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Madeleine M Puissant, Gary C Mouradian, Pengyuan Liu, Matthew R Hodges
Ventilation is continuously adjusted by a neural network to maintain blood gases and pH. Acute CO2 and/or pH regulation requires neural feedback from brainstem cells that encode CO2/pH to modulate ventilation, including but not limited to brainstem serotonin (5-HT) neurons. Brainstem 5-HT neurons modulate ventilation and are stimulated by hypercapnic acidosis, the sensitivity of which increases with increasing postnatal age. The proper function of brainstem 5-HT neurons, particularly during post-natal development is critical given that multiple abnormalities in the 5-HT system have been identified in victims of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Jun Zhou, Hongtao Chen, Chengxiang Yang, Jiying Zhong, Wanyou He, Qingming Xiong
Despite the consensus that activation of TWIK-related spinal cord K(+) (TRESK) might contribute to the pathogenesis of chronic pain, the specific mechanisms underlying the transfer and development of pain signals still remain obscure. In the present study, we validated that TRESK was expressed in neurons instead of glial cells. Furthermore, in the SNI model of neuropathic pain (NP), downregulation of TRESK in spinal cord neurons resulted in upregulation of connexin 36 (Cx36) and connexin 43 (Cx43), both being subtypes of gap junctions in the spinal cord, with gliocytes in the spinal cord activated ultimately...
February 3, 2017: Neurochemical Research
Delphine Vivier, Ismail Ben Soussia, Nuno Rodrigues, Stéphane Lolignier, Maïly Devilliers, Franck C Chatelain, Laetitia Prival, Eric Chapuy, Geoffrey Bourdier, Khalil Bennis, Florian Lesage, Alain Eschalier, Jérôme Busserolles, Sylvie Ducki
The TWIK-related K(+) channel, TREK-1, has recently emerged as an attractive therapeutic target for the development of a novel class of analgesic drugs, suggesting that activation of TREK-1 could result in pain inhibition. Here, we report the synthesis of a series of substituted acrylic acids (1-54) based on our previous work with caffeate esters. The analogues were evaluated for their ability to modulate TREK-1 channel by electrophysiology and for their in vivo antinociceptive activity (acetic acid-induced writhing and hot plate assays), leading to the identification of a series of novel molecules able to activate TREK-1 and displaying potent antinociceptive activity in vivo...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Noa Rappaport, Michal Twik, Inbar Plaschkes, Ron Nudel, Tsippi Iny Stein, Jacob Levitt, Moran Gershoni, C Paul Morrey, Marilyn Safran, Doron Lancet
The MalaCards human disease database ( is an integrated compendium of annotated diseases mined from 68 data sources. MalaCards has a web card for each of ∼20 000 disease entries, in six global categories. It portrays a broad array of annotation topics in 15 sections, including Summaries, Symptoms, Anatomical Context, Drugs, Genetic Tests, Variations and Publications. The Aliases and Classifications section reflects an algorithm for disease name integration across often-conflicting sources, providing effective annotation consolidation...
January 4, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
Melanie Kitagawa, David Durgan, Julia Reynolds, Robert Bryan, Lavannya Pandit
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Critical Care Medicine
Weiguang Weng, Ying Chen, Man Wang, Yinghan Zhuang, Thomas Behnisch
The elongation factor 2 kinase (eEF2K), likewise known as CaMKIII, has been demonstrated to be involved in antidepressant responses of NMDA receptor antagonists. Even so, it remains open whether direct inhibition of eEF2K without altering up-stream or other signaling pathways affects hippocampal synaptic transmission and neuronal network synchrony. Inhibition of eEF2K by the selective and potent eEF2K inhibitor A-484954 induced a fast pre-synaptically mediated enhancement of synaptic transmission and synchronization of neural network activity...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Fahima Syeda, Andrew P Holmes, Ting Y Yu, Samantha Tull, Stefan Michael Kuhlmann, Davor Pavlovic, Daniel Betney, Genna Riley, Jan P Kucera, Florian Jousset, Joris R de Groot, Stephan Rohr, Nigel A Brown, Larissa Fabritz, Paulus Kirchhof
BACKGROUND: Antiarrhythmic drugs are widely used to treat patients with atrial fibrillation (AF), but the mechanisms conveying their variable effectiveness are not known. Recent data suggested that paired like homeodomain-2 transcription factor (PITX2) might play an important role in regulating gene expression and electrical function of the adult left atrium (LA). OBJECTIVES: After determining LA PITX2 expression in AF patients requiring rhythm control therapy, the authors assessed the effects of Pitx2c on LA electrophysiology and the effect of antiarrhythmic drugs...
