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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933086/-identification-of-dryopteridis-crassirhizomatis-rhizoma-based-on-psba-trnh-barcode
#1
Zhen-Jiao Cai, Ya-Nan Wu, Liang Xu, Rong Zhao, Bing Wang, Ting-Guo Kang
To identify origin of the medicinal materials Dryopteridis Crassirhizomatis Rhizoma by using the psbA-trnH sequence, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and product sequencing of the experimental samples were performed. In order to expand the scope of the study, the psbA-trnH sequences of 8 genera and 3 species were downloaded from GenBank for analysis. DNAMAN 8.0 software was used to show splicing and comparison results of the peak diagrams with analysis of them, and MEGA 6.0 software was to calculate K2P genetic distances and establish clustering tree adjacent genus...
November 2016: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923939/asymmetric-mechanosensitivity-in-a-eukaryotic-ion-channel
#2
Michael V Clausen, Viwan Jarerattanachat, Elisabeth P Carpenter, Mark S P Sansom, Stephen J Tucker
Living organisms perceive and respond to a diverse range of mechanical stimuli. A variety of mechanosensitive ion channels have evolved to facilitate these responses, but the molecular mechanisms underlying their exquisite sensitivity to different forces within the membrane remains unclear. TREK-2 is a mammalian two-pore domain (K2P) K(+) channel important for mechanosensation, and recent studies have shown how increased membrane tension favors a more expanded conformation of the channel within the membrane...
September 18, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921904/developing-a-dna-barcode-library-for-perciform-fishes-in-the-south-china-sea-species-identification-accuracy-and-cryptic-diversity
#3
Gang Hou, Wei-Tao Chen, Huo-Sheng Lu, Fei Cheng, Song-Guang Xie
DNA barcodes were studied for 1,353 specimens representing 272 morphological species belonging to 149 genera and 55 families of Perciformes from the South China Sea (SCS). The average Kimura 2-parameter (K2P) distances within species, genera, and families were 0.31%, 8.71%, and 14.52%, respectively. A Neighbor-joining (NJ) tree, Bayesian inference (BI) and maximum-likelihood (ML) trees and Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery (ABGD) revealed 260, 253 and 259 single-species-representing clusters, respectively. Barcoding Gap Analysis (BGA) demonstrated that barcode gaps were present for 178 of 187 species analysed with multiple specimens (95...
September 15, 2017: Molecular Ecology Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905379/a-new-species-of-pomatoschistus-teleostei-gobiidae-the%C3%A2-mediterranean-s-smallest-marine-fish
#4
S Engin, D Seyhan
The new sand goby species Pomatoschistus nanus (Teleostei: Gobiidae) is described from the northern coast of the Levantine Sea (eastern Mediterranean Sea) based on both morphological and DNA barcoding data. The new species is the smallest fish in the Mediterranean Sea and may be distinguished from congeners by the following features: predorsal area, first dorsal-fin base and breast naked; δ-pore missing; anterior point of the suborbital row b not reaching level of posterior point of suborbital row d; slightly emarginated caudal fin and nape coloration pattern...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882594/terbinafine-is-a-novel-and-selective-activator-of-the-two-pore-domain-potassium-channel-task3
#5
Paul D Wright, Emma L Veale, David McCoull, David C Tickle, Jonathan M Large, Emma Ococks, Gemma Gothard, Catherine Kettleborough, Alistair Mathie, Jeffrey Jerman
Two-pore domain potassium channels (K2Ps) are characterized by their four transmembrane domain and two-pore topology. They carry background (or leak) potassium current in a variety of cell types. Despite a number of important roles there is currently a lack of pharmacological tools with which to further probe K2P function. We have developed a cell-based thallium flux assay, using baculovirus delivered TASK3 (TWIK-related acid-sensitive K(+) channel 3, KCNK9, K2P9.1) with the aim of identifying novel, selective TASK3 activators...
