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Miklós Lengyel, Gábor Czirják, Péter Enyedi
Two-pore domain K+ channels (K2P) are responsible for background K+ currents and regulate the resting membrane potential and cellular excitability. Their activity is controlled by a large variety of physicochemical factors and intracellular signaling pathways. The majority of these effects converge on the intracellular C-terminus of the channels, resulting in the modification of the gating at the selectivity filter. Another gating mechanism, the activation gate at the helix bundle crossing is also well documented in other K+ channel families, however, it remains uncertain whether this type of gating is functional in K2P channels...
2018: PloS One
Ingo Staudacher, Claudius Illg, Jakob Gierten, Sebastian Seehausen, Patrick A Schweizer, Hugo A Katus, Dierk Thomas
Human K2P 17.1 (TASK-4, TALK-2) two-pore-domain potassium (K2P ) channels have recently been implicated in heart rhythm disorders including atrial fibrillation and conduction disease. The functional in vivo significance of K2P 17.1 currents in cardiac electrophysiology remains incompletely understood. Danio rerio (zebrafish) may be utilized to elucidate the role of cardiac K2P channels in vivo. The aim of this work was to identify and characterize the zebrafish ortholog of K2P 17.1 in comparison to its human counterpart...
May 9, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
Michela Del Pasqua, Anja Schulze, María Ana Tovar-Hernández, Erica Keppel, Marco Lezzi, Maria Cristina Gambi, Adriana Giangrande
This study was performed to analyse the genetic and morphological diversity of the sabellid annelid genus Branchiomma, with special emphasis on a taxon so far identified as Branchiomma bairdi. This species, originally described from Bermuda, has frequently been reported as an invader in the Mediterranean, the Atlantic and the Eastern Pacific, but recent observations have raised some taxonomic questions. Samples of this taxon were collected from five sites in the Mediterranean Sea, two sites in the original distribution area of B...
2018: PloS One
Nadine Havemann, Martin M Gossner, Lars Hendrich, Jèrôme Morinière, Rolf Niedringhaus, Peter Schäfer, Michael J Raupach
With about 5,000 species worldwide, the Heteroptera or true bugs are the most diverse taxon among the hemimetabolous insects in aquatic and semi-aquatic ecosystems. Species may be found in almost every freshwater environment and have very specific habitat requirements, making them excellent bioindicator organisms for water quality. However, a correct determination by morphology is challenging in many species groups due to high morphological variability and polymorphisms within, but low variability between species...
2018: PeerJ
Jiang Li, Antony Loebel, Herbert Y Meltzer
A genome-wide association study (GWAS) of response of schizophrenia patients to the atypical antipsychotic drug, lurasidone, based on two double-blind registration trials, identified SNPs from four classes of genes as predictors of efficacy, but none were genome wide significant (GWS). After inclusion of data from a third lurasidone trial, meta-analysis identified a GWS marker and other findings consistent with our first study. The primary end-point was change in Total Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) between baseline and last observation carried forward...
May 2, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
Pamela Murillo, Pavel Klimov, Jan Hubert, Barry OConnor
Mites of the genus Tyrophagus (Acari: Acaridae) are among the most widespread and common mites, inhabiting diverse natural and anthropogenic habitats. Some species are pests of agricultural products and stored food and/or live in house dust, causing allergies to humans. We sequenced 1.2 kb of the mitochondrial COI gene for 38 individuals belonging to seven species of Tyrophagus, including T. curvipenis, T. putrescentiae, T. fanetzhangorum, T. longior, T. perniciosus, and T. cf. similis. Molecular phylogenetic analyses (1) recovered two major clades corresponding to the presence or absence of eyespots, and (2) separated all included morphological species...
April 26, 2018: Experimental & Applied Acarology
Wanzhen Liu, Hanghui Kong, Juan Zhou, Peter W Fritsch, Gang Hao, Wei Gong
The subfamily Caesalpinioideae of the Fabaceae has long been recognized as non-monophyletic due to its controversial phylogenetic relationships. Cercis chuniana , endemic to China, is a representative species of Cercis L. placed within Caesalpinioideae in the older sense. Here, we report the whole chloroplast (cp) genome of C. chuniana and compare it to six other species from the Caesalpinioideae. Comparative analyses of gene synteny and simple sequence repeats (SSRs), as well as estimation of nucleotide diversity, the relative ratios of synonymous and nonsynonymous substitutions (dn/ds), and Kimura 2-parameter (K2P) interspecific genetic distances, were all conducted...
