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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871204/dna-barcoding-of-a-colonial-ascidian-lissoclinum-fragile-van-name-1902
#1
Jaffarali H Abdul, Soban Akram, Kaleem M L Arshan
Ascidians (tunicates) are marine benthic organisms possessing various pharmacological activities, including anti-oxidant, anti-tumour, antimicrobial, etc. They also play a key role as model organisms to study various neurobehavioral disorders. Ascidian diversity is reportedly less in India due to lack of taxonomists as well as the limitations in morphology based taxonomy. Molecular taxonomy, comprising the sequencing of cytochrome c oxidase 1 gene (barcode region) otherwise known as DNA barcoding reduces these bottlenecks...
November 22, 2016: Mitochondrial DNA. Part A. DNA Mapping, Sequencing, and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811749/use-of-dna-barcoding-to-distinguish-the-malaria-vector-anopheles-neivai-in-colombia
#2
Andrés López-Rubio, Juan Suaza-Vasco, Paula L Marcet, Natalia Ruíz-Molina, Lorenzo Cáceres, Charles Porter, Sandra Uribe
A reference 535 bp barcode sequence from a fragment of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase I (COI), acquired from specimens of An. neivai Howard, Dyar & Knab, 1913 from its type locality in Panama, was used as a tool for distinguishing this species from others in the subgenus Kerteszia. Comparisons with corresponding regions of COI between An. neivai and other species in the subgenus (An. bellator Dyar & Knab 1906, An. homunculus Komp 1937, An cruzii Dyar & Knab, 1908 and An. laneanus Corrêa & Cerqueira, 1944) produced K2P genetic distances of 8...
October 17, 2016: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805811/selective-small-molecule-activators-of-trek-2-channels-stimulate-drg-c-fiber-nociceptor-k2p-currents-and-limit-calcium-influx
#3
Prassana K Dadi, Nicholas Catin Vierra, Emily L Days, Matthew Dickerson, Paige N Vinson, C David Weaver, David A Jacobson
The two-pore-domain potassium (K2P) channel TREK-2 serves to modulate plasma membrane potential in dorsal root ganglia c-fiber nociceptors, which tunes electrical excitability and nociception. Thus, TREK-2 activators are considered a potential therapeutic target for treating pain; however, there are currently no selective pharmacological tools for TREK-2 channels. Here we report the identification of the first TREK-2 selective activators using a high-throughput fluorescence-based thallium (Tl(+)) flux screen (HTS)...
November 2, 2016: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790056/two-pore-domain-potassium-channels-in-astrocytes
#4
REVIEW
Kanghyun Ryoo, Jae-Yong Park
Two-pore domain potassium (K2P) channels have a distinct structure and channel properties, and are involved in a background K(+) current. The 15 members of the K2P channels are identified and classified into six subfamilies on the basis of their sequence similarities. The activity of the channels is dynamically regulated by various physical, chemical, and biological effectors. The channels are expressed in a wide variety of tissues in mammals in an isoform specific manner, and play various roles in many physiological and pathophysiological conditions...
October 2016: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743426/14-3-3-proteins-regulate-k2p-5-1-surface-expression-on-t-lymphocytes
#5
Juncal Fernández-Orth, Petra Ehling, Tobias Ruck, Susann Pankratz, Majella-Sophie Hofmann, Peter Landgraf, Daniela C Dieterich, Karl-Heinz Smalla, Thilo Kähne, Guiscard Seebohm, Thomas Budde, Heinz Wiendl, Stefan Bittner, Sven G Meuth
K2P 5.1 channels (also called TASK-2 or KCNK5) have already been shown to be relevant in the pathophysiology of autoimmune disease since they are known to be upregulated on peripheral and central T lymphocytes of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Moreover, overexpression of K2P 5.1 channels in vitro provokes enhanced T-cell effector functions. However, the molecular mechanisms regulating intracellular K2P 5.1 channel trafficking are unknown so far. Thus, the aim of the study is to elucidate the trafficking of K2P 5...