September 5, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882174/molecular-phylogeny-of-anopheles-hyrcanus-group-members-based-on-its2-rdna
#6
Yuan Fang, Wen-Qi Shi, Yi Zhang
BACKGROUND: The Anopheles hyrcanus group includes 25 species, and is widely distributed in the Oriental and Palaearctic regions. Several species within this group are vectors of malaria, lymphatic filariasis and Japanese encephalitis. It is difficult or impossible to identify cryptic species based on their morphological characteristics, with some closely related species of the Hyrcanus Group have similar adult morphological characteristics. Thus, their molecular identification has been an important complementary method to traditional morphological taxonomy...
September 7, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851868/an-allosteric-ligand-binding-site-in-the-extracellular-cap-of-k2p-channels
#7
Qichao Luo, Liping Chen, Xi Cheng, Yuqin Ma, Xiaona Li, Bing Zhang, Li Li, Shilei Zhang, Fei Guo, Yang Li, Huaiyu Yang
Two-pore domain potassium (K2P) channels generate leak currents that are responsible for the maintenance of the resting membrane potential, and they are thus potential drug targets for treating diseases. Here, we identify N-(4-cholorphenyl)-N-(2-(3,4-dihydrosioquinolin-2(1H)-yl)-2-oxoethyl)methanesulfonamide (TKDC) as an inhibitor of the TREK subfamily, including TREK-1, TREK-2 and TRAAK channels. Using TKDC as a chemical probe, a study combining computations, mutagenesis and electrophysiology reveals a K2P allosteric ligand-binding site located in the extracellular cap of the channels...
August 29, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28839101/hyperoxia-treatment-of-trek-1-trek-2-traak-deficient-mice-is-associated-with-a-reduction-in-surfactant-proteins
#8
Andreas Schwingshackl, Benjamin Lopez, Bin Teng, Charlean L Luellen, Florian Lesage, John Belperio, Riccardo Olcese, Christopher M Waters
We previously proposed a role for the 2-pore domain potassium (K2P) channel TREK-1 in hyperoxia (HO)-induced lung injury. To determine whether redundancy between the 3 TREK isoforms (TREK-1, TREK-2, TRAAK) could protect from HO-induced injury, we now examined the effect of deletion of all 3 TREK isoforms in a clinically relevant scenario of prolonged HO exposure and mechanical ventilation (MV). We exposed WT and TREK-1/TREK-2/TRAAK-deficient (triple ko) mice to either room air, 72 hours HO, MV (high and low tidal volume), or a combination of HO+MV, and measured quasi-static lung compliance, BAL protein concentration, histologic lung injury scores (LIS), cellular apoptosis, and cytokine levels...
August 24, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769640/molecular-and-morphological-identification-of-biomphalaria-species-from-the-state-of-s%C3%A3-o-paulo-brazil
#9
Raquel Gardini Sanches Palasio, Marisa Cristina de Almeida Guimarães, Fernanda Pires Ohlweiler, Roseli Tuan
DNA barcoding and morphological characters were used to identify adult snails belonging to the genus Biomphalaria from 17 municipalities in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. The DNA barcode analysis also included twenty-nine sequences retrieved from GenBank. The final data set of 104 sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene was analyzed for K2P intraspecific and interspecific divergences, through tree-reconstruction methods (Neighbor-Joining, Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian inference), and by applying different models (ABGD, bPTP, GMYC) to partition the sequences according to the pattern of genetic variation...
2017: ZooKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743954/molecular-diversity-of-benthic-ctenophores-coeloplanidae
#10
Ada Alamaru, Bert W Hoeksema, Sancia E T van der Meij, Dorothée Huchon
Coeloplanidae, the largest family of benthic ctenophores, comprises 33 species, all described based on traditional morphological characteristics, such as coloration, length, and number of aboral papillae, which are highly variable and can be affected by fixation methods and environmental conditions. Thus, there is a need for reliable genetic markers to complement the morphological identifications at the species level. Here, we analyzed 95 specimens from 11 morphologically distinct species of benthic ctenophores from the Red Sea and Sulu Sea, and tested selected regions of four genetic markers (ITS1, 18S rRNA, 28S rRNA and COI) for their ability to differentiate between species...
