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Maria Regina Torloni, Ana Pilar Betrán, José M Belizán
The Birth in Brazil study is the largest national hospital-based survey in Brazil regarding birth practices. Conducted in 2011-2012, it collected information from 266 public and private healthcare facilities and interviewed nearly 24,000 postpartum women. It is also the latest effort to map out how labor and delivery are managed in this county in the 21st century. The journal Reproductive Health has published a supplement including 10 articles presenting the results of a series of analyses using this valuable resource...
October 17, 2016: Reproductive Health
Luigi Nibali, Anna Di Iorio, Yu-Kang Tu, Alexandre R Vieira
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to produce the latest summary of the evidence for association of host genetic variants contributing to both periodontitis and caries. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two systematic searches of the literature were conducted in Ovid Medline, Embase, LILACS and Cochrane Library for large candidate gene studies, systematic reviews and GWAS reporting data on host genetic variants and presence of periodontal disease and caries. RESULTS: A total of 124 studies were included in the review (59 for the periodontitis outcome and 68 for the caries outcome), from an initial search of 15,487 titles...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Clinical Periodontology
Carla C Baan
Over 3000 delegates attended the 26st International Congress of the Transplantation Society in Hong Kong, which marked the 50th anniversary of the society. In his presidential address, Professor Phil O'Connell from the Westmead Hospital in Sydney, Australia, commented that a major challenge for the future is improving long-term outcomes after solid organ transplantation. He highlighted that 40% of transplanted organs are lost within 10 years, and that a high proportion of patients suffer from immunosuppression-related side effects...
October 7, 2016: Transplantation
Onur Kaypakli, Mevlüt Koç, Gökhan Gözübüyük, Durmuş Yıldıray Şahin
AIM: CRT was shown to improve HF prognosis. But many patients do not benefit from CRT. Optimization of LV lead position to the latest activated LV area is important to increase CRT response. We aimed to detect the relationship between LV lead sensing delay and echocardiographic and electrocardiographic response to CRT treatment. METHODS: We prospectively included 156 consecutive patients with HF diagnosis, QRS≥120 ms, LBBB, NYHA II-IV, LVEF<35% and scheduled for CRT (100 male, 56 female; mean age 65...
October 18, 2016: Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology: PACE
Tristram A Lett, Henrik Walter, Eva J Brandl
Genetic variation underlies both the response to antidepressant treatment and the occurrence of side effects. Over the past two decades, a number of pharmacogenetic variants, among these the SCL6A4, BDNF, FKBP5, GNB3, GRIK4, and ABCB1 genes, have come to the forefront in this regard. However, small effects sizes, mixed results in independent samples, and conflicting meta-analyses results led to inherent difficulties in the field of pharmacogenetics translating these findings into clinical practice. Nearly all antidepressant pharmacogenetic variants have potentially pleiotropic effects in which they are associated with major depressive disorder, intermediate phenotypes involved in emotional processes, and brain areas affected by antidepressant treatment...
October 17, 2016: CNS Drugs
Wing-Fu Lai, Zhen-Dan He
Hydrogels are swellable polymer networks which can imbibe a substantial amount of fluids while retaining their internal network structure. Compared to bulk hydrogels, hydrogel nanoparticles exhibit added values in drug delivery because they can be internalized into cells to deliver pharmaceutical agents into the cytosol. Their large surface area also allows for multivalent conjugations, making optimization of the nanoparticles towards in vivo and clinical applications possible. These features, together with the tunable properties and biocompatibility of hydrogels, account for the widespread use of hydrogel-based nanoparticulate systems in drug formulation...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Carla J Rash, Maxine Stitzer, Jeremiah Weinstock
This article introduces the special issue on contingency management (CM), an efficacious intervention for the treatment of substance use disorders with low uptake in clinical settings that is not commensurate with evidence for efficacy. In this special issue of the Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, we present 16 articles representing the latest research in efficacy, implementation, and technological advances related to CM. Combined, this collection of articles highlights the diverse populations, settings, and applications of CM in the treatment of substance use disorders...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
Gabriella Szatmáry
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article presents an imaging-based approach to the differential diagnosis of visual symptoms. RECENT FINDINGS: Many neurologic disorders may present with visual symptoms. Therefore, neurologists must be familiar with the array of pathophysiologic processes that cause visual symptoms. Orbital imaging is challenging owing to the small structures and different tissue interfaces within and surrounding the orbital compartment. Some of the emerging three-dimensional MRI sequences are promising and compare well with high-resolution two-dimensional sequences in the orbits...
