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Hisao Tsukamoto, Masahiro Higashi, Hideyoshi Motoki, Hiroki Watanabe, Christian Ganser, Koichi Nakajo, Yoshihiro Kubo, Takayuki Uchihashi, Yuji Furutani
Canonical K+ channels are tetrameric and highly K+ selective, whereas two-pore domain K+ (K2P) channels form dimers, but with a similar pore architecture. A two-pore domain potassium channel TWIK1 (KCNK1 or K2P1) allows permeation of Na+ and other monovalent ions, resulting mainly from the presence of Thr118 in the P1 domain. However, the mechanistic basis for this reduced selectivity is unclear. Using ion-exchange-induced difference infrared spectroscopy, we analyzed WT TWIK1 and T118I (highly K+ selective) and L228F (substitution in the P2 domain) TWIK1 variants and found that in the presence of K+ ions, WT and both variants exhibit an amide-I band at 1680 cm-1 This band corresponds to interactions of the backbone carbonyls in the selectivity filter with K+ , a feature very similar to that of the canonical K+ channel KcsA...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Rômulo V Paixão, Josiane Ribolli, Evoy Zaniboni-Filho
Steindachneridion scriptum is an important species as a resource for fisheries and aquaculture; it is currently threatened and has a reduced occurrence in South America. The damming of rivers, overfishing, and contamination of freshwater environments are the main impacts on the maintenance of this species. We accessed the genetic diversity and structure of S. scriptum using the DNA barcode and control region (D-loop) sequences of 43 individuals from the Upper Uruguay River Basin (UUR) and 10 sequences from the Upper Paraná River Basin (UPR), which were obtained from GenBank...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
Zheng-Liang Wang, Tian-Zhao Wang, Hang-Feng Zhu, Zi-Ye Wang, Xiao-Ping Yu
Ladybird beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), with broad morphological diversity, wide geographic distribution and substantial agricultural significance, are a challenging group for taxonomists and phylogenetics. As a promising tool to identify and discover new species, DNA barcoding might offer significant potential for identification, taxonomy and phylogeny of ladybird beetles. In the present study, a total of 1364 COI (cytochrome C oxidase subunit I) sequences representing 128 species from 52 genera of ladybird beetles were screened for barcoding evaluation and phylogenetic analysis...
March 8, 2018: Mitochondrial DNA. Part A. DNA Mapping, Sequencing, and Analysis
Anna M Jażdżewska, Laure Corbari, Amy Driskell, Inmaculada Frutos, Charlotte Havermans, Ed Hendrycks, Lauren Hughes, Anne-Nina Lörz, Bente Stransky, Anne Helene S Tandberg, Wim Vader, Saskia Brix
Amphipods constitute an abundant part of Icelandic deep-sea zoobenthos yet knowledge of the diversity of this fauna, particularly at the molecular level, is scarce. The present work aims to use molecular methods to investigate genetic variation of the Amphipoda sampled during two IceAGE collecting expeditions. The mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI) of 167 individuals originally assigned to 75 morphospecies was analysed. These targeted morhospecies were readily identifiable by experts using light microscopy and representative of families where there is current ongoing taxonomic research...
2018: ZooKeys
Xiaobing Li, Xuejuan Shen, Xiao Chen, Dan Xiang, Robert W Murphy, Yongyi Shen
Fishes are, by far, the most diverse group of vertebrates. Their classification relies heavily on morphology. In practice, the correct morphological identification of species often depends on personal experience because many species vary in their body shape, color and other external characters. Thus, the identification of a species may be prone to errors. Due to the rapid development of molecular biology, the number of sequences of fishes deposited in GenBank has grown explosively. These published data likely contain errors owing to invalid or incorrectly identified species...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
Mark A Skarsfeldt, Sofia H Bomholtz, Pia R Lundegaard, Angelica Lopez-Izquierdo, Martin Tristani-Firouzi, Bo Hjorth Bentzen
AIM: The zebrafish has emerged as a novel model for investigating cardiac physiology and pathology. The aim of the current study is to investigate the atrium specific ion channels responsible for shaping the atrial cardiac action potential in zebrafish. METHODS: Using quantitative polymerase chain reaction we assessed the expression level of atrium specific potassium channels. The functional role of these channels was studied by patch clamp experiments on isolated atrial and ventricular cardiomyocytes, and by optical mapping of explanted adult zebrafish hearts...