October 15, 2016: Traffic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742566/atrial-fibrillation-therapeutic-potential-of-atrial-k-channel-blockers
#6
Ursula Ravens, Katja E Odening
Despite the epidemiological scale of atrial fibrillation, current treatment strategies are of limited efficacy and safety. Ideally, novel drugs should specifically correct the pathophysiological mechanisms responsible for atrial fibrillation with no other cardiac or extracardiac actions. Atrial-selective drugs are directed toward cellular targets with sufficiently different characteristics in atria and ventricles to modify only atrial function. Several potassium (K(+)) channels with either predominant expression in atria or distinct electrophysiological properties in atria and ventricles can serve as atrial-selective drug targets...
October 12, 2016: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27728993/identification-of-four-indian-ascidians-based-on-coi-gene-sequences
#7
H Abdul Jaffarali, Soban Akram, Kaleem Ml Arshan
DNA barcoding involving the sequencing of a short mitochondrial DNA segment, cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COI) gene, is a specialized technique for the identification of species even at the early embryonic and larval stages, which is quite difficult in morphology-based taxonomy. Ascidians are sessile invertebrate chordates possessing numerous biochemical as well as pharmacological activities. In this study, a total of 36 ascidian samples belonging to the family Didemnidae were sequenced for a 650 bp region of the mitochondrial COI gene...
October 11, 2016: Mitochondrial DNA. Part A. DNA Mapping, Sequencing, and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717215/dna-barcodes-of-the-native-ray-finned-fishes-in-taiwan
#8
Chia-Hao Chang, Kwang-Tsao Shao, Han-Yang Lin, Yung-Chieh Chiu, Mao-Ying Lee, Shih-Hui Liu, Pai-Lei Lin
Species identification based on the DNA sequence of a fragment of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene in the mitochondrial genome, DNA barcoding, is widely applied to assist in sustainable exploitation of fish resources and the protection of fish biodiversity. The aim of this study was to establish a reliable barcoding reference database of the native ray-finned fishes in Taiwan. A total of 2,993 individuals, belonging to 1,245 species within 637 genera, 184 families, and 29 orders of ray-finned fishes and representing approximately 40% of the recorded ray-finned fishes in Taiwan, were PCR amplified at the barcode region and bidirectionally sequenced...
September 26, 2016: Molecular Ecology Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27715419/cosmopolitan-or-cryptic-species-a-case-study-of-capitella-teleta-annelida-capitellidae
#9
Shinri Tomioka, Tomohiko Kondoh, Waka Sato-Okoshi, Katsutoshi Ito, Keiichi Kakui, Hiroshi Kajihara
Capitella teleta Blake et al., 2009 is an opportunistic capitellid originally described from Massachusetts (USA), but also reported from the Mediterranean, NW Atlantic, and North Pacific, including Japan. This putatively wide distribution had not been tested with DNA sequence data; intraspecific variation in morphological characters diagnostic for the species had not been assessed with specimens from non-type localities, and the species status of the Japanese population(s) was uncertain. We examined the morphology and mitochondrial COI (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I) gene sequences of Capitella specimens from two localities (Ainan and Gamo) in Japan...
October 2016: Zoological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27701290/three-new-brackish-water-thalassocypridine-species-crustacea-ostracoda-paracyprididae-from-the-ryukyu-islands-southwestern-japan
#10
Shimpei F Hiruta, Keiichi Kakui
We describe three new species of brackish-water ostracods representing two genera in the ostracod tribe Thalassocypridini from mangrove forests in the Ryukyu Islands, subtropical southwestern Japan, and provide their barcoding sequences for the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene. Mangalocypria ryukyuensis sp. nov. was found on Okinawa Island. We also found a Mangalocypria population on Ishigaki Island that was morphologically identical to M. ryukyuensis on Okinawa, but an individual differed by 4...