July 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738160/atrial-selective-k-channel-blockers-potential-antiarrhythmic-drugs-in-atrial-fibrillation
#11
Ursula Ravens
In the wake of demographic change in Western countries atrial fibrillation has reached an epidemiological scale, yet current strategies for drug treatment of the arrhythmia lack sufficient efficacy and safety. In search of novel medications, atrial-selective drugs that specifically target atrial over other cardiac functions have been developed. In this lecture, I will address drugs acting on potassium (K+) channels that are either predominantly expressed in atria or possess electrophysiological properties distinct in atria from ventricles...
July 24, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728824/origin-of-the-force-the-force-from-lipids-principle-applied-to-piezo-channels
#12
C D Cox, N Bavi, B Martinac
Piezo channels are a ubiquitously expressed, principal type of molecular force sensor in eukaryotes. They enable cells to decode a myriad of physical stimuli and are essential components of numerous mechanosensory processes. Central to their physiological role is the ability to change conformation in response to mechanical force. Here we discuss the evolutionary origin of Piezo in relation to other MS channels in addition to the force that gates Piezo channels. In particular, we discuss whether Piezo channels are inherently mechanosensitive in accordance with the force-from-lipid paradigm which has been firmly established for bacterial MS channels and two-pore domain K(+) (K2P) channels...
2017: Current Topics in Membranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728818/mechanosensitive-piezo-channels-in-the-gastrointestinal-tract
#13
C Alcaino, G Farrugia, A Beyder
Sensation of mechanical forces is critical for normal function of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and abnormalities in mechanosensation are linked to GI pathologies. In the GI tract there are several mechanosensitive cell types-epithelial enterochromaffin cells, intrinsic and extrinsic enteric neurons, smooth muscle cells and interstitial cells of Cajal. These cells use mechanosensitive ion channels that respond to mechanical forces by altering transmembrane ionic currents in a process called mechanoelectrical coupling...
2017: Current Topics in Membranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723241/the-effects-of-stretch-activation-on-ionic-selectivity-of-the-trek-2-k2p-k-channel
#14
Ehsan Nematian-Ardestani, Viwan Jarerattanachat, Prafulla Aryal, Mark S P Sansom, Stephen J Tucker
The TREK-2 (KCNK10) K2P potassium channel can be regulated by variety of polymodal stimuli including pressure. In a recent study, we demonstrated that this mechanosensitive K(+) channel responds to changes in membrane tension by undergoing a major structural change from its 'down' state to the more expanded 'up' state conformation. These changes are mostly restricted to the lower part of the protein within the bilayer, but are allosterically coupled to the primary gating mechanism located within the selectivity filter...