April 25, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Eugenyi A Makarchenko, Marina A Makarchenko, Alexander A Semenchenko, Dmitry M Palatov
Illustrated descriptions of the adult male, pupa and fourth instar larva, as well as DNA barcoding results of Chaetocladius (Chaetocladius) elisabethae sp. nov. in comparison with closely related species of Chaetocladius s. str. from the Moscow Region are provided. A reference 658 bp barcode sequence from a fragment of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase I (COI) was used as a tool for species delimitation. Comparisons with corresponding regions of COI between C. (s. str.) elisabethae sp. nov. and other species of the subgenus produced K2P genetic distances of 0...
April 4, 2018: Zootaxa
MatÚŠ KÚdela, Peter H Adler, Tatiana KÚdelovÁ
The black fly Prosimulium italicum Rivosecchi, distributed in the Apennines and Sicily, was described as a subspecies of Prosimulium hirtipes (Fries), based on a few morphological details. It subsequently was considered conspecific with P. hirtipes and the name was synonymized. Analyses of polytene chromosome banding patterns and sequences of mitochondrial DNA (COI and COII) revealed deep genetic divergence between P. italicum from Italy and P. hirtipes from northern and central Europe and confirmed the species status of P...
January 31, 2018: Zootaxa
Marcelo Vargas-Ortiz, HÉctor A Vargas
The adult, larva, and pupa of Strepsicrates gattii Vargas-Ortiz Vargas, sp. n. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae: Olethreutinae: Eucosmini), are described and illustrated from the Atacama Desert of northern Chile. The larvae are leaf-tiers on the vulnerable native tree Morella pavonis (Myricaceae). As S. gattii was previously misidentified as S. smithiana Walsingham, morphological differences that enable the separation of the two species are highlighted. Sequences of the DNA barcode fragment of the cytochrome oxidase subunit I mitochondrial gene of the new species are provided and used in a Bayesian analysis with congeneric representatives to assess their relationships preliminarily...
January 15, 2018: Zootaxa
Constanze Schmidt, Felix Wiedmann, Anne-Rike Gaubatz, Antonius Ratte, Hugo A Katus, Dierk Thomas
Cardiac glycosides have been used in the treatment of arrhythmias for more than 200 years. Two-pore-domain (K2P) potassium channels regulate cardiac action potential repolarization. Recently, K2P3.1 (TASK-1) has been implicated in atrial fibrillation (AF) pathophysiology and was suggested as atrial-selective antiarrhythmic drug target. We hypothesized that blockade of cardiac K2P channels contributes to the mechanism of action of digitoxin and digoxin. All functional human K2P channels were screened for interactions with cardiac glycosides...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Ya-Chun Xu, Chao Xiong, Chun-Li Jiang, Yong-Bo Duan, Wei Sun, Shao-Yong Liu, Dong-Sheng Xue, Jian-Ping Xue
To identify the precious bile powder and its adulterants by DNA barcoding, and establish its standard experimental process to ensure the safe and effective utilization. Total twelve sequences from samples of bear bile powder which come from Ursus thibetanus for DNA extraction, PCR(polymerase chain reaction) and sequence, then using CodonCode Aligner V 7.0.1 shear primer region to obtain COI sequence. The COI sequences of U. arctos and their adulterants were obtained from GenBank. MEGA7.0 software was applied for analyzing mutation, calculating intraspecific and interspecific K2P(Kimura 2-Parameter) genetic distance and constructing the Neighbor-joining tree(NJ)...
February 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Paul M Riegelhaupt, Gareth R Tibbs, Peter A Goldstein
The ability of a diverse group of agents to produce general anesthesia has long been an area of intense speculation and investigation. Over the past century, we have seen a paradigm shift from proposing that the anesthetized state arises from nonspecific interaction of anesthetics with the lipid membrane to the recognition that the function of distinct, and identifiable, membrane-embedded proteins is dramatically altered in the presence of intravenous and inhaled agents. Among proteinaceous targets, metabotropic and ionotropic receptors garnered much of the attention over the last 30 years, and it is only relatively recently that voltage-gated ion channels have clearly and rigorously been shown to be important molecular targets...