September 21, 2016: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27701182/eidinemacheilus-proudlovei-a-new-subterranean-loach-from-iraqi-kurdistan-teleostei-nemacheilidae
#11
Jörg Freyhof, Younis Sabir Abdullah, Korsh Ararat, Hamad Ibrahim, Matthias F Geiger
Eidinemacheilus proudlovei, new species, is described from subterranean waters in the Little Zab River drainage in Iraqi Kurdistan. After the discovery of E. smithi in 1976, E. proudlovei is the second troglomorphic nemacheilid loach found in the Middle East and the second species placed in Eidinemacheilus. Eidinemacheilus proudlovei is distinguished from E. smithi by having 8+8 or 8+7 branched caudal-fin rays, no adipose keel on the caudal peduncle, enlarged jaws and a fully developed head canal system. It furthers differs substantially in its DNA barcode (>8% K2P distance) from all other nemacheilid loaches in the Middle East, Europe and Western India...
October 4, 2016: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27667958/how-reliably-can-northeast-atlantic-sand-lances-of-the-genera-ammodytes-and-hyperoplus-be-distinguished-a-comparative-application-of-morphological-and-molecular-methods
#12
Ralf Thiel, Thomas Knebelsberger
Accurate stock assessments for each of the dominant species of sand lances in the northeast Atlantic Ocean and adjacent areas are not available due to the lack of a reliable identification procedure; therefore, appropriate measures of fisheries management or conservation of sand lances cannot be implemented. In this study, detailed morphological and molecular features are assessed to discriminate between four species of sand lances belonging to the genera Ammodytes and Hyperoplus. Morphological characters described by earlier authors as useful for identification of the genera are confirmed, and two additional distinguishing characters are added...
2016: ZooKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27641472/investigation-of-the-structure-activity-relationship-of-flufenamic-acid-derivatives-at-the-human-tresk-channel-k2p18-1
#13
Aymeric Monteillier, Alexandre Loucif, Kiyoyuki Omoto, Edward B Stevens, Sergio L Vicente, Pierre-Philippe Saintot, Lishuang Cao, David C Pryde
TRESK (Twik RElated Spinal cord K(+) channel) is a member of the Twin Pore Domain potassium channel (K2P) family responsible for regulating neuronal excitability in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and trigeminal (TG) neurons, peripheral neurons involved in pain transmission. As channel opening causes an outward K(+) current responsible for cell hyperpolarisation, TRESK represents a potentially interesting target for pain treatment. However, as no crystal structure exists for this protein, the mechanisms involved in the opening action of its ligands are still poorly understood, making the development of new potent and selective openers challenging...
October 15, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27610039/damgo-modulates-two-pore-domain-k-channels-in-the-substantia-gelatinosa-neurons-of-rat-spinal-cord
#14
Pyung Sun Cho, Han Kyu Lee, Sang Hoon Lee, Jay Zoon Im, Sung Jun Jung
The analgesic mechanism of opioids is known to decrease the excitability of substantia gelatinosa (SG) neurons receiving the synaptic inputs from primary nociceptive afferent fiber by increasing inwardly rectifying K(+) current. In this study, we examined whether a µ-opioid agonist, [D-Ala2,N-Me-Phe4, Gly5-ol]-enkephalin (DAMGO), affects the two-pore domain K(+) channel (K2P) current in rat SG neurons using a slice whole-cell patch clamp technique. Also we confirmed which subtypes of K2P channels were associated with DAMGO-induced currents, measuring the expression of K2P channel in whole spinal cord and SG region...
September 2016: Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27609637/mitochondrial-coi-gene-as-a-tool-in-the-taxonomy-of-mosquitoes-culex-subgenus-melanoconion
#15
Carolina Torres-Gutierrez, Eduardo Sterlino Bergo, Kevin J Emerson, Tatiane M P de Oliveira, Susan Greni, Maria Anice Mureb Sallum
The subgenus Melanoconion is the second largest subgenus within the genus Culex, with 160 described species. Several of the species are proven vectors of arboviruses, including West Nile virus, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus complex and Eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus. Species of Melanoconion are well distributed from southern North America to most countries of South America and display the highest species diversity in tropical regions. Taxonomical identification within this group has been primarily based on morphological characters, with the male genitalia as the source of the most solid diagnostic features...
