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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445476/social-influence-and-political-mobilization-further-evidence-from-a-randomized-experiment-in-the-2012-u-s-presidential-election
#1
Jason J Jones, Robert M Bond, Eytan Bakshy, Dean Eckles, James H Fowler
A large-scale experiment during the 2010 U.S. Congressional Election demonstrated a positive effect of an online get-out-the-vote message on real world voting behavior. Here, we report results from a replication of the experiment conducted during the U.S. Presidential Election in 2012. In spite of the fact that get-out-the-vote messages typically yield smaller effects during high-stakes elections due to saturation of mobilization efforts from many sources, a significant increase in voting was again observed...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445433/determinants-of-work-performance-in-workers-with-depression-and-anxiety-a-cross-sectional-study
#2
Ivana Ivandic, Kaloyan Kamenov, Diego Rojas, Gloria Cerón, Dennis Nowak, Carla Sabariego
Depression and anxiety are highly prevalent disorders with an impact on existential aspects of person's life, including employment i.e., work performance (WP). In order to develop appropriate strategies, it is essential to identify determinants of WP. The objective of this study was to identify the built, social, attitudinal and health system-related environmental determinants of WP in workers with anxiety or depression in total (N = 1211) and regarding the level of disability. Hierarchical binary logistic regression was performed on data obtained from implementation of the WHO Model Disability Survey (MDS) in Chile in 2015...
April 26, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445221/changes-in-personal-relationships-during-residency-and-their-effects-on-resident-wellness-a-qualitative-study
#3
Marcus Law, Michelle Lam, Diana Wu, Paula Veinot, Maria Mylopoulos
PURPOSE: Residency poses challenges for residents' personal relationships. Research suggests residents rely on family and friends for support during their training. The authors explored the impact of residency demands on residents' personal relationships and the effects changes in those relationships could have on their wellness. METHOD: The authors used a constructivist grounded theory approach. In 2012-2014, they conducted semistructured interviews with a purposive and theoretical sample of 16 Canadian residents from various specialties and training levels...
April 25, 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445219/canadian-national-guidelines-and-recommendations-for-integrating-career-advising-into-medical-school-curricula
#4
Kelly Howse, June Harris, Nancy Dalgarno
Career planning, decision making about specialty choice, and preparation for residency matching are significant sources of stress for medical students. Attempts have been made to structure and formalize career advising by including it in accreditation standards. There is an expressed need for national guidelines on career advising for medical students. The Future of Medical Education in Canada Postgraduate (FMEC PG) Implementation Project was created to ensure Canadian medical trainees receive the best education possible...
April 25, 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444470/sexual-orientation-differences-in-health-and-wellbeing-among-women-living-with-hiv-in-canada-findings-from-a-national-cohort-study
#5
Carmen H Logie, Ashley Lacombe-Duncan, Ying Wang, Angela Kaida, Alexandra de Pokomandy, Kath Webster, Tracey Conway, Mona Loutfy
Sexual orientation differences in health and wellbeing among women living with HIV (WLH) are underexplored. Limited research available, however, suggests that sexual minority WLH may experience barriers to HIV care. Cross-sectional baseline data was analyzed from a Canadian cohort study with WLH (sexual minority women [SMW]: n = 180; heterosexual women: n = 1240). SMW (median age 38 years, IQR 13) included bisexual (58.9%), lesbian (17.8%) and other sexualities (23.3%). In multivariable analyses adjusting for age, poverty, education, and ethnicity, SMW identity was associated with increased odds of: clinical (80% vs...
April 25, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444327/reviving-a-positive-discourse-on-sexuality-within-social-work
#6
S J Dodd, Deborah Tolman
Sexuality is not an invisible dimension within social work. Social workers are constantly engaged with aspects of sexuality across virtually all practice domains. Indeed, some of the most fundamental and frequent concerns of social workers involve sexual abuse, sexual violence, and HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. However, conversations about healthy sexuality, positive sexuality, or sexual well-being that are well ensconced in many disciplines are all but absent from current social work literature, education, and practice...
April 24, 2017: Social Work
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444300/reproductive-justice-a-policy-window-for-social-work-advocacy
#7
Brenda D Smith
Reproductive rights are at risk in many parts of the United States. To inspire social workers to act, this article begins by defining and describing the concepts of reproductive rights and reproductive justice. Next, it summarizes threats to reproductive rights in five areas: preventing pregnancy, terminating pregnancy, pregnancy loss, personhood measures, and drug use during pregnancy. Applying John Kingdon's policy streams framework, the article urges more social workers to embrace the current policy window and advocate for pregnant women and others whose reproductive rights are in jeopardy...