February 7, 2018: Acta Physiologica
Nicholas C Vierra, Matthew T Dickerson, Kelli L Jordan, Prasanna K Dadi, Ketaki A Kadare, Molly K Altman, Sarah C Milian, David A Jacobson
OBJECTIVE: Single-cell RNA sequencing studies have revealed that the type-2 diabetes associated two-pore domain K+ (K2P) channel TALK-1 is abundantly expressed in somatostatin-secreting δ-cells. However, a physiological role for TALK-1 in δ-cells remains unknown. We previously determined that in β-cells, K+ flux through endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-localized TALK-1 channels enhances ER Ca2+ leak, modulating Ca2+ handling and insulin secretion. As glucose amplification of islet somatostatin release relies on Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release (CICR) from the δ-cell ER, we investigated whether TALK-1 modulates δ-cell Ca2+ handling and somatostatin secretion...
January 31, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
Gaurang G Gowande, Sanket Tembe, Hemant V Ghate
Cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene (COI) sequences of roughly 509 bp length for various species of the Infraorder Pentatomomorpha were generated. K2P divergences within and between species and genera were calculated and compared using newly generated sequences and the ones available on online portals. Mean interspecific (within-genus) genetic divergence (14.23%) was ∼ eight times greater than mean intraspecific (within-species) divergence (1.79%). Distance-based as well as character-based approaches were used towards constructing (COI) trees...
February 1, 2018: Mitochondrial DNA. Part A. DNA Mapping, Sequencing, and Analysis
Yotesawee Srisomboon, Nathan A Zaidman, Peter J Maniak, Chatsri Deachapunya, Scott M O'Grady
The objective of this study was to determine the molecular identity of ion channels involved in K+ secretion by the mammary epithelium and to examine their regulation by purinoceptor agonists. Apical membrane voltage clamp experiments were performed on human mammary epithelial cells where the basolateral membrane was exposed to the pore-forming antibiotic amphotericin B dissolved in a solution with intracellular-like ionic composition. Addition of the Na+ channel inhibitor benzamil reduced the basal current, consistent with inhibition of Na+ uptake across the apical membrane whereas the KCa 3...
January 24, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
Seung Eun Bae, Hanna Kim, Seok-Gwan Choi, Jin-Koo Kim
Competitive overexploitation of the slender armorhead, Pentaceros wheeleri, a deep-sea fish inhabiting the Emperor Seamount Chain caused a serious population decline. Therefore, it is urgently necessary to clarify its genetic diversity and connectivity among populations of P. wheeleri for appropriate stock management. For this, we compared 677 base pairs (bp) of mitochondrial (mt) DNA control region (CR) sequences of 80 individuals from three seamounts (the Milwaukee, Kinmei, and Koko Seamounts) in the southern part of the Emperor Seamount Chain...
January 12, 2018: Mitochondrial DNA. Part A. DNA Mapping, Sequencing, and Analysis
Chang-Hoon Cho, Eun Mi Hwang, Jae-Yong Park
Two-pore domain K⁺ (K2P) channels play essential roles in regulating resting membrane potential and cellular excitability. Although TWIK-1 (TWIK-tandem of pore domains in a weak inward rectifying K ⁺ channel) was the first identified member of the K2P channel family, it is only in recent years that the physiological roles of TWIK-1 have been studied in depth. A series of reports suggest that TWIK-1 may underlie diverse functions, such as intrinsic excitability of neurons, astrocytic passive conductance, and astrocytic glutamate release, as a homodimer or heterodimer with other K2P isotypes...
December 24, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Natalie Rotermund, Svenja Winandy, Timo Fischer, Kristina Schulz, Torsten Fregin, Nadine Breitkreutz, Melanie Buchta, Janick Bartels, Mattias Carlström, Christian Lohr, Daniela Hirnet
Neuromodulation by adenosine is of critical importance in many brain regions, but the role of adenosine in olfactory information processing has not been studied so far. We investigated the effects of adenosine on mitral cells, which are projection neurons of the olfactory bulb. Significant expression of A1 and A2A receptors was found in mitral cells, as demonstrated by in situ hybridization. Application of adenosine in acute olfactory bulb slices hyperpolarized mitral cells in wild type, but not in adenosine A1 receptor knockout mice...
December 22, 2017: Journal of Physiology
Marcelo Vargas-Ortiz, Dante Bobadilla, Wilson Huanca-Mamani, Héctor A Vargas
Analysis of maternally inherited genes is especially helpful in population studies of host-specialized insects, as female dispersal is key to find an adequate host plant to ensure larval survival. Bucculatrix mirnae (Lepidoptera: Bucculatricidae) is a little-known Neotropical micromoth native to the arid environments of northern Chile whose hypermetamorphic larvae are miners and skeletonizers on leaves of two species of Baccharis (Asteraceae) shrubs. This micromoth has been detected in three isolated locations embracing a narrow geographic range: two from the coastal valleys of the Atacama Desert near sea level and one from the western slopes of the Andes at about 3000 m elevation...
