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Social work

Hendrik Berth, Philipp Matthias Rohleder
INTRODUCTION: The emergency service is a challenging field of activity. The Effort-Reward Imbalance model explains on the basis of the ratio between reward/effort the appearance of occupational stress. For the first time, this study examines the extent of Effort-Reward Imbalance in rescue services in Germany. METHODS: Full-time emergency service employees of a German Red Cross District Association were consulted. N=82 employees (78.8%) participated (M age=37.78 years, 73...
July 19, 2018: Psychotherapie, Psychosomatik, Medizinische Psychologie
Nancy J Moules, Catherine M Laing, Andrew Estefan, Fiona Schulte, Gregory M T Guilcher
In this article, we discuss a study we conducted to examine the effects of cancer on romantic partners (i.e., boyfriends and girlfriends, social/romantic/intimate partners) of adolescents and young adults experiencing, or who have experienced, cancer. In this hermeneutic study, we interviewed partners who were involved with an adolescent/young adult with cancer, a cancer survivor who was in a relationship during his treatment, and two healthcare professionals who have worked with these couples and witnessed many other situations of impact, effect, and repercussion...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Family Nursing
Samantha E A Gregory, Margaret C Jackson
Joint focus of attention between two individuals can influence the way that observers attend, encode, and value items. Using a nonpredictive gaze cuing task we previously found that working memory (WM) was better for jointly attended (validly cued) versus invalidly cued colored squares. Here we examine whether this influence of gaze on WM is driven by observers sharing the perspective of the face cue ( mental state account ), or simply by increased attention to the cued location ( social attention account )...
July 19, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
Sarah J Davis, Steven J Schapiro, Susan P Lambeth, Lara A Wood, Andrew Whiten
Cumulative culture is rare, if not altogether absent in nonhuman species. At the foundation of cumulative learning is the ability to modify, relinquish, or build upon previous behaviors flexibly to make them more productive or efficient. Within the primate literature, a failure to optimize solutions in this way is often proposed to derive from low-fidelity copying of witnessed behaviors, suboptimal social learning heuristics, or a lack of relevant sociocognitive adaptations. However, humans can also be markedly inflexible in their behaviors, perseverating with, or becoming fixated on, outdated or inappropriate responses...
July 19, 2018: Journal of Comparative Psychology
Shoham Choshen-Hillel, Alex Shaw, Eugene M Caruso
Workers tend to be dissatisfied when their peers receive more than them for doing the same work. The fear of creating such dissatisfaction may cause leaders in organizations to waste resources that cannot be allocated equally between their workers. Here we explore the effectiveness of a procedure designed to reduce such waste by empowering workers with the agency to decide whether or not to pay other workers more. We predict that workers' sense of agency reduces their dissatisfaction with others' better outcomes...
July 19, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
Kelsey L Autin, Ryan D Duffy, Caitlin J Jacobson, Kabeel M Dosani, Dominique Barker, Elizabeth M Bott
Undocumented immigrants are among the most vulnerable of workers in the U.S. and face a unique set of barriers to obtaining adequate education and decent work. In the current study, we conducted a qualitative examination of the career development of undocumented young adults. Drawing from the Psychology of Working Theory (PWT; Duffy, Blustein, Diemer, & Autin, 2016), we examined barriers (e.g., economic constraints, marginalization) and resources (e.g., social support, critical consciousness, proactive personality) to participants' career development and sense of work volition...
July 19, 2018: Journal of Counseling Psychology
Ana C Freitas, Sílvia A Silva, Catarina Marques Santos
The aim of this study is to identify the influence of social dimensions of the work environment and the employees' felt responsibility on the transfer of safety training. We tested a model in which responses and reactions from safety players such as coworkers, supervisors, and safety professionals are positively related to the transfer of training (TT), through the mediating effect of the employees' felt responsibility and the moderating influence of supervisor support and sanctions. A two-time data collection was implemented among blue-collar employees, all low qualified, from four city councils who attended a fundamental safety training program delivered by in-house safety trainers, all safety professionals ( n = 203)...
July 19, 2018: Journal of Occupational Health Psychology
Donghee Seo
Objectives: Hand, Foot and Mouth disease (HFMD) is a highly contagious viral disease that affects young children and frequently causes epidemics. A vaccine is available in China (enterovirus 71) and, the Republic of Korea took the first step to develop a new vaccine. New vaccine development requires that disease burden is calculated in advance so the financial cost, morbidity and mortality can be measured. Methods: Data from National Sentinel Surveillance and health insurance systems of 1 million claimants were used...
June 2018: Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives
Jessica Schoch, Emilou Noser, Ulrike Ehlert
Vital exhaustion (VE) results from the experience of chronic stress. However, research on stress types and their relation to VE is rare. Moreover, the role of implicit motives in these processes has not yet been investigated. Analysis included 101 vitally exhausted men aged 40-65 years. Participants provided self-report data on their experience of chronic stress and social support. Subtypes of work-related and social stress were positively associated with VE. Implicit affiliation and achievement motives were linked to social support and chronic stress, and indirectly to VE...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Ethan Dahl, Elizabeth M Niedbala, Zachary P Hohman
Ostracism is an aversive situation that occurs frequently in everyday life; however, few empirical studies have investigated multiple experiences of inclusion or ostracism from the same group. The prior work in this area has also not evaluated the influence of subsequent inclusion and ostracism on identification with the group, perceptions of the group, or group member behaviors. Across three experiments, the current study investigated the impact of subsequent inclusion and ostracism on an individual's fundamental needs, identification with the group, perceptions of the group, and risk taking to benefit the group...