October 2016: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
Maarten Schrama, Fons van der Plas, Matty P Berg, Han Olff
1.Terrestrial ecosystems are characterised by a strong functional connection between the green (plant-herbivore-based) and brown (detritus-detritivore-based) parts of the food web, which both develop over successional time. However, the interlinked changes in green and brown food web diversity patterns in relation to key ecosystem processes are rarely studied. 2.Here, we demonstrate changes in species richness, diversity and evenness over a wide range of invertebrate green and brown trophic groups during 100 years of primary succession in a salt marsh ecosystem, using a well-calibrated chronosequence...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Animal Ecology
Jae Ho Choi, Younho Han, Yong An Kim, Sun Woo Jin, Gi Ho Lee, Hyung Min Jeong, Hyun Sun Lee, Young Chul Chung, Young Chun Lee, Eun Ju Kim, Kwang Youl Lee, Hye Gwang Jeong
Platycodon grandiflorum root-derived saponins (Changkil saponins, CKS) are reported to have many pharmacological activities. In our latest research, CKS was proven to have a significant osteogenic effect. However, the detail molecular mechanism of CKS on osteoclastic differentiation has not been fully investigated. Administration of CKS considerably reduced OVX-induced bone loss, and ameliorated the reduction in plasma levels of alkaline phosphatase, calcium, and phosphorus observed in OVX mice. CKS also repressed the deterioration of bone trabecular microarchitecture...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Mukesh Madhukar Shete
Hypertension is one of the most common conditions seen in primary care and a major public health problem in India. It can lead to various complications if not detected early and treated appropriately. As per the latest Eighth Joint National Committee (JNC 8) the goal BP in most hypertensive patients age <60 years should be <140/90 mmHg and treatment can be started by selecting drugs from among 4 specific medication classes i.e. angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) or angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB), calcium channel blocker (CCB) or diuretics...
April 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Ziad El Rassi, Chanida Puangpila
This review article is an update of our previous one by C. Puangpila, E. Mayadunne and Z. El Rassi, Electrophoresis 2015, 36, 238-252. Similarly to the previous article, this review has two main topics, including (i) proteomic sample preparation (e.g., depletion of high abundance proteins, reduction of the protein dynamic concentration range and enrichment of a particular sub-proteome), and (ii) the subsequent chromatographic and/or electrophoretic pre-fractionation prior to protein separation and identification by LC-MS/MS...
October 12, 2016: Electrophoresis
Federico Tirone, Stefano Salzano, Erik Rolando
BACKGROUND: Microdontia of the maxillary anterior teeth occurs quite frequently but is poorly documented. The literature describes several treatment choices, which are often focused on an orthodontic approach rather than a restorative one. The latest trends in restorative dentistry and the new ceramic materials, such as lithium disilicate, allow clinicians to perform esthetic rehabilitations based on microinvasive approaches that are most appropriate for younger patients. SUMMARY: Four patients, all employed in the field of dentistry, presented at our dental practice complaining of diastemata between their maxillary anterior teeth...