December 22, 2017: Mitochondrial DNA. Part A. DNA Mapping, Sequencing, and Analysis
Yuki Tanabe, Ryota Hayashi, Shinri Tomioka, Keiichi Kakui
We describe Hexapleomera urashima sp. nov. from the carapaces of loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) on Yakushi-ma Island, southwestern Japan, the primary nesting site for the North Pacific population of this turtle. Hexapleomera urashima closely resembles H. edgari Bamber collected from Australian loggerheads (South Pacific population), sharing a uropod with four articles and maxillipedal endites with distal spiniform setae, but differs in having the maxillipedal coxa with two simple setae, the maxillipedal endite with two tiny dorsosubdistal and two distal spiniform setae, the labial palp fused to the outer lobe of the labium, and the basal article of pleopod 3 without inner setae...
November 22, 2017: Zootaxa
Wagner F Magalhães, Katrin Linse, Helena Wiklund
The genus Raricirrus is characterized by the absence of feeding palps, presence of filamentous branchiae, posterior segments shorter and wider than preceding ones, and by having diverse types of chaetae, including serrate capillaries, long natatory capillaries, falcate and finely pectinate, coarsely serrate chaetae and simple curved spines. A new species of Raricirrus is proposed based on morphological and mitochondrial DNA data. The K2P distance comparison of 16S and COI sequences from Raricirrus specimens collected from sunken wood in the deep-sea (3100 m) off Monterey, California, differed in less than 0...
November 22, 2017: Zootaxa
Andre Wagner, Laurent Vuataz, Michel Sartori
A new species belonging to the speciose genus Electrogena Zurwerra & Tomka, 1985 is described based on all stages from material collected in Switzerland, northern Italy and Slovenia. Electrogena brulini Wagner sp. nov. is closely related to E. gridellii (Grandi, 1953). A genetic analysis based on the mitochondrial gene CO1, including 9 specimens from 5 populations, reveals a K2P distance of 22% between both species. Our investigations demonstrate that the description of the nymph of E. gridellii sensu Belfiore (1996) refers in fact to both species...
December 5, 2017: Zootaxa
Scott M O'Grady
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Susanne Rinné, Aytug K Kiper, Constanze Schmidt, Beatriz Ortiz-Bonnin, Simone Zwiener, Guiscard Seebohm, Niels Decher
BACKGROUND/AIMS: TASK channels belong to the two-pore-domain potassium (K2P) channel family. TASK-1 is discussed to contribute to chronic atrial fibrillation (AFib) and has been together with uncoupling protein 1 found as a marker protein of brown adipose tissue (BAT) fat. In addition, TASK-1 was linked in a genome-wide association study to an increased body mass index. A recent study showed that TASK-1 inhibition is causing obesity in mice by a BAT whitening and that these effects are linked to the mineralocorticoid receptor pathway, albeit the mechanism remained elusive...
2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Rafael J Vivero, María Angélica Contreras, Juan D Suaza, Iván D Vélez, Charles Porter, Sandra Uribe
INTRODUCTION: The departments of Chocó and Antioquia in Colombia show climatic and vegetation conditions favoring the establishment of vector species of the genus Lutzomyia and the transmission of Leishmania spp. to human populations entering conserved forest environments. OBJECTIVE: To report the species of Phlebotomine sandflies present in three natural reserves in the Darien and Pacific regions of Colombia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sand flies were collected specifically in the natural reserves El Aguacate (Acandí, Chocó), Nabugá (Bahía Solano, Chocó) and Tulenapa (Carepa, Antioquia)...
March 29, 2017: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
Eun-Jin Kim, Dong Kun Lee, Seong-Geun Hong, Jaehee Han, Dawon Kang
Earlier studies have demonstrated that the tandem pore domain weak inward rectifying K⁺ channel (TWIK)-related K⁺ (TREK)-1 channel is inhibited by antidepressants and is associated with major depression. However, little is known about the effect of mood stabilizers that are commonly used for treatment of bipolar disorder on TREK channels, members of the two-pore domain K⁺ (K2P ) channel family. This study sought to investigate the effect of mood stabilizers on TREK-1 and TREK-2 channels. HEK-293A cells were transfected with human TREK-1 or TREK-2 DNA...
November 19, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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