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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817982/current-challenges-in-optimizing-systemic-therapy-for-patients-with-pancreatic-cancer-expert-perspectives-from-the-australian-gastrointestinal-trials-group-with-invited-international-faculty
#1
Eva Segelov, Florian Lordick, David Goldstein, Lorraine A Chantrill, Daniel Croagh, Ben Lawrence, Dirk Arnold, Ian Chau, Radka Obermannova, Timothy Jay Price
Despite recent progress, the outlook for most patients with pancreatic cancer remains poor. There is variation in how patients are managed globally due to differing interpretations of the evidence, partly because studies in this disease are challenging to undertake. This article collates the evidence upon which current best practice is based and offers an expert opinion from an international faculty on how latest developments should influence current treatment paradigms. Areas covered: Optimal chemotherapy for first and subsequent lines of therapy; optimal management of locally advanced, non-metastatic cancer including the role of neoadjuvant chemo(radio)therapy, current evidence for adjuvant chemotherapy, major advances in pancreatic cancer genomics and challenges in supportive care particularly relevant to patients with pancreatic cancer...
August 18, 2017: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815526/role-of-intra-and-inter-mitochondrial-membrane-contact-sites-in-yeast-phospholipid-biogenesis
#2
Yasushi Tamura, Toshiya Endo
Eukaryotic cells exhibit intracellular compartments called organelles wherein various specialized enzymatic reactions occur. Despite the specificity of the characteristic functions of organelles, recent studies have shown that distinct organelles physically connect and communicate with each other to maintain the integrity of their functions. In yeast, multiple inter- and intramitochondrial membrane contact sites (MCSs) were identified to date and were proposed to be involved in phospholipid biogenesis. In the present article, we focus on inter- and intra-organellar MCSs involving mitochondria and their tethering factors, such as the ERMES (endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-mitochondria encounter structure) complex and EMC (conserved ER membrane protein complex) between mitochondria and the ER, vCLAMP (vacuole and mitochondria patch) between mitochondria and vacuoles, and the MICOS (mitochondrial contact site) complex between the mitochondrial outer and inner membranes (MOM and MIM)...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808438/atsas-2-8-a-comprehensive-data-analysis-suite-for-small-angle-scattering-from-macromolecular-solutions
#3
D Franke, M V Petoukhov, P V Konarev, A Panjkovich, A Tuukkanen, H D T Mertens, A G Kikhney, N R Hajizadeh, J M Franklin, C M Jeffries, D I Svergun
ATSAS is a comprehensive software suite for the analysis of small-angle scattering data from dilute solutions of biological macromolecules or nanoparticles. It contains applications for primary data processing and assessment, ab initio bead modelling, and model validation, as well as methods for the analysis of flexibility and mixtures. In addition, approaches are supported that utilize information from X-ray crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy or atomistic homology modelling to construct hybrid models based on the scattering data...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Applied Crystallography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799849/public-health-activist-skills-pyramid-a-model-for-implementing-health-in-all-policies
#4
Behzad Damari, Elham Ehsani Chimeh
Affecting public health for society requires various competencies. In fact, the prerequisite for the implementation of health in all policies should be effectiveness of public health activists (PHAs) in these competencies. This study aims to determine the competencies of the activists in public health. The present qualitative study reviewed the literature and adopted qualitative methods like content analysis, stakeholder interviews, and conducted focus group discussions with related experts. In each stage, the required competencies were extracted through drawing the main action processes of a PHA...
August 11, 2017: Social Work in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798872/fiber-reinforced-scaffolds-in-soft-tissue-engineering
#5
REVIEW
Baoqing Pei, Wei Wang, Yubo Fan, Xiumei Wang, Fumio Watari, Xiaoming Li
Soft tissue engineering has been developed as a new strategy for repairing damaged or diseased soft tissues and organs to overcome the limitations of current therapies. Since most of soft tissues in the human body are usually supported by collagen fibers to form a three-dimensional microstructure, fiber-reinforced scaffolds have the advantage to mimic the structure, mechanical and biological environment of natural soft tissues, which benefits for their regeneration and remodeling. This article reviews and discusses the latest research advances on design and manufacture of novel fiber-reinforced scaffolds for soft tissue repair and how fiber addition affects their structural characteristics, mechanical strength and biological activities in vitro and in vivo...
August 2017: Regenerative Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796913/patients-with-psoriasis-have-different-preferences-for-topical-therapy-highlighting-the-importance-of-individualized-treatment-approaches-randomized-phase-iiib-pso-insightful-study
#6
C-H Hong, K A Papp, K W Lophaven, P Skallerup, S Philipp
BACKGROUND: Poor adherence to topical therapy in psoriasis remains an issue; it is associated with poor clinical outcomes, reduced quality of life, and increased costs. Treatment-related factors leading to poor adherence include lack of efficacy, excessive time applying medication, and poor cosmetic characteristics (e.g. slow absorption, greasiness). OBJECTIVE: To assess the topical treatment attributes that influence patient preference for fixed combination calcipotriol 50 μg/g (Cal) and betamethasone 0...