April 21, 2017: Social Work
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444208/adverse-impacts-of-chronic-pain-on-health-related-quality-of-life-work-productivity-depression-and-anxiety-in-a-community-based-study
#8
Kosuke Kawai, Alison Tse Kawai, Peter Wollan, Barbara P Yawn
Background.: Chronic pain has major clinical and social consequences. Few studies have examined any variation in the extent of impairment on quality of life and work productivity by site and type of chronic pain. Objective.: The objective of our study is to examine adverse impacts of chronic pain on physical and psychological health and work productivity. Methods.: Our community-population study was based on a phone-interview of adults with chronic pain, residing in Olmsted County, MN...
April 22, 2017: Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444189/environmental-enrichment-in-the-21st-century
#9
Kristine Coleman, Melinda A Novak
More than a quarter of a century has elapsed since the Animal Welfare Act mandated that research facilities develop and follow a plan to promote the psychological well-being of captive primates. Since passage of this law, considerable effort and resources have been directed to designing environmental enrichment strategies in an effort to improve animal welfare. These plans typically consist of environmental enrichment and socialization efforts. While environmental enhancement has undergone a great deal of improvement in the past 25 years, it should be viewed as a continual work in progress, which takes advantage of emergent and future technologies...
April 21, 2017: ILAR Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444043/challenges-for-ensuring-availability-and-accessibility-toin-health-care-services-under-brazil-s-unified-health-system-sus
#10
Ana Paula Cavalcante de Oliveira, Mariana Gabriel, Mario Roberto Dal Poz, Gilles Dussault
Shortages and imbalances in the distribution of the health workforce, are social and political problems that, along with the socio-economic inequality, reduce the access of the population to the health services. This study aims to understand the challenges of SUS policy-makers and managers to ensure the availability and geographical accessibility to health service providers. The analysis was guided by a framework of the health labour market and health policy interventions. Two main problems have been identified: shortage of doctors and maldistribution of professionals between levels of health care and between geographical areas...
April 2017: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444039/the-health-regionalization-process-from-the-perspective-of-the-transation-cost-theory
#11
Leyla Gomes Sancho, Daniela Savi Geremia, Sulamis Dain, Fabiano Geremia, Cláudio José Silva Leão
This study analyzes the incidence of transaction costs in the regionalization process of health policies in the Brazilian federal system. In this work, regionalized health actions contracted and agreed between federal agencies have assumed a transactional nature. A conceptual theoretical essay of reflective nature was prepared with the purpose of questioning and proposing new approaches to improve the health regionalization process. The main considerations suggest that institutional management tools proposed by the standards and regulations of the Unified Health System have a low potential to reduce transaction costs, especially due to hardships in reconciling common goals among the entities, environment surrounded by uncertainty, asymmetries and incomplete information, bounded rationality and conflict of interest...
April 2017: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443488/socioeconomic-status-social-capital-and-self-reported-unmet-health-care-needs-a-population-based-study
#12
Christine Lindstrӧm, Maria Rosvall, Martin Lindstrӧm
AIMS: The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between socioeconomic status (SES) and self-reported unmet health care needs, taking economic stress, generalized trust in other people and trust in the health care system into account. METHODS: The 2012 public health survey in Scania was conducted using a postal questionnaire and included 28,029 participants aged 18-80 years. The study was cross-sectional. Associations between SES and unmet health care needs were investigated, adjusting for economic stress and trust in logistic regressions...
May 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443041/national-identification-counteracts-the-sedative-effect-of-positive-intergroup-contact-on-ethnic-activism
#13
Adrienne Pereira, Eva G T Green, Emilio Paolo Visintin
Positive intergroup contact with socially and economically advantaged national majorities has been shown to reduce ethnic identification among minorities, thereby undermining ethnic minority activism. This finding implies that ethnic identity is the relevant social identity driving ethnic minorities' struggle for equality. We argue that the study of the "sedating" effect of positive intergroup contact for minorities should be more nuanced. The existence of multiple and sometimes interplaying social identities can foster a reinterpretation of the meaning of "ethnic" activism...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442714/mitigating-herding-in-hierarchical-crowdsourcing-networks
#14
Han Yu, Chunyan Miao, Cyril Leung, Yiqiang Chen, Simon Fauvel, Victor R Lesser, Qiang Yang
Hierarchical crowdsourcing networks (HCNs) provide a useful mechanism for social mobilization. However, spontaneous evolution of the complex resource allocation dynamics can lead to undesirable herding behaviours in which a small group of reputable workers are overloaded while leaving other workers idle. Existing herding control mechanisms designed for typical crowdsourcing systems are not effective in HCNs. In order to bridge this gap, we investigate the herding dynamics in HCNs and propose a Lyapunov optimization based decision support approach - the Reputation-aware Task Sub-delegation approach with dynamic worker effort Pricing (RTS-P) - with objective functions aiming to achieve superlinear time-averaged collective productivity in an HCN...
