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Theodoros Tokas, Thomas R W Herrmann, Andreas Skolarikos, Udo Nagele
PURPOSE: To perform a review on the latest evidence related to normal and pathological intrarenal pressures (IRPs), complications of incremented values, and IRP ranges during endourology. METHODS: A literature search was performed using PubMed, restricted to original English-written articles, including animal, artificial model, and human studies. Different keywords were: percutaneous nephrolithotomy, PCNL, ureteroscopy, URS, RIRS, irrigation flow, irrigation pressure, intrarenal pressure, intrapelvic pressure and renal pelvic pressure...
June 18, 2018: World Journal of Urology
Theodoros Tokas, Andreas Skolarikos, Thomas R W Herrmann, Udo Nagele
PURPOSE: To perform a review on the latest evidence related to intrarenal pressures (IRPs) generated during upper-tract endourology, and present different tools to maintain decreased values, to decrease complication rates. METHODS: A literature search was performed using PubMed, restricted to original English-written articles, including animal, artificial model and human studies. Different keywords were: percutaneous nephrolithotomy, PCNL, ureteroscopy, URS, RIRS, irrigation flow, irrigation pressure, intrarenal pressure, intrapelvic pressure and renal-pelvic pressure...
June 18, 2018: World Journal of Urology
Fokhrul Hossain, Samarpan Majumder, Deniz A Ucar, Paulo C Rodriguez, Todd E Golde, Lisa M Minter, Barbara A Osborne, Lucio Miele
Cancer immunotherapy, which stimulates or augments host immune responses to treat malignancies, is the latest development in the rapidly advancing field of cancer immunology. The basic principles of immunotherapies are either to enhance the functions of specific components of the immune system or to neutralize immune-suppressive signals produced by cancer cells or tumor microenvironment cells. When successful, these approaches translate into long-term survival for patients. However, durable responses are only seen in a subset of patients and so far, only in some cancer types...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Tiago M Fernández-Caramés, Paula Fraga-Lamas, Manuel Suárez-Albela, Manuel A Díaz-Bouza
Pipes are one of the key elements in the construction of ships, which usually contain between 15,000 and 40,000 of them. This huge number, as well as the variety of processes that may be performed on a pipe, require rigorous identification, quality assessment and traceability. Traditionally, such tasks have been carried out by using manual procedures and following documentation on paper, which slows down the production processes and reduces the output of a pipe workshop. This article presents a system that allows for identifying and tracking the pipes of a ship through their construction cycle...
June 17, 2018: Sensors
Katharina Richter, Nicky Thomas
"Pint of Science" is an outreach activity bringing the latest scientific discoveries to the community in the relaxed atmosphere of a pub. Founded in the United Kingdom in 2012, this three-night festival in May is now held annually in cities around the world. Today, Pint of Science contributes to science education and engages peers and the public alike, demystifying science at a pub near you. This article gives advice about how to organize a Pint of Science festival, as exemplified by the Adelaide/South Australia chapter's 2017 experience...
2018: Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education: JMBE
Bryan L Riemann, Monica R Lininger
Understanding the results and statistics reported in original research remains a large challenge for many sports medicine practitioners and, in turn, may be among one of the biggest barriers to integrating research into sports medicine practice. The purpose of this article is to provide minimal essentials a sports medicine practitioner needs to know about interpreting statistics and research results to facilitate the incorporation of the latest evidence into practice. Topics covered include the difference between statistical significance and clinical meaningfulness; effect sizes and confidence intervals; reliability statistics, including the minimal detectable difference and minimal important difference; and statistical power...
July 2018: Clinics in Sports Medicine
Christopher J DiMaio
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Acute pancreatitis can result in a number of localized complications such as pancreatic pseudocysts, walled-off pancreatic necrosis (WON), and disconnected pancreatic duct syndrome (DPDS). The management of these conditions has evolved over the past three decades such that minimally invasive endoscopic drainage and debridement methods are now the favored, first-line approach. This article will review the latest developments and controversies regarding the endoscopic management of these conditions...
June 12, 2018: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
P V Glybochko, Yu G Alyaev, L M Rapoport, D V Enikeev, Z Okhunov, C Netsch, L G Spivak, M S Taratkin
Endoscopic enucleation of the prostate (EEP) techniques such as HoLEP (holmium laser enucleation of the prostate), ThuLEP (thulium laser enucleation of the prostate) and electroenucleation (mono- or bipolar) are highly effective and safe. They have been endorsed by the latest version of the European Association of Urology guidelines as an alternative to not only open adenomectomy but also transurethral resection of the prostate (EAU Guidelines on Treatment of Non-neurogenic Male LUTS 2018). Therefore, many urologists face the possibility of replacing the treatments of BPH...
May 2018: Urologii︠a︡
Fernanda Rodriguez-Otormin, Aroa Duro-Castano, Inmaculada Conejos-Sánchez, María J Vicent
The growing incidence of brain-related pathologies and the problems that undermine the development of efficient and effective treatments have prompted both researchers and the pharmaceutical industry to search for novel therapeutic alternatives. Polymer therapeutics (PT) display properties well suited to the treatment of neuro-related disorders, which help to overcome the many hidden obstacles on the journey to the central nervous system (CNS). The inherent features of PT, derived from drug(s) conjugation, in parallel with the progress in synthesis and analytical methods, the increasing knowledge in molecular basis of diseases, and collected clinical data through the last four decades, have driven the translation from "bench to bedside" for various biomedical applications...
June 14, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
Koji Maeda, Takao Ohki, Yuji Kanaoka
The technologies and innovations applicable to endovascular treatment for complex aortic pathologies have progressed rapidly over the last two decades. Although the initial outcomes of an endovascular aortic repair have been excellent, as long-term data became available, complications including endoleaks, endograft migration, and endograft infection have become apparent and are of concern. Previously, the indication for endovascular therapy was restricted to descending thoracic aortic aneurysms and abdominal aortic aneurysms...