August 10, 2017: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795608/focus-small-to-find-big-the-microbeam-story
#7
Jinhua Wu, Tom K Hei
PURPOSE: Even though the first ultraviolet microbeam was described by S. Tschachotin back in 1912, the development of sophisticated micro-irradiation facilities only began to flourish in the late 1980s. In this article, we highlight significant microbeam experiments, describe the latest microbeam irradiator configurations and critical discoveries made by using the microbeam apparatus. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Modern radiological microbeams facilities are capable of producing a beam size of a few micrometers, or even tens of nanometers in size, and can deposit radiation with high precision within a cellular target...
August 10, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794585/current-status-of-robotic-single-port-surgery
#8
REVIEW
Ryan J Nelson, Jaya Sai S Chavali, Nitin Yerram, Paurush Babbar, Jihad H Kaouk
Robotic-assisted laparoscopic surgery in urology is an ever progressing field, and boundaries are constantly broken with the aid of new technology. Advancements in instrumentation have given birth to the era of robotic laparoendoscopic single-site technique (R-LESS). R-LESS however, has not gained widespread acceptance due to technical hurdles such as adequate triangulation, robotic arm clashing, decreased access for the bedside assistant, lack of wrist articulation, continued need for an axillary/accessory port, lack of robust retraction, and ergonomic discomfort...
July 2017: Urology Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792654/euchlorocystis-gen-nov-and-densicystis-gen-nov-two-new-genera-of-oocystaceae-algae-from-high-altitude-semi-saline-habitat-trebouxiophyceae-chlorophyta
#9
Xudong Liu, Huan Zhu, Huiyin Song, Qinghua Wang, Xiong Xiong, Chenxi Wu, Guoxiang Liu, Zhengyu Hu
The Oocystaceae family is generally considered to contain common freshwater eukaryotic microalgae, and few are reported living in semi-saline habitats. Our latest ecological survey in Qinghai Lake and Angzicuo Lake, both large, closed, high-altitude, semi-saline lakes located on the Qinghai-Tibet plateau in China, revealed Oocystaceae species as a dominant group among plankton. Since limited knowledge exists about semi-saline species in the Oocystaceae family, a taxonomical study was carried out using morphological and phylogenetic methods...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792436/special-issue-cancer-metabolism
#10
EDITORIAL
Madhu Basetti
This special issue is designed to present the latest research findings and developments in the field of cancer metabolism. Cancer is a complex disease and a common term used for more than 100 diseases, whereas metabolism describes a labyrinth of complex biochemical pathways in the cell. It is essential to understand metabolism in the context of cancer for the early detection of disease biomarkers and to find proper targets for potential treatments. The articles presented in this issue cover metabolic aspects of brain tumours, breast tumours, paraganglioma, and the metabolic activity of tumour suppressor gene p53...
August 9, 2017: Metabolites
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792066/advances-in-the-analysis-of-less-conventional-human-body-fluids-an-overview-of-the-ce-and-hplc-ms-applications-in-the-years-2015-2017
#11
Monica Di Venere, Simona Viglio, Maddalena Cagnone, Anna Bardoni, Roberta Salvini, Paolo Iadarola
Aim of this article is to focus the attention of the reader on the application of CE/MS and LC/MS to the analysis of human body fluids not currently used for the diagnosis of disorders and, for this reason, catalogued as "less-/non-conventional" fluids, i.e. tears, nasal secretions, cerumen, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, sputum, exhaled breath condensate, nipple aspirate, breast milk, amniotic fluid, bile, seminal plasma, liposuction aspirate fluid and synovial fluid. The pool of articles presented in this report demonstrates that, rather than being neglected, these fluids are an important resource for the evaluation of possible pathologic conditions...
August 9, 2017: Electrophoresis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789524/glucuronidated-flavonoids-in-neurological-protection-structural-analysis-and-approaches-for-chemical-and-biological-synthesis
#12
Maite Docampo, Adiji Olubu, Xiaoqiang Wang, Giulio M Pasinetti, Richard Arthur Dixon
Both plant and mammalian cells express glucuronosyltransferases that catalyze glucuronidation of polyphenols such as flavonoids and other small molecules. Oral administration of select polyphenolic compounds leads to the accumulation of the corresponding glucuronidated metabolites at µM and sub-µM concentrations in the brain, associated with amelioration of a range of neurological symptoms. Determining the mechanisms whereby botanical extracts impact cognitive wellbeing and psychological resiliency will require investigation of the modes of action of the brain-targeted metabolites...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783380/streptococcus-pneumoniae-serotype-19a-worldwide-epidemiology
#13
Raul Isturiz, Heather L Sings, Betsy Hilton, Adriano Arguedas, Ralf-René Reinert, Luis Jodar
Streptococcus pneumoniae causes mucosal and invasive diseases with high morbidity and mortality. Introduction of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) into routine infant immunization programs worldwide resulted in serotype 19A becoming a leading cause of the remaining pneumococcal disease burden in vaccinated and unvaccinated individuals. This article reviews the impact of the latest generation PCVs (10-valent PCV, PCV10, and 13-valent PCV, PCV13) on serotype 19A. Areas covered: This article covers immune responses elicited by PCV7, PCV10 and PCV13 against serotype 19A and their impact on nasopharyngeal (NP) carriage and disease in vaccinated and unvaccinated populations using data from surveillance systems, randomized controlled trials, and observational studies...