2018: Methods in Enzymology
Ruolin Ma, Mohsen Seifi, Maria Papanikolaou, James F Brown, Jerome D Swinny, Anthony Lewis
Gastrointestinal (GI) motility disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) can occur when coordinated smooth muscle contractility is disrupted. Potassium (K+ ) channels regulate GI smooth muscle tone and are key to GI tract relaxation, but their molecular and functional phenotypes are poorly described. Here we define the expression and functional roles of mechano-gated K2P channels in mouse ileum and colon. Expression and distribution of the K2P channel family were investigated using quantitative RT-PCR (qPCR), immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Hisao Tsukamoto, Masahiro Higashi, Hideyoshi Motoki, Hiroki Watanabe, Christian Ganser, Koichi Nakajo, Yoshihiro Kubo, Takayuki Uchihashi, Yuji Furutani
Canonical K+ channels are tetrameric and highly K+ selective, whereas two-pore domain K+ (K2P) channels form dimers, but with a similar pore architecture. A two-pore domain potassium channel TWIK1 (KCNK1 or K2P1) allows permeation of Na+ and other monovalent ions, resulting mainly from the presence of Thr118 in the P1 domain. However, the mechanistic basis for this reduced selectivity is unclear. Using ion-exchange-induced difference infrared spectroscopy, we analyzed WT TWIK1 and T118I (highly K+ selective) and L228F (substitution in the P2 domain) TWIK1 variants and found that in the presence of K+ ions, WT and both variants exhibit an amide-I band at 1680 cm-1 This band corresponds to interactions of the backbone carbonyls in the selectivity filter with K+ , a feature very similar to that of the canonical K+ channel KcsA...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Rômulo V Paixão, Josiane Ribolli, Evoy Zaniboni-Filho
Steindachneridion scriptum is an important species as a resource for fisheries and aquaculture; it is currently threatened and has a reduced occurrence in South America. The damming of rivers, overfishing, and contamination of freshwater environments are the main impacts on the maintenance of this species. We accessed the genetic diversity and structure of S. scriptum using the DNA barcode and control region (D-loop) sequences of 43 individuals from the Upper Uruguay River Basin (UUR) and 10 sequences from the Upper Paraná River Basin (UPR), which were obtained from GenBank...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
Zheng-Liang Wang, Tian-Zhao Wang, Hang-Feng Zhu, Zi-Ye Wang, Xiao-Ping Yu
Ladybird beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), with broad morphological diversity, wide geographic distribution and substantial agricultural significance, are a challenging group for taxonomists and phylogenetics. As a promising tool to identify and discover new species, DNA barcoding might offer significant potential for identification, taxonomy and phylogeny of ladybird beetles. In the present study, a total of 1364 COI (cytochrome C oxidase subunit I) sequences representing 128 species from 52 genera of ladybird beetles were screened for barcoding evaluation and phylogenetic analysis...
March 8, 2018: Mitochondrial DNA. Part A. DNA Mapping, Sequencing, and Analysis
Anna M Jażdżewska, Laure Corbari, Amy Driskell, Inmaculada Frutos, Charlotte Havermans, Ed Hendrycks, Lauren Hughes, Anne-Nina Lörz, Bente Stransky, Anne Helene S Tandberg, Wim Vader, Saskia Brix
Amphipods constitute an abundant part of Icelandic deep-sea zoobenthos yet knowledge of the diversity of this fauna, particularly at the molecular level, is scarce. The present work aims to use molecular methods to investigate genetic variation of the Amphipoda sampled during two IceAGE collecting expeditions. The mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI) of 167 individuals originally assigned to 75 morphospecies was analysed. These targeted morhospecies were readily identifiable by experts using light microscopy and representative of families where there is current ongoing taxonomic research...
2018: ZooKeys
Xiaobing Li, Xuejuan Shen, Xiao Chen, Dan Xiang, Robert W Murphy, Yongyi Shen
Fishes are, by far, the most diverse group of vertebrates. Their classification relies heavily on morphology. In practice, the correct morphological identification of species often depends on personal experience because many species vary in their body shape, color and other external characters. Thus, the identification of a species may be prone to errors. Due to the rapid development of molecular biology, the number of sequences of fishes deposited in GenBank has grown explosively. These published data likely contain errors owing to invalid or incorrectly identified species...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
M A Skarsfeldt, S H Bomholtz, P R Lundegaard, A Lopez-Izquierdo, M Tristani-Firouzi, B H Bentzen
AIM: The zebrafish has emerged as a novel model for investigating cardiac physiology and pathology. The aim of this study was to investigate the atrium-specific ion channels responsible for shaping the atrial cardiac action potential in zebrafish. METHODS: Using quantitative polymerase chain reaction, we assessed the expression level of atrium-specific potassium channels. The functional role of these channels was studied by patch clamp experiments on isolated atrial and ventricular cardiomyocytes and by optical mapping of explanted adult zebrafish hearts...
February 7, 2018: Acta Physiologica
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