July 1, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
Birgitta Langhammer, Katharina S Sunnerhagen, Susanne Sällström, Frank Becker, Johan K Stanghelle
INTRODUCTION: Stroke may impose disabilities with severe consequences for the individual, with physical, psychological, social, and work-related consequences. The objective with the current study was to investigate to what extent persons with stroke were able to return to work, to maintain their financial situation, and to describe the follow-up services and participation in social networks and recreational activities. METHODS: The design was a prospective, descriptive study of specialized stroke rehabilitation in nine rehabilitation centers in seven countries...
July 18, 2018: Brain and Behavior
Jan-Bennet Voltmer, Edgar Voltmer, Jürgen Deller
The present study applies a salutogenetic approach to psycho-social stress and wellbeing at work and for the first time analyzes the relation of an extended model of four work-related behavior and experience patterns to work related perceptions, like work ability, job satisfaction and turnover intention, or engagement. Employees of an international financial services company ( N = 182) completed the questionnaire Work-related behavior and experience pattern ( Arbeitsbezogenes Verhaltens- und Erlebensmuster ; AVEM)...
July 18, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Ayako Hiyoshi, Naoki Kondo, Mikael Rostila
BACKGROUND: Income inequalities have risen from the 1990s to 2000s, following the economic recession in 1994, but little research has investigated socioeconomic inequalities in suicide mortality for working-age men and women (aged between 30 and 64 years) over the time using longitudinal data in Sweden. METHODS: Using Swedish national register data between 1990 and 2007 as a series of repeated cohort studies with a 3-year follow-up (sample sizes were approximately 3...
July 18, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Frances Bunn, Claire Goodman, Bridget Russell, Patricia Wilson, Jill Manthorpe, Greta Rait, Isabel Hodkinson, Marie-Anne Durand
BACKGROUND: Health care systems are increasingly moving towards more integrated approaches. Shared decision making (SDM) is central to these models but may be complicated by the need to negotiate and communicate decisions between multiple providers, as well as patients and their family carers; particularly for older people with complex needs. The aim of this review was to provide a context relevant understanding of how interventions to facilitate SDM might work for older people with multiple health and care needs, and how they might be applied in integrated care models...
July 18, 2018: BMC Geriatrics
Adria Quigley, Larry Baxter, Laura Keeler, Marilyn MacKay-Lyons
People with HIV are living longer. However, co-morbidities are often more prevalent and severe than in the general population and have greater impacts on health status. Although compelling evidence exists about the health benefits of exercise in the HIV literature, many people living with HIV tend to be physically inactive. The purpose of this study was to use the Theoretical Domains Framework to investigate the barriers and facilitators to participation in exercise of older people living with HIV. This qualitative study involved in-depth, semi-structured interviews with 12 adults aged 45 years and older recruited from HIV organizations and health centres...
July 18, 2018: AIDS Care
Andreas Holtermann, Svend Erik Mathiassen, Leon Straker
Objectives In spite of preventive efforts, organizations and employees face several challenges related to working life and occupational health, such as a substantial prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders, social inequality in health and physical capacity, multi-morbidity, an obesity epidemic and an aging workforce. We argue that a new approach to occupational ergonomics and health is required, going beyond prevention of harm caused by work. We propose the "Goldilocks Principle" for how productive work can be designed to promote health and physical capacity...
July 18, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health
Michael J Wood
The present study investigates the characteristics of discussion of conspiracy theories about the Zika virus outbreak of 2015-16 on Twitter. Content and social network analysis of a dataset of 25,162 original Tweets about Zika virus conspiracy theories showed that relative to debunking messages, conspiracy theories spread through a more decentralized network, are more likely to invoke supposedly knowledgeable authorities in making arguments, and ask more rhetorical questions. These trends can be understood in the context of previous work on conspiracy theories, including the "just asking questions" style of rhetoric, the importance of sourcing and authority, and the tendency to simultaneously consider many different potential conspiracies that might underlie an important topic or event...
July 18, 2018: Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking
Federica Picariello, Sam Norton, Rona Moss-Morris, Iain C Macdougall, Joseph Chilcot
Background: Fatigue affects between 49% and 92% of dialysis patients with considerable repercussions on their functioning and quality of life. Purpose: To evaluate whether fatigue severity and its impact on functioning predict survival (all-cause mortality) and time to transplantation among in-centre haemodialysis patients. Methods: As part of a prospective study of fatigue among in-centre haemodialysis patients, survival data were collected between April 2014 and August 2017...
July 17, 2018: Annals of Behavioral Medicine: a Publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine
Juan Pablo Herrera-Escobar, Michel Apoj, Christina Weed, Alyssa Fitzpatrick Harlow, Syeda Sanam Al Rafai, Elizabeth Lilley, George Kasotakis, Karen Brasel, Haytham Ma Kaafarani, George Velmahos, Ali Salim, Adil Hussein Haider
BACKGROUND: Chronic pain after trauma is associated with serious clinical, social, and economic burden. Due to limitations in trauma registry data and previous studies, the current prevalence of chronic pain after trauma is unknown, and little is known about the association of pain with other long-term outcomes. We sought to describe the long-term burden of self-reported pain after injury, and determine its association with positive screen for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), functional status, and return to work...
July 17, 2018: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Parviz Molavi, Niloofar Mikaeili, Mohammad Ali Ghaseminejad, Zhila Kazemi, Misagh Pourdonya
This work aimed to explore the relationship between social anxiety with benign and toxic online self-disclosures with the mediating role of rejection sensitivity, self-regulation, and Internet addiction. In this study, 358 students who were active members of social networks at the Mohaghegh Ardabili University, Iran were evaluated in the form of a structural equation model. The results substantiated that social anxiety could explain 47% of the variance in benign online self-disclosure and 27% of toxic online self-disclosure with the mediating role of rejection sensitivity, self-regulation, and Internet addiction...
July 17, 2018: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
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