June 2018: International Journal of Angiology: Official Publication of the International College of Angiology, Inc
Chien Ing Yeo, Kah Kooi Ooi, Edward R T Tiekink
A new era of metal-based drugs started in the 1960s, heralded by the discovery of potent platinum-based complexes, commencing with cisplatin [(H₃N)₂PtCl₂], which are effective anti-cancer chemotherapeutic drugs. While clinical applications of gold-based drugs largely relate to the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, attention has turned to the investigation of the efficacy of gold(I) and gold(III) compounds for anti-cancer applications. This review article provides an account of the latest research conducted during the last decade or so on the development of gold compounds and their potential activities against several cancers as well as a summary of possible mechanisms of action/biological targets...
June 11, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Giada Toccaceli, Roberto Delfini, Claudio Colonnese, Antonino Raco, Simone Peschillo
Despite the progress achieved in recent years, the prognosis of patients with primary brain tumors remains poor. Research efforts have therefore focused on identifying more effective and minimally invasive treatment methods. MR guided transcranial focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) is a consolidated minimally invasive therapeutic technique, which has recently acquired a role also in the treatment of some non-oncological intracranial pathologies. In this article, we've reviewed the latest studies to take stock of the potential that this method can offer...
June 8, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Ivan Varga, Alzbeta Blankova, Marek Konarik, Vaclav Baca, Vlasta Dvorakova, Vladimir Musil
This article details our experience with the Terminologia Histologica (TH) and its utility in the teaching of histology, cytology, and clinical medicine (e.g., pathology and hematology). Latin histological nomenclature has been used for 43 years, and the latest version of the TH has been in use for 15 years (although it was only issued publicly within the past 10 years). The following findings and ensuing proposals allow us to discuss key points pertaining to the TH and make important suggestions for potential changes to the TH (such as the exclusion and inclusion of various terms)...
June 6, 2018: Annals of Anatomy, Anatomischer Anzeiger: Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft
Chisato Imai, Michiko Toizumi, Lisa Hall, Stephen Lambert, Kate Halton, Katharina Merollini
BACKGROUND: Influenza vaccination is a commonly used intervention to prevent influenza infection in healthcare workers (HCWs) and onward transmission to other staff and patients. We undertook a systematic review to synthesize the latest evidence of the direct epidemiological and economic effectiveness of seasonal influenza vaccination among HCW. METHODS: We conducted a systematic search of MEDLINE/PubMed, Scopus, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials from 1980 through January 2018...
2018: PloS One
J M Prats-Vinas
This article reviews the advances made in the field of ataxias over the past four years. It concludes that there is no single spectacular finding like those that have taken place in the last 25 years and they can all be attributed to the remarkable evolution of genetics and neuroimaging. Nevertheless, algorithms have been perfected that allow a more rational use of the previous techniques to reach a correct diagnosis and possible treatment. With regard to the treatments proposed to alleviate the symptoms of ataxias, there is no unquestionable evidence leading us to think that the symptoms can be reverted with the means currently available, except for a few treatable ataxias, which were already known before that time...
June 5, 2018: Revista de Neurologia
Felicia Cox
Effective management of acute and chronic pain is an important aspect of nursing practice. Relieving patients' pain requires nurses to have an understanding of the latest evidence-based approaches, which will enable them to assess pain, implement appropriate management strategies and monitor their effectiveness. This article outlines the developments in evidence-based guidelines and recommendations for the pharmacological management of acute and chronic pain, including migraine, and in the use of analgesics such as opioids...
June 6, 2018: Nursing Standard
Xiao Li, Zhongguo Sui, Xin Li, Wen Xu, Qie Guo, Jialin Sun, Fanbo Jing
Perfluorooctylbromide nanoparticles (PFOB NPs) are a type of multifunctional nanotechnology that has been studied for various medical applications. Commercial ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) suffer from the following limitations: short half-lives in vivo, high background signal and restricted distribution in the vascular circulation due to their micrometer dimensions. PFOB NPs are new potential UCAs that persist for long periods in the circulatory system, possess a relatively stable echogenic response without increasing the background signal and exhibit lower acoustic attenuation than commercial UCAs...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
B B Summers
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a significant public health burden worldwide, owing in large part to ineffective and poorly tolerated treatments. The antivirals have evolved over time to become more effective and better tolerated with cure rates increasing from an average of 50% to a complete virologic response. This article summarizes the latest Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved addition to combination treatment for patients with HCV, voxilaprevir plus sofosbuvir/velpatasvir.
April 2018: Drugs of Today
Claudia A Dumitru, I Erol Sandalcioglu, Meliha Karsak
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most malignant brain tumor and one of the deadliest types of solid cancer overall. Despite aggressive therapeutic approaches consisting of maximum safe surgical resection and radio-chemotherapy, more than 95% of GBM patients die within 5 years after diagnosis. Thus, there is still an urgent need to develop novel therapeutic strategies against this disease. Accumulating evidence indicates that cannabinoids have potent anti-tumor functions and might be used successfully in the treatment of GBM...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
I A Zhydkova, V A Karlov, P N Vlasov
The article provides an analysis of the latest antiepileptic drug eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL) for the treatment of focal epilepsy in adults as monotherapy and adjunctive therapy. Pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, drug-drug interactions, indications and dosage regimen are described. The authors present the latest data on the efficacy, tolerability and safety of ESL including an exploratory pooled analysis of data from 14 European clinical practice studies (Euro-Esli) as well as their own observations of 34 patients receiving ESL in monotherapy or combination therapy...
2018: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
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