2016: International Journal of Esthetic Dentistry
Bastian Schmack, Alexander Weymann, Prashant Mohite, Diana Garcia Saez, Bartlomiej Zych, Anton Sabashnikov, Mohamed Zeriouh, Joel Schamroth, Achim Koch, Simona Soresi, Olga Ananiadou, Fabio De Robertis, Matthias Karck, Andre Ruediger Simon, Aron Frederik Popov
Lung transplantation remains the definite treatment for various end-stage lung diseases. Cold flush perfusion, the standard method for organ procurement has severe limitations. Organ Care System (OCS; TransMedics, Inc., Andover, USA) is an approved method to preserve hearts for transplantation that allows for greatly reduced cold ischemic time. Consequently, the use of an adapted OCS lung as a portable full ex-vivo lung perfusion system in lung transplantation is currently under close evaluation. Areas covered: The aim of this article is to review the advantages and the role of the OCS in the field of lung transplantation by reviewing the latest literature and evaluating this novel procurement technique in the context of conventional methods like cold flush and regular ex-vivo lung perfusion...
October 11, 2016: Expert Review of Medical Devices
P B Persson
My tailor suggests I should dress for the body I have, not for the body I want. Conversely, Acta Physiologica's lean and muscular build calls for streamlining her appearance. Over the latest years, Acta Physiologica has been ranked highly among the physiology journals.(1,2) Our readers have increasingly downloaded our articles, and many more manuscripts have been submitted year-by-year.(3-5) Reflecting these changes, more persons read Acta Physiologica out of general interest, and not only to stay on top of their fields...
October 11, 2016: Acta Physiologica
Ian M Orme, Diane J Ordway
This article describes the nature of the host response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the mouse and guinea pig models of infection. It describes the great wealth of information obtained from the mouse model, reflecting the general availability of immunological reagents, as well as genetic manipulations of the mouse strains themselves. This has led to a good understanding of the nature of the T-cell response to the infection, as well as an appreciation of the complexity of the response involving multiple cytokine- and chemokine-mediated systems...
August 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Eva Maria Teegen, Isabell Krebs, Corinna Langelotz, Johann Pratschke, Beate Rau
BACKGROUND: Gender differences in medicine are gaining in importance. In transplant surgery, not only the patient's gender but also that of the donor play an important role in the outcome of transplantation due to sociocultural and genetic factors. METHODS: This review article gives an overview of the latest investigations into gender-related influences in the field of visceral transplantation. For this purpose, a systematic review of the literature was performed...
August 2016: Visc Med
Junfeng Li, Johann Karunananthan, Bradley Pelham, Fouad Kandeel
It was estimated that every year more than 30000 persons in the United States - approximately 80 people per day - are diagnosed with type 1 diabetes (T1D). T1D is caused by autoimmune destruction of the pancreatic islet (β cells) cells. Islet transplantation has become a promising therapy option for T1D patients, while the lack of suitable tools is difficult to directly evaluate of the viability of the grafted islet over time. Positron emission tomography (PET) as an important non-invasive methodology providing high sensitivity and good resolution, is able to accurate detection of the disturbed biochemical processes and physiological abnormality in living organism...
September 28, 2016: World Journal of Radiology
Maurice A M van Steensel
It might be possible to treat genetic skin diseases by correcting defective RNA. In this issue of Experimental Dermatology, Bornert et al review the latest developments in this area. Progress is rapid and impressive. Clinical use of RNA correction looks set to soon become reality. The future looks bright indeed. But, as always, we have to think before we act. In my comment, I provide a much-needed reality check. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
September 27, 2016: Experimental Dermatology
Aleksandra Poterala, Joanna Rzeszowska-Wolny
Ago proteins are members of the highly specialized and conserved Argonaute family, primarily responsible for regulation of gene expression. As a part of RNA-induced silencing complexes (RISCs) Ago proteins are responsible for binding a short RNA and cleavage/inhibition of translation of target mRNAs. Phosphorylation may work as the switch between those two functions, but the role of magnesium ion concentration is also taken into consideration. Recent reports indicate that Ago proteins can interact with an mRNA and cause inhibition of translation without the participation of a short RNA...
September 28, 2016: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
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