidly growing tibial mass as a result of subperiosteal haemorrhage, in an 11-year-old girl with previously undiagnosed NF-1. This reflects a precursor of the more mature periosteal ossification seen in cases traditionally termed "subperiosteal cysts". A previously well young girl was referred by her general practitioner with an increasingly large, mildly tender, soft lump on the anterior aspect of her right tibia...
June 16, 2017: Skeletal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574653/cortical-and-trabecular-bone-microstructure-did-not-recover-at-weight-bearing-skeletal-sites-and-progressively-deteriorated-at-non-weight-bearing-sites-during-the-year-following-international-space-station-missions
#5
Laurence Vico, Bert van Rietbergen, Nicolas Vilayphiou, Marie-Thérèse Linossier, Hervé Locrelle, Myriam Normand, Mohamed Zouch, Maude Gerbaix, Nicolas Bonnet, Valery Novikov, Thierry Thomas, Galina Vassilieva
Risk for premature osteoporosis is a major health concern in astronauts and cosmonauts; the reversibility of the bone lost at the weight-bearing bone sites is not established, although it is suspected to take longer than the mission length. The bone three-dimensional structure and strength that could be uniquely affected by weightlessness is currently unknown. Our objective is to evaluate bone mass, microarchitecture, and strength of weight-bearing and non-weight-bearing bone in 13 cosmonauts before and for 12 months after a 4-month to 6-month sojourn in the International Space Station (ISS)...
June 2, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28561381/estrogen-dependent-efficacy-of-limb-ischemic-preconditioning-in-female-rats
#6
Levente Pócs, Ágnes Janovszky, Dénes Garab, Gabriella Terhes, Imre Ocsovszki, József Kaszaki, Mihály Boros, József Piffkó, Andrea Szabó
Our aim was to examine the effects of ischemic preconditioning (IPC) on the local periosteal and systemic inflammatory consequences of hindlimb ischemia-reperfusion (IR) in Sprague-Dawley rats with chronic estrogen deficiency (13 weeks after ovariectomy, OVX) in the presence and absence of chronic 17beta-estradiol supplementation (E2, 20 µg kg(-1) , 5 days/week for 5 weeks); sham-operated (non-OVX) animals served as controls. As assessed by intravital fluorescence microscopy, rolling and the firm adhesion of polymorphonuclear neutrophil leukocytes (PMNs) gave similar results in the Sham + IR and OVX + IR groups in the tibial periosteal microcirculation during the 3-h reperfusion period after a 60-min tourniquet ischemia...
May 31, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515597/tibial-periosteal-ganglion-cyst-the-ganglion-in-disguise
#7
Anjuna Reghunath, Mahesh K Mittal, Geetika Khanna, V Anil
Soft tissue ganglions are commonly encountered cystic lesions around the wrist presumed to arise from myxomatous degeneration of periarticular connective tissue. Lesions with similar pathology in subchondral location close to joints, and often simulating a geode, is the less common entity called intraosseous ganglion. Rarer still is a lesion produced by mucoid degeneration and cyst formation of the periostium of long bones, rightly called the periosteal ganglion. They are mostly found in the lower extremities at the region of pes anserinus, typically limited to the periosteum and outer cortex without any intramedullary component...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Radiology & Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466243/contractile-properties-of-periosteal-arterioles-in-the-guinea-pig-tibia
#8
Hiroyasu Fukuta, Retsu Mitsui, Hiromichi Takano, Hikaru Hashitani
The periosteal arterioles of the compact bone may play a critical role in bone growth. To explore the contractile properties of tibial arterioles, spontaneous and nerve-evoked constrictions were compared in preparations from 3-week-old and 1-year-old guinea-pigs. Changes in arteriole diameters were measured using video microscopy. Their innervation was investigated using fluorescence immunohistochemistry. Fifty per cent and 40% of tibial arterioles from 3-week-old and 1-year-old guinea-pigs, respectively, exhibited spontaneous phasic constrictions that were inhibited by 1 μM nifedipine, 10 μM cyclopiazonic acid or 100 μM 2-APB...
May 2, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436105/exercise-decreases-marrow-adipose-tissue-through-%C3%A3-oxidation-in-obese-running-mice
#9
Maya Styner, Gabriel M Pagnotti, Cody McGrath, Xin Wu, Buer Sen, Gunes Uzer, Zhihui Xie, Xiaopeng Zong, Martin A Styner, Clinton T Rubin, Janet Rubin
The relationship between marrow adipose tissue (MAT) and bone health is poorly understood. We used running exercise to ask whether obesity-associated MAT can be attenuated via exercise and whether this correlates with gains in bone quantity and quality. C57BL/6 mice were divided into diet-induced obesity (DIO, n = 14) versus low-fat diet (LFD, n = 14). After 3 months, 16-week-old mice were allocated to an exercise intervention (LFD-E, DIO-E) or a control group (LFD, DIO) for 6 weeks (4 groups, n = 7/group)...
