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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143334/pk-pd-modeling-of-flunixin-meglumine-in-a-kaolin-induced-inflammation-model-in-piglets
#1
O L Levionnois, T K Fosse, B Ranheim
Flunixin is marketed in several countries for analgesