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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934724/integrating-health-into-local-climate-response-lessons-from-the-u-s-cdc-climate-ready-states-and-cities-initiative
#1
Mary C Sheehan, Mary A Fox, Charlotte Kaye, Beth Resnick
Public health has potential to serve as a frame to convey the urgency of behavior change needed to adapt to a changing climate and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Local governments form the backbone of climate-related public health preparedness. Yet local health agencies are often inadequately prepared and poorly integrated into climate change assessments and plans. We reviewed the climate health profiles of 16 states and two cities participating in the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)'s Climate-Ready States and Cities Initiative (CRSCI) that aims to build local capacity to assess and respond to the health impacts of climate change...
September 20, 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934461/effect-of-priming-with-seasonal-influenza-a-h3n2-virus-on-the-prevalence-of-cross-reactive-hemagglutination-inhibition-antibodies-to-swine-origin-a-h3n2-variants
#2
Feng Liu, Vic Veguilla, F Liaini Gross, Eric Gillis, Thomas Rowe, Xiyan Xu, Terrence M Tumpey, Jacqueline M Katz, Min Z Levine, Xiuhua Lu
Background: Recent outbreaks of swine-origin influenza A(H3N2) variant (H3N2v) viruses have raised public health concerns. Previous studies indicated that older children and young adults had the highest levels of hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) antibodies to 2010-2011 H3N2v viruses. However, newly emerging 2013 H3N2v have acquired antigenic mutations in the hemagglutinin at amino acid position 145 (N145K/R). We estimated the levels of serologic cross-reactivity among humans primed with seasonal influenza A(H3N2) (sH3N2), using postinfection ferret antisera...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934370/the-risk-of-sustained-sexual-transmission-of-zika-is-underestimated
#3
Antoine Allard, Benjamin M Althouse, Laurent Hébert-Dufresne, Samuel V Scarpino
Pathogens often follow more than one transmission route during outbreaks-from needle sharing plus sexual transmission of HIV to small droplet aerosol plus fomite transmission of influenza. Thus, controlling an infectious disease outbreak often requires characterizing the risk associated with multiple mechanisms of transmission. For example, during the Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa, weighing the relative importance of funeral versus health care worker transmission was essential to stopping disease spread...
September 21, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934195/a-scoring-model-for-predicting-prognosis-of-patients-with-severe-fever-with-thrombocytopenia-syndrome
#4
Bei Jia, Xiaomin Yan, Yuxin Chen, Guiyang Wang, Yong Liu, Biyun Xu, Peixin Song, Yang Li, Yali Xiong, Weihua Wu, Yingying Hao, Juan Xia, Zhaoping Zhang, Rui Huang, Chao Wu
Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging epidemic infectious disease caused by the SFTS bunyavirus (SFTSV) with an estimated high case-fatality rate of 12.7% to 32.6%. Currently, the disease has been reported in mainland China, Japan, Korea, and the United States. At present, there is no specific antiviral therapy for SFTSV infection. Considering the higher mortality rate and rapid clinical progress of SFTS, supporting the appropriate treatment in time to SFTS patients is critical. Therefore, it is very important for clinicians to predict these SFTS cases who are more likely to have a poor prognosis or even more likely to decease...
September 21, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933884/critical-action-as-a-pathway-to-social-mobility-among-marginalized-youth
#5
Luke J Rapa, Matthew A Diemer, Josefina Bañales
Marginalized youth's development occurs in contexts rife with racialized, gendered, and socioeconomic social identity threats and barriers to social mobility. An emergent line of inquiry suggests critical action-a component of critical consciousness, defined as engaging in individual or collective social action to produce social change-may bolster career development for those experiencing marginalization. Yet, the specific mechanisms underlying critical action-career development associations are not well understood...
September 21, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933807/recognizing-and-managing-adrenal-disorders-in-the-emergency-department-digest
#6
Amy Cutright, Stephen Ducey, Claudia L Barthold, Jeremy Kim
Primary and secondary adrenal insufficiency are underrecognized conditions among emergency department patients, affecting an estimated 10% to 20% of critically ill patients. The signs and symptoms of cortisol deficit can be nonspecific and wide-ranging, and identification and swift treatment with stress-dosing of hydrocortisone is vital to avoid life-threatening adrenal crisis. Laboratory evaluation focuses on identification of electrolyte abnormalities typical of adrenal insufficiency, and while additional testing may depend on the type and severity of symptoms, it should not delay corticosteroid replacement...