September 5, 2016: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27563229/efficiency-of-matk-rbcl-trnh-psba-and-trnl-f-cpdna-to-molecularly-authenticate-philippine-ethnomedicinal-apocynaceae-through-dna-barcoding
#16
Vincent Louie Domingo Cabelin, Grecebio Jonathan Duran Alejandro
BACKGROUND: The Philippines is home to some ethnomedicinal Apocynaceae that has been used to cure common ailments. They are perceived to be safe, but misidentification can lead to substitution and adulteration. Morphological characters are primarily utilized to identify these species but a new method utilizing molecular characters called DNA barcoding has emerged. In this study, the efficiency of matK, rbcL, trnH-psbA, and trnL-F to molecularly authenticate selected Apocynaceae species were tested...
May 2016: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27558721/exploring-the-dynamics-of-the-twik-1-channel
#17
Victoria Oakes, Simone Furini, David Pryde, Carmen Domene
Potassium channels in the two-pore domain family (K2P) have various structural attributes that differ from those of other K(+) channels, including a dimeric assembly constituted of nonidentical domains and an expansive extracellular cap. Crystallization of the prototypical K2P channel, TWIK-1, finally revealed the structure of these characteristics in atomic detail, allowing computational studies to be undertaken. In this study, we performed molecular-dynamics simulations for a cumulative time of ∼1 μs to discern the mechanism of ion transport throughout TWIK-1...
August 23, 2016: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27535928/complex-locomotion-behavior-changes-are-induced-in-caenorhabditis-elegans-by-the-lack-of-the-regulatory-leak-k-channel-twk-7
#18
Kai Lüersen, Dieter-Christian Gottschling, Frank Döring
The change of locomotion activity in response to external cues is a considerable achievement of animals and is required for escape responses, foraging, and other complex behaviors. Little is known about the molecular regulators of such an adaptive locomotion. The conserved eukaryotic two-pore domain potassium (K2P) channels have been recognized as regulatory K(+) channels that modify the membrane potential of cells, thereby affecting, e.g., rhythmic muscle activity. By using the Caenorhabditis elegans system combined with cell-type-specific approaches and locomotion in-depth analyses, here, we found that the loss of K2P channel TWK-7 increases the locomotor activity of worms during swimming and crawling in a coordinated mode...
October 2016: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27521425/the-role-of-stretch-activated-ion-channels-in-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-finally-a-new-target
#19
REVIEW
Andreas Schwingshackl
Mechanical ventilation (MV) and oxygen therapy (hyperoxia; HO) comprise the cornerstones of life-saving interventions for patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Unfortunately, the side effects of MV and HO include exacerbation of lung injury by barotrauma, volutrauma, and propagation of lung inflammation. Despite significant improvements in ventilator technologies and a heightened awareness of oxygen toxicity, besides low tidal volume ventilation few if any medical interventions have improved ARDS outcomes over the past two decades...
September 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27496517/b1c-genetic-subtype-of-coxsackievirus-a16-associated-with-hand-foot-and-mouth-disease-in-andaman-islands-india
#20
Surya Palani, Muruganandam Nagarajan, Ashok Kumar Biswas, Anwesh Maile, Vijayachari Paluru
BACKGROUND: An outbreak of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) occurred in the Andaman Islands in 2013. Therefore, we aimed to identify the aetiological agent and to explore its genetic characteristics. METHODS: Clinical specimens were subjected to virus isolation, further confirmed by sequencing the partial VP1/2A region of enterovirus, and analysed using MEGA 6 software with intra-serotype reference sequences. RESULTS: Coxsackievirus A16 (CV A16) was found to be the causative agent, closely grouped with B1c genetic clusters of CV A16...
July 2016: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
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