July 19, 2017: Channels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714121/acetylcholine-dependent-upregulation-of-task-1-channels-in-thalamic-interneurons-by-a-smooth-muscle-like-signalling-pathway
#15
Michael Leist, Susanne Rinné, Maia Datunashvili, Ania Aissaoui, Hans-Christian Pape, Niels Decher, Sven G Meuth, Thomas Budde
KEY POINTS: The ascending brainstem transmitter acetylcholine depolarizes thalamocortical relay neurons while it induces hyperpolarization in local circuit inhibitory interneurons. Sustained K(+) currents are modulated in thalamic neurons to control their activity modes; for the interneurons the molecular nature of the underlying ion channels is as yet unknown. Activation of TASK-1 K(+) channels results in hyperpolarization of interneurons and suppression of their action potential firing...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694780/the-effect-of-pungent-and-tingling-compounds-from-piper-nigrum-l-on-background-k-currents
#16
Leopoldo R Beltrán, Corinna Dawid, Madeline Beltrán, Janina Levermann, Sascha Titt, Sini Thomas, Viktoria Pürschel, Miriam Satalik, Günter Gisselmann, Thomas Hofmann, Hanns Hatt
Black peppercorns (Piper nigrum L.) elicit a pungent and tingling oral impression. Their pungency is partially explained by the agonist activity of some of their active principles, especially piperine, on TRP channels. However, we recently showed that piperine, as well as other pungent compounds, also possess a marked effect on two-pore domain (KCNK, K2P) K(+) channels. Members of this family play a key role in maintaining the resting membrane potential of excitable cells. Interestingly, tingling compounds have been shown to induce neuronal excitation by inhibiting KCNK channels...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693035/k2p2-1-trek-1-activator-complexes-reveal-a-cryptic-selectivity-filter-binding-site
#17
Marco Lolicato, Cristina Arrigoni, Takahiro Mori, Yoko Sekioka, Clifford Bryant, Kimberly A Clark, Daniel L Minor
Polymodal thermo- and mechanosensitive two-pore domain potassium (K2P) channels of the TREK subfamily generate 'leak' currents that regulate neuronal excitability, respond to lipids, temperature and mechanical stretch, and influence pain, temperature perception and anaesthetic responses. These dimeric voltage-gated ion channel (VGIC) superfamily members have a unique topology comprising two pore-forming regions per subunit. In contrast to other potassium channels, K2P channels use a selectivity filter 'C-type' gate as the principal gating site...
July 10, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676394/the-glycine-hinge-of-transmembrane-segment-2-modulates-the-subcellular-localization-and-gating-properties-in-trek-channels
#18
Ren-Gong Zhuo, Peng Peng, Jian-Quan Zheng, Yun-Long Zhang, Lei Wen, Xiao-Li Wei, Xiao-Yun Ma
TWIK-Related K(+) channels (TREK), including TREK-1 and TREK-2, belong to the TREK/TRAAK subclass of two-pore domain K(+) (K2P) family. The important functions of transmembrane segment 4 (M4)-glycine hinge in TREK channel gating have been characterized, but the roles of M2-hinge (the equivalent residue of M4-hinge) remain unclear. Here, by characterizing the macroscopic currents, subcellular localization and gating properties of their M2-hinge mutants (G166A for TREK-1 and G196A for TREK-2), we investigated the functions of M2-hinge...
August 26, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676376/cutaneous-inflammation-regulates-thik1-expression-in-small-c-like-nociceptor-dorsal-root-ganglion-neurons
#19
William Haskins, Sergio Benitez, Juan M Mercado, Cristian G Acosta
Tandem pore-domain Halothane Inhibited K(+) channel (THIK1) is a two-pore-domain potassium channel (K2P) present in dorsal root ganglia (DRG). We previously demonstrated that THIK1 mRNA levels in the DRG dropped ipsilaterally 1day after CFA-induced cutaneous inflammation (CFA1). In this study we aimed to identify the currently unknown DRG subpopulations expressing THIK1, and to investigate the relationship between the channel and both inflammatory and spontaneous pain in normal rats. Using a combination of immunohistochemistry, western blotting and behavioural tests, we found that all small neurons and large groups of medium and large DRG neurons express THIK1...
July 1, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652184/mini-dna-barcode-in-identification-of-the-ornamental-fish-a-case-study-from-northeast-india
#20
Bishal Dhar, Sankar Kumar Ghosh
The ornamental fishes were exported under the trade names or generic names, thus creating problems in species identification. In this regard, DNA barcoding could effectively elucidate the actual species status. However, the problem arises if the specimen is having taxonomic disputes, falsified by trade/generic names, etc., On the other hand, barcoding the archival museum specimens would be of greater benefit to address such issues as it would create firm, error-free reference database for rapid identification of any species...
September 5, 2017: Gene
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