October 25, 2016: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
Ursula Ravens, Katja E Odening
Despite the epidemiological scale of atrial fibrillation, current treatment strategies are of limited efficacy and safety. Ideally, novel drugs should specifically correct the pathophysiological mechanisms responsible for atrial fibrillation with no other cardiac or extracardiac actions. Atrial-selective drugs are directed toward cellular targets with sufficiently different characteristics in atria and ventricles to modify only atrial function. Several potassium (K(+)) channels with either predominant expression in atria or distinct electrophysiological properties in atria and ventricles can serve as atrial-selective drug targets...
October 12, 2016: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Luis Marenco, Rixin Wang, Robert McDougal, Tsviya Olender, Michal Twik, Elspeth Bruford, Xinyi Liu, Jian Zhang, Doron Lancet, Gordon Shepherd, Chiquito Crasto
We present here an exploration of the evolution of three well-established, web-based resources dedicated to the dissemination of information related to olfactory receptors (ORs) and their functional ligands, odorants. These resources are: the Olfactory Receptor Database (ORDB), the Human Olfactory Data Explorer (HORDE) and ODORactor. ORDB is a repository of genomic and proteomic information related to ORs and other chemosensory receptors, such as taste and pheromone receptors. Three companion databases closely integrated with ORDB are OdorDB, ORModelDB and OdorMapDB; these resources are part of the SenseLab suite of databases (http://senselab...
2016: Database: the Journal of Biological Databases and Curation
Aymeric Monteillier, Alexandre Loucif, Kiyoyuki Omoto, Edward B Stevens, Sergio L Vicente, Pierre-Philippe Saintot, Lishuang Cao, David C Pryde
TRESK (Twik RElated Spinal cord K(+) channel) is a member of the Twin Pore Domain potassium channel (K2P) family responsible for regulating neuronal excitability in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and trigeminal (TG) neurons, peripheral neurons involved in pain transmission. As channel opening causes an outward K(+) current responsible for cell hyperpolarisation, TRESK represents a potentially interesting target for pain treatment. However, as no crystal structure exists for this protein, the mechanisms involved in the opening action of its ligands are still poorly understood, making the development of new potent and selective openers challenging...
October 15, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Pyung Sun Cho, Han Kyu Lee, Sang Hoon Lee, Jay Zoon Im, Sung Jun Jung
The analgesic mechanism of opioids is known to decrease the excitability of substantia gelatinosa (SG) neurons receiving the synaptic inputs from primary nociceptive afferent fiber by increasing inwardly rectifying K(+) current. In this study, we examined whether a µ-opioid agonist, [D-Ala2,N-Me-Phe4, Gly5-ol]-enkephalin (DAMGO), affects the two-pore domain K(+) channel (K2P) current in rat SG neurons using a slice whole-cell patch clamp technique. Also we confirmed which subtypes of K2P channels were associated with DAMGO-induced currents, measuring the expression of K2P channel in whole spinal cord and SG region...
September 2016: Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology
Hyun Jong Kim, Joohan Woo, Yuran Nam, Joo Hyun Nam, Woo Kyung Kim
Pyrazole derivatives were originally suggested as selective blockers of the transient receptor potential cation 3 (TRPC3) and channel. In particular, pyr3 and 10 selectively inhibit TRPC3, whereas pyr2 (BTP2) and 6 inhibit ORAI1. However, their effects on background K(+) channel activity have not been elucidated. In this study, the effects of BTP2, pyr3, pyr6, and pyr10 were studied on cloned human TWIK-related K(+) channels (TREKs) and TWIK-related acid-sensitive K(+) channel 2 (TASK-2) channels, which modulate Ca(2+) signaling by controlling membrane potential, in HEK293T-overexpressing cells by using a whole-cell patch clamp technique...
November 15, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
Victoria Oakes, Simone Furini, David Pryde, Carmen Domene
Potassium channels in the two-pore domain family (K2P) have various structural attributes that differ from those of other K(+) channels, including a dimeric assembly constituted of nonidentical domains and an expansive extracellular cap. Crystallization of the prototypical K2P channel, TWIK-1, finally revealed the structure of these characteristics in atomic detail, allowing computational studies to be undertaken. In this study, we performed molecular-dynamics simulations for a cumulative time of ∼1 μs to discern the mechanism of ion transport throughout TWIK-1...
August 23, 2016: Biophysical Journal
Kun Wang, Xiangang Kong
This study aimed to explore the neuroprotection and mechanism of isoflurane on rats with spinal cord ischemic injury. Total 40 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into the four groups (n=10). Group A was sham-operation group; group B was ischemia group; group C was isoflurane preconditioning group; group D was isoflurane preconditioning followed by ischemia treatment group. Then the expressions of TWIK-related K⁺ channel 1 (TREK1) in the four groups were detected by immunofluorescent assay, real time-polymerase chain reactions (RT-PCR) and western blot...