December 5, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442339/neural-evidence-for-the-subliminal-processing-of-facial-trustworthiness-in-infancy
#15
Sarah Jessen, Tobias Grossmann
Face evaluation is thought to play a vital role in human social interactions. One prominent aspect is the evaluation of facial signs of trustworthiness, which has been shown to occur reliably, rapidly, and without conscious awareness in adults. Recent developmental work indicates that the sensitivity to facial trustworthiness has early ontogenetic origins as it can already be observed in infancy. However, it is unclear whether infants' sensitivity to facial signs of trustworthiness relies upon conscious processing of a face or, similar to adults, occurs also in response to subliminal faces...
April 22, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441677/building-a-global-online-community-of-practice-the-openpediatrics-world-shared-practices-video-series
#16
Traci A Wolbrink, Niranjan Kissoon, Nabila Mirza, Jeffrey P Burns
PROBLEM: Health care professionals are familiar with engaging in local communities of practice (CoPs) within their hospital, region, and/or country, but despite the availability of online technologies that facilitate online global collaboration, the health care sector has yet to fully embrace these tools. APPROACH: In 2013, OPENPediatrics (an online social learning platform) launched the World Shared Practices video (WSP) series to engage and coalesce the global community of critical care clinicians...
May 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441674/the-development-of-an-indigenous-health-curriculum-for-medical-students
#17
Melissa Lewis, Amy Prunuske
Indigenous populations experience dramatic health disparities; yet, few medical schools equip students with the skills to address these inequities. At the University of Minnesota Medical School, Duluth campus, a project to develop an Indigenous health curriculum began in September 2013. This project used collaborative and decolonizing methods to gather ideas and opinions from multiple stakeholders, including students, community members, faculty, and administration, to guide the process of adding Indigenous health content to the curriculum to prepare students to work effectively with Indigenous populations...
May 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441139/empirical-likelihood-in-nonignorable-covariate-missing-data-problems
#18
Yanmei Xie, Biao Zhang
Missing covariate data occurs often in regression analysis, which frequently arises in the health and social sciences as well as in survey sampling. We study methods for the analysis of a nonignorable covariate-missing data problem in an assumed conditional mean function when some covariates are completely observed but other covariates are missing for some subjects. We adopt the semiparametric perspective of Bartlett et al. (Improving upon the efficiency of complete case analysis when covariates are MNAR. Biostatistics 2014;15:719-30) on regression analyses with nonignorable missing covariates, in which they have introduced the use of two working models, the working probability model of missingness and the working conditional score model...
April 20, 2017: International Journal of Biostatistics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440872/lay-health-educators-and-print-materials-for-the-promotion-of-colorectal-cancer-screening-among-korean-americans-a-randomized-comparative-effectiveness-study
#19
Angela M Jo, Tung T Nguyen, Susan Stewart, Min J Sung, Ginny Gildengorin, Janice Y Tsoh, Elisa K Tong, Penny Lo, Charlene Cuaresma, Angela Sy, Hy Lam, Ching Wong, Matthew Jeong, Moon S Chen, Marjorie Kagawa-Singer
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second most commonly diagnosed cancer among Korean American men and women. Although CRC screening is effective in reducing the burden of this disease, studies have shown that Korean Americans have low screening rates. METHODS: The authors conducted a 2-arm cluster randomized controlled trial comparing a brochure (print) with a brochure and lay health educator (LHE) outreach (print + LHE) in increasing CRC screening rates among Korean American individuals...
April 25, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439993/non-smoker-assertive-behaviour-against-smoke-exposure-chinese-and-korean-american-non-smokers
#20
Anne Saw, Hao Tang, Janice Y Tsoh, Moon S Chen, Elisa K Tong
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Non-smokers' assertive behaviour towards smokers by asking them not to smoke is important in promoting smoke-free environments. Korean and Chinese Americans come from countries where most women are non-smokers and assertive behaviour may not be prevalent but may increase after migration because of social-ecological factors. This study assessed the extent to which Korean and Chinese American non-smokers ask someone not to smoke and associated factors. DESIGN AND METHODS: The 2003 California Chinese American and Korean American Tobacco Use Surveys were analysed...
April 25, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Review
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