September 22, 2017: Emergency Medicine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933674/critical-healthcare-management-studies-green-shoots
#7
Martin Kitchener, Aoife M McDermott, Simon Cooper
Purpose While critical approaches have enriched research in proximate fields, their impact has been less marked in studies of healthcare management. In response, the 2016 Organizational Behaviour in Health Care Conference hosted its first-ever session dedicated to the emergent field of critical healthcare management studies (CHMSs). The purpose of this paper is to present five papers selected from that conference. Design/methodology/approach In this introductory paper, the authors frame the contributions as "green shoots" in a field of CHMS which contains four main furrows of activity: questioning the taken-for-granted; moving beyond instrumentalism; reflexivity and meanings in research; and challenging structures of domination (Kitchener and Thomas, 2016)...
August 21, 2017: Journal of Health Organization and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933427/tunable-interacting-composite-fermion-phases-in-a-half-filled-bilayer-graphene-landau-level
#8
A A Zibrov, C Kometter, H Zhou, E M Spanton, T Taniguchi, K Watanabe, M P Zaletel, A F Young
Non-Abelian anyons are a type of quasiparticle with the potential to encode quantum information in topological qubits protected from decoherence. Experimental systems that are predicted to harbour non-Abelian anyons include p-wave superfluids, superconducting systems with strong spin-orbit coupling, and paired states of interacting composite fermions that emerge at even denominators in the fractional quantum Hall (FQH) regime. Although even-denominator FQH states have been observed in several two-dimensional systems, small energy gaps and limited tunability have stymied definitive experimental probes of their non-Abelian nature...
September 20, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933294/biodegradable-black-phosphorus-based-nanomaterials-in-biomedicine-theranostic-applications
#9
Zhen Wang, Zhiming Liu, Chengkang Su, Biwen Yang, Xixi Fei, Yi Li, Yuqing Hou, Henan Zhao, Yanxian Guo, Zhengfei Zhuang, Huiqing Zhong, Zhouyi Guo
Ascribe to the unique two-dimensional planar nanostructure with exceptional physical and chemical properties, black phosphorous (BP) as the emerging inorganic two-dimensional nanomaterial with high biocompatibility and degradability has been becoming one of the most promising materials of great potentials in biomedicine. The exfoliated BP sheets possess ultra-high surface area available for valid bio-conjugation and molecular loading for chemotherapy. Utilizing the intrinsic near-infrared optical absorbance, BP-based photothermal therapy in vivo, photodynamic therapy and biomedical imaging has been realized, achieving unprecedented anti-tumor therapeutic efficacy in animal experiments...
September 20, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933281/influenza-virus-small-molecule-therapeutics-and-mechanisms-of-antiviral
#10
Julianna Han, Jasmine Perez, Adam Schafer, Han Cheng, Norton Peet, Lijun Rong, Balaji Manicassamy
Influenza viruses cause severe upper respiratory illness in young children and the elderly during seasonal epidemics. Influenza viruses also have the potential to cause pandemics with significant loss of life in all age groups. Although vaccination is one of the most effective methods to protect against seasonal epidemics, seasonal vaccines afford lowered protection against emerging variant strains and no protection against novel strains. Moreover, the efficacy of influenza virus vaccines is considerably lower in the elderly population...
September 20, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933001/redefining-aging-in-hiv-infection-using-phenotypes
#11
REVIEW
David M Stoff, Karl Goodkin, Dilip Jeste, Maria Marquine
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article critically reviews the utility of "phenotypes" as behavioral descriptors in aging/HIV research that inform biological underpinnings and treatment development. We adopt a phenotypic redefinition of aging conceptualized within a broader context of HIV infection and of aging. Phenotypes are defined as dimensions of behavior, closely related to fundamental mechanisms, and, thus, may be more informative than chronological age. Primary emphasis in this review is given to comorbid aging and cognitive aging, though other phenotypes (i...
September 20, 2017: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932740/tapping-the-vast-potential-of-the-data-deluge-in-small-scale-food-animal-production-businesses-challenges-to-near-real-time-data-analysis-and-interpretation
#12
Flavie Vial, Andrew Tedder
Food-animal production businesses are part of a data-driven ecosystem shaped by stringent requirements for traceability along the value chain and the expanding capabilities of connected products. Within this sector, the generation of animal health intelligence, in particular, in terms of antimicrobial usage, is hindered by the lack of a centralized framework for data storage and usage. In this Perspective, we delimit the 11 processes required for evidence-based decisions and explore processes 3 (digital data acquisition) to 10 (communication to decision-makers) in more depth...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932651/extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-ecmo-and-the-critical-cardiac-patient
#13
REVIEW
David A Baran
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review is to summarize the basics of veno-arterial (VA) extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) as it is utilized for critically ill cardiac patients. RECENT FINDINGS: ECMO may be instituted in a variety of health care settings, from the emergency room to the operating room. The types of patients who may benefit from ECMO are reviewed in detail. The complications of ECMO are reviewed, including access-related issues and hematologic and neurologic problems...