August 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419546/connexin43-and-runx2-interact-to-affect-cortical-bone-geometry-skeletal-development-and-osteoblast-and-osteoclast-function
#10
Atum M Buo, Ryan E Tomlinson, Eric R Eidelman, Max Chason, Joseph P Stains
The coupling of osteoblasts and osteocytes by connexin43 (Cx43) gap junctions permits the sharing of second messengers that coordinate bone cell function and cortical bone acquisition. However, details of how Cx43 converts shared second messengers into signals that converge onto essential osteogenic processes are incomplete. Here, we use in vitro and in vivo methods to show that Cx43 and Runx2 functionally interact to regulate osteoblast gene expression and proliferation, ultimately affecting cortical bone properties...
August 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386571/the-broken-ring-of-fire-a-new-radiological-sign-as-predictor-of-syndesmosis-injury
#11
James Calder, Adam Mitchell, Adam Lomax, Moez S Ballal, John Grice, Niek van Dijk, Justin Lee
BACKGROUND: Subcircumferential periosteal edema above the ankle joint is frequently present on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with syndesmosis injuries but has not been previously reported. Fluid height within the interosseous membrane also has not previously been shown to be associated with syndesmosis injury severity. PURPOSE: To investigate whether a new sign on MRI and measurement of the length of fluid within the interosseous membrane above the ankle may be used to enable identification of a syndesmosis injury and allow differentiation from lateral ligament injury...
March 2017: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144583/novel-case-of-trevor-s-disease-adult-onset-and-later-recurrence
#12
Amrit S Khalsa, Neil S Kumar, Matthew A Chin, Richard D Lackman
Dysplasia epiphysealis hemimelica (DEH), or Trevor's disease, is an osteocartilaginous epiphyseal overgrowth typically occurring in children. The literature reports 6 adult cases and none describe recurrence requiring additional procedures. We present a new-onset proximal tibial DEH in an adult recurring approximately 3 years after open excision. A 39-year-old female presented with a history of right knee pain, swelling, and instability. Physical examination revealed a firm proximal tibial mass. Computed tomography (CT) imaging showed an exophytic, lobulated, sclerotic mass involving the anterolateral margin of the lateral tibial plateau...
January 18, 2017: World Journal of Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121384/bioarchaeology-of-adaptation-to-a-marginal-environment-in-bronze-age-western-china
#13
Elizabeth Berger, Hui Wang
OBJECTIVES: This study examines human adaptation to the 4000 BP climate change event, which is said to have increased the marginality of Inner Asian environments. We propose to define "marginal" environments not in relation to a specific economic activity (e.g., agriculture), but in relation to whether humans living there are physiologically stressed. METHODS: Three sites in the Hexi Corridor of Gansu were studied, one from the early and two from the late Bronze Age (N = 125)...
July 8, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073652/tarsal-tunnel-syndrome-due-to-three-different-types-of-ganglion-during-a-12-year-period-a-case-report
#14
Motohisa Kawakatsu, Toshihiro Ishiko, Masafumi Sumiya
A 52-year-old male complained of numbness and radiating pain affecting the plantar region of his left foot. He was found to have recurrent tarsal tunnel syndrome due to posterior tibial nerve compression by 3 different types of ganglion during a 12-year period. To the best of our knowledge, a similar case has not been documented. At the first operation, flexor retinaculum release and simple excision of an epineural ganglion were performed without injuring the nerve fascicles; however, an intrafascicular ganglion developed approximately 2 years later...