September 1, 2016: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
Hyun Park, Eun-Jin Kim, Jaehee Han, Jongwoo Han, Dawon Kang
TWIK-related K(+) channel-2 (TREK-2) and TWIK-related spinal cord K(+) (TRESK) channel are members of two-pore domain K(+) channel family. They are well expressed and help to set the resting membrane potential in sensory neurons. Modulation of TREK-2 and TRESK channels are involved in the pathogenesis of pain, and specifi c activators of TREK-2 and TRESK may be benefi cial for the treatment of pain symptoms. However, the effect of commonly used analgesics on TREK-2 and TRESK channels are not known. Here, we investigated the effect of analgesics on TREK-2 and TRESK channels...
July 2016: Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology
Gil Stelzer, Inbar Plaschkes, Danit Oz-Levi, Anna Alkelai, Tsviya Olender, Shahar Zimmerman, Michal Twik, Frida Belinky, Simon Fishilevich, Ron Nudel, Yaron Guan-Golan, David Warshawsky, Dvir Dahary, Asher Kohn, Yaron Mazor, Sergey Kaplan, Tsippi Iny Stein, Hagit N Baris, Noa Rappaport, Marilyn Safran, Doron Lancet
BACKGROUND: Next generation sequencing (NGS) provides a key technology for deciphering the genetic underpinnings of human diseases. Typical NGS analyses of a patient depict tens of thousands non-reference coding variants, but only one or very few are expected to be significant for the relevant disorder. In a filtering stage, one employs family segregation, rarity in the population, predicted protein impact and evolutionary conservation as a means for shortening the variation list. However, narrowing down further towards culprit disease genes usually entails laborious seeking of gene-phenotype relationships, consulting numerous separate databases...
2016: BMC Genomics
Ambily Nath Indu Viswanath, Seo Yun Jung, Eun Mi Hwang, Ki Duk Park, Sang Min Lim, Sun-Joon Min, Yong Seo Cho, Ae Nim Pae
TREK1 (Twik-RElated Potassium (K(+) ) channel 1), though a well characterized target for several neuropsychiatric disorders, underwent very few explorations for prototypic inhibitors. This study aimed to find diverse chemotypes by an in silico means. Homology-built TREK1 on docking with high affinity quaternary ammonium compounds (QAs) corroborated the previous findings by recreating the binding mode with proximally positioned key residues: Thr157, Thr266, Ile182, Leu189, and Leu304. Physical interactions between TREK1 and known antagonists were modeled to compensate the lack of ligand-bound protein crystal structures...
June 26, 2016: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
Gil Stelzer, Naomi Rosen, Inbar Plaschkes, Shahar Zimmerman, Michal Twik, Simon Fishilevich, Tsippi Iny Stein, Ron Nudel, Iris Lieder, Yaron Mazor, Sergey Kaplan, Dvir Dahary, David Warshawsky, Yaron Guan-Golan, Asher Kohn, Noa Rappaport, Marilyn Safran, Doron Lancet
GeneCards, the human gene compendium, enables researchers to effectively navigate and inter-relate the wide universe of human genes, diseases, variants, proteins, cells, and biological pathways. Our recently launched Version 4 has a revamped infrastructure facilitating faster data updates, better-targeted data queries, and friendlier user experience. It also provides a stronger foundation for the GeneCards suite of companion databases and analysis tools. Improved data unification includes gene-disease links via MalaCards and merged biological pathways via PathCards, as well as drug information and proteome expression...
2016: Current Protocols in Bioinformatics
Joohan Woo, Dong Hoon Shin, Hyun Jong Kim, Hae Young Yoo, Yin-Hua Zhang, Joo Hyun Nam, Woo Kyung Kim, Sung Joon Kim
TWIK-related two-pore domain K(+) channels 1 and 2 (TREKs) are activated under various physicochemical conditions. However, the directions in which they are regulated by PI(4,5)P2 and intracellular ATP are not clearly presented yet. In this study, we investigated the effects of ATP and PI(4,5)P2 on overexpressed TREKs (HEK293T and COS-7) and endogenously expressed TREK-2 (mouse astrocytes and WEHI-231 B cells). In all of these cells, both TREK-1 and TREK-2 currents were spontaneously increased by dialysis with ATP-free pipette solution for whole-cell recording (ITREK-1,w-c and ITREK-2w-c) or by membrane excision for inside-out patch clamping without ATP (ITREK-1,i-o and ITREK-2,i-o)...
August 2016: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Christian Jorgensen, Leonardo Darré, Victoria Oakes, Rubben Torella, David Pryde, Carmen Domene
Potassium channels are of paramount physiological and pathological importance and therefore constitute significant drug targets. One of the keys to rationalize the way drugs modulate ion channels is to understand the ability of such small molecules to access their respective binding sites, from which they can exert an activating or inhibitory effect. Many computational studies have probed the energetics of ion permeation, and the mechanisms of voltage gating, but little is known about the role of fenestrations as possible mediators of drug entry in potassium channels...
July 5, 2016: Molecular Pharmaceutics
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