2017: Current Transplantation Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932261/determinants-of-stakeholders-attitudes-towards-biodiesel
#14
Latifah Amin, Hasrizul Hashim, Zurina Mahadi, Maznah Ibrahim, Khaidzir Ismail
BACKGROUND: Concern about the inevitable depletion of global energy resources is rising and many countries are shifting their focus to renewable energy. Biodiesel is one promising energy source that has garnered much public attention in recent years. Many believe that this alternative source of energy will be able to sustain the need for increased energy security while at the same time being friendly to the environment. Public opinion, as well as proactive measures by key players in industry, may play a decisive role in steering the direction of biodiesel development throughout the world...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931938/dynamic-transcriptome-and-phytohormone-profiling-along-the-time-of-light-exposure-in-the-mesocotyl-of-rice-seedling
#15
Fangjun Feng, Hanwei Mei, Peiqing Fan, Yanan Li, Xiaoyan Xu, Haibin Wei, Ming Yan, Lijun Luo
Mesocotyl elongation is an important trait influencing seedling emergence and establishment in rice direct-seeding cultivation and is immediately inhibited after light exposure. Detailed researches on the molecular basis and biological processes underlying light repression of mesocotyl growth could probably provide useful information for key factors controlling this trait. Here we monitored the transcriptome and endogenous phytohormone changes specifically in the elongating mesocotyl in response to light exposure with a time-course...
September 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931688/a-selective-bottleneck-shapes-the-evolutionary-mutant-spectra-of-enterovirus-a71-during-viral-dissemination-in-humans
#16
Sheng-Wen Huang, Yi-Hui Huang, Huey-Pin Tsai, Pin-Hwa Kuo, Shih-Min Wang, Ching-Chuan Liu, Jen-Ren Wang
RNA viruses accumulate mutations to rapidly adapt to environmental changes. Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) causes various clinical manifestations with occasional severe neurological complications. However, the mechanism by which EV-A71 evolves within the human body is unclear. Utilizing deep sequencing and haplotype analyses of viruses from various tissues of an autopsy patient, we sought to define the evolutionary pathway by which enterovirus A71 evolves fitness for invading the central nervous system in humans...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931490/gpcrs-emerging-anti-cancer-drug-targets
#17
REVIEW
Ainhoa Nieto Gutierrez, Patricia H McDonald
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) constitute the largest and most diverse protein family in the human genome with over 800 members identified to date. They play critical roles in numerous cellular and physiological processes, including cell proliferation, differentiation, neurotransmission, development and apoptosis. Consequently, aberrant receptor activity has been demonstrated in numerous disorders/diseases, and as a result GPCRs have become the most successful drug target class in pharmaceuticals treating a wide variety of indications such as pain, inflammation, neurobiological and metabolic disorders...
September 17, 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931454/the-experience-of-informal-caregivers-of-patients-with-motor-neurone-disease-a-thematic-synthesis
#18
Lucy Holkham, Andy Soundy
OBJECTIVE: Research is required in order to illustrate and detail the experiences of informal caregivers of patients with motor neurone disease (pwMND) to further advance the research base and to inform the development of future support structures and services. Due to the heterogeneous nature of caregiving for pwMND, one way in which this can be achieved is through a qualitative review. A qualitative thematic analysis of existing qualitative studies has not, to the best of the authors' knowledge, been previously undertaken...
September 21, 2017: Palliative & Supportive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931314/the-diagnostic-potential-of-mutation-detection-from-single-circulating-tumor-cells-in-cancer-patients
#19
Francesca Salvianti, Pamela Pinzani
Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) have gained importance in the oncology field as biomarkers of tumor development. The most relevant observation that emerged from the recent studies on CTCs is their heterogeneity, which can be investigated by new technologies for single cell analysis. Areas covered: This review considers the most recent advances (limited to the last two years) in the mutational analysis of single CTCs with a critical point of view on the technical challenges still to be faced and the steps needed to reach a standardization of the procedures able to translate these new approaches into clinical practice...
September 21, 2017: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930950/increased-mortality-in-trauma-patients-who-develop-postintubation-hypotension
#20
Robert S Green, Michael B Butler, Mete Erdogan
BACKGROUND: Postintubation hypotension (PIH) is common and associated with poor outcomes in critically ill patient populations requiring emergency endotracheal intubation (ETI). The importance of PIH in the trauma population remains unclear. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of PIH in trauma patients and assess the association of PIH with patient outcomes. METHODS: Retrospective case series of adult (≥16 years) patients who were intubated on arrival at a tertiary trauma center in Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada, between 2000 and 2015...
October 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
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