March 2017: Journal of Foot and Ankle Surgery: Official Publication of the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28001453/insulin-resistance-is-associated-with-smaller-cortical-bone-size-in-nondiabetic-men-at-the-age-of-peak-bone-mass
#15
Charlotte Verroken, Hans-Georg Zmierczak, Stefan Goemaere, Jean-Marc Kaufman, Bruno Lapauw
Context: In type 2 diabetes mellitus, fracture risk is increased despite preserved areal bone mineral density. Although this apparent paradox may in part be explained by insulin resistance affecting bone structure and/or material properties, few studies have investigated the association between insulin resistance and bone geometry. Objective: We aimed to explore this association in a cohort of nondiabetic men at the age of peak bone mass. Design, Setting, and Participants: Nine hundred ninety-six nondiabetic men aged 25 to 45 years were recruited in a cross-sectional, population-based sibling pair study at a university research center...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966105/habitual-levels-of-higher-but-not-medium-or-low-impact-physical-activity-are-positively-related-to-lower-limb-bone-strength-in-older-women-findings-from-a-population-based-study-using-accelerometers-to-classify-impact-magnitude
#16
K Hannam, K C Deere, A Hartley, U A Al-Sari, E M Clark, W D Fraser, J H Tobias
This study assessed the effect of accelerometry-measured higher impacts resulting from habitual weight-bearing activity on lower limb bone strength in older women. Despite higher impacts being experienced rarely in this population-based cohort, positive associations were observed between higher vertical impacts and lower limb bone size and strength. INTRODUCTION: We investigated whether the benefit of habitual weight-bearing physical activity (PA) for lower limb bone strength in older women is explained by exposure to higher impacts, as previously suggested by observations in younger individuals...
October 2017: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882147/molecular-profiling-of-a-simple-rat-model-of-open-tibial-fractures-with-hematoma-and-periosteum-disruption
#17
Jose Rafael Villafan-Bernal, Lorenzo Franco-De La Torre, Ana Soledad Sandoval-Rodriguez, Juan Armendariz-Borunda, Juan Luis Alcala-Zermeno, Jose Alfonso Cruz-Ramos, Gabriela Lopez-Armas, Blanca Estela Ramirez-Bastidas, Gracia Viviana González-Enríquez, Emerson Armando Collazo-Guzman, Raigam Jafet Martinez-Portilla, Sergio Sánchez-Enríquez
Bone fractures are a worldwide public health concern. Therefore, improving understanding of the bone healing process at a molecular level, which could lead to the discovery of potential therapeutic targets, is important. In the present study, a model of open tibial fractures with hematoma disruption, periosteal rupture and internal fixation in 6-month-old male Wistar rats was established, in order to identify expression patterns of key genes and their protein products throughout the bone healing process. A tibial shaft fracture was produced using the three-point bending technique, the hematoma was drained through a 4-mm incision on the medial aspect of the tibia and the fracture stabilized by inserting a needle into the medullary canal...
November 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861456/dynamic-stabilization-of-simple-fractures-with-active-plates-delivers-stronger-healing-than-conventional-compression-plating
#18
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Michael Bottlang, Stanley Tsai, Emily K Bliven, Brigitte von Rechenberg, Philipp Kindt, Peter Augat, Julia Henschel, Daniel C Fitzpatrick, Steven M Madey
OBJECTIVES: Active plates dynamize a fracture by elastic suspension of screw holes within the plate. We hypothesized that dynamic stabilization with active plates delivers stronger healing relative to standard compression plating. METHODS: Twelve sheep were randomized to receive either a standard compression plate (CP) or an active plate (ACTIVE) for stabilization of an anatomically reduced tibial osteotomy. In the CP group, absolute stabilization was pursued by interfragmentary compression with 6 cortical screws...
February 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847844/potential-role-of-local-estrogen-in-enhancement-of-fracture-healing-preclinical-study-in-rabbits
#19
Mohammad Tahami, Behrooz Haddad, Armin Abtahian, Ali Hashemi, Amir Aminian, Sujith Konan
BACKGROUND: Effects of estrogen on bone metabolism and its protective role on prevention of osteoporosis are well documented. However, the efficacy of estrogen treatment on bone healing is not well investigated. The drug can be delivered both systemically or locally to the bone with differences in concentrations and side effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of local and systemic administration of estrogen on the fracture healing process. METHODS: Standardized tibial fractures with 4 millimeter gaps were created in twenty four adult male Dutch rabbits...
October 2016: Archives of Bone and Joint Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843061/vascularised-bone-transfer-history-blood-supply-and-contemporary-problems
#20
REVIEW
David S Sparks, Daniel B Saleh, Warren M Rozen, Dietmar W Hutmacher, Michael A Schuetz, Michael Wagels
BACKGROUND: Since the description of the free fibula flap by Taylor in 1975, many flaps composed of bone have been described. This review documents the history of vascularised bone transfer and reflects on the current understanding of blood supply in an effort to define all clinically described osseous flaps. METHODS: A structured review of MEDLINE and Google Scholar was performed to identify all clinically described bone flaps in humans. Data regarding patterns of vascularity were collected where available from the anatomical literature...
January 2017: Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery: JPRAS
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