August 7, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783257/biogenesis-of-circular-rnas-and-their-roles-in-cardiovascular-development-and-pathology
#14
REVIEW
Mengyang Li, Wei Ding, Teng Sun, Muhammad Akram Tariq, Tao Xu, Peifeng Li, Jianxun Wang
Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a newly discovered type of RNAs generated by back-splicing of precursor mRNA (pre-mRNA) and found in many species. They are, expressed in a tissue-specific manner and fulfill regulatory activities in many biological processes. Recent research revealed that circRNAs play critical roles in the development and pathologies of the cardiovascular system. Some of these circRNAs showed aberrant expression and regulatory activities during heart disease including heart failure and cardiac infarction and hypertrophy...
August 7, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777488/discordant-rejection-in-simultaneous-pancreas-and-kidney-transplantation-true-discordance-or-analysis-artefact
#15
Michela Assalino, Karine Hadaya, Axel Andres, Thierry Berney
The article by Parajuli et al published in this issue of Transplant International is the latest, and perhaps the most convincing in a relatively small body of literature, to suggest that in a situation of simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation (SPK), in which both organs are from the same donor, one organ may be undergoing acute rejection independently from the other (1). The organ hierarchy in immunogeneicity and susceptibility to rejection is a long known biological phenomenon, with the liver at one end of the spectrum and the intestine the other...
August 4, 2017: Transplant International: Official Journal of the European Society for Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776912/hybriddetective-a-workflow-and-package-to-facilitate-the-detection-of-hybridization-using-genomic-data-in-r
#16
Brendan F Wringe, Ryan R E Stanley, Nicholas W Jeffery, Eric C Anderson, Ian R Bradbury
The ability to detect and characterize hybridization in nature has long been of interest to many fields of biology and often has direct implications for wildlife management and conservation. The capacity to identify the presence of hybridization, and quantify the numbers of individuals belonging to different hybrid classes, permits inference on the magnitude of, and time scale over which, hybridization has been, or is occurring. Here we present an R package and associated workflow developed for the detection, with estimates of efficiency and accuracy, of multi-generational hybrid individuals using genetic or genomic data in conjunction with the program NEWHYBRIDS...
August 4, 2017: Molecular Ecology Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776551/advances-in-pathobiology-of-primary-central-nervous-system-lymphoma
#17
REVIEW
Xue-Liang Yang, Yuan-Bo Liu
OBJECTIVE: Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is a specific type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma with poor prognosis. The rare incidence of this disease and difficulty to obtain sufficient tissue material impede deep research into PCNSL. However, application of modern molecular techniques makes it possible to find biological characteristics exclusive to PCNSL. Therefore, we systematically reviewed the latest research progress on biological characteristics and pathogenesis of PCNSL...
August 20, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770964/cancer-stem-cell-markers-in-glioblastoma-an-update
#18
H-S Xu, X-L Qin, H-L Zong, X-G He, L Cao
The glioblastoma includes brain tumors, which are very aggressive in nature and are among the most common brain tumors in adults. Latest therapeutic avenues involve combination approach. However, the observed median survival is still no more than 15 months. Moreover, there is a scarcity of accurate pre-clinical model systems, which in turn resulted in limited treatment options for this disease. Cancer stem cells are attractive avenues in anticancer research against glioblastoma. Most of the recent studies are focused towards the identification of novel markers for cancer stem cells...
July 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768777/ceramic-on-ceramic-bearing-fractures-in-total-hip-arthroplasty-an-analysis-of-data-from-the-national-joint-registry
#19
D P Howard, P D H Wall, M A Fernandez, H Parsons, P W Howard
AIMS: Ceramic-on-ceramic (CoC) bearings in total hip arthroplasty (THA) are commonly used, but concerns exist regarding ceramic fracture. This study aims to report the risk of revision for fracture of modern CoC bearings and identify factors that might influence this risk, using data from the National Joint Registry (NJR) for England, Wales, Northern Ireland and the Isle of Man. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We analysed data on 223 362 bearings from 111 681 primary CoC THAs and 182 linked revisions for bearing fracture recorded in the NJR...
August 2017: Bone & Joint Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762953/lncrnas-as-prognostic-molecular-biomarkers-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#20
Chuqian Zheng, Xiuxia Liu, Leifeng Chen, Zheng Xu, Jianghua Shao
The latest studies have shown that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) may be considered markers as their expression levels were abnormal in cancer and can be used as a molecular biomarker for the potential assessment of cancer prognosis. In this study, we aimed to assess the prognostic value of lncRNA as marker of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. We performed a detailed search of the PubMed and Embase databases for articles on the prognostic value of various lncRNAs in HCC. We then carefully extracted the relevant data from the articles, and we used the meta-analysis method to analyze these results; heterogeneity and publication bias were also evaluated...
July 25, 2017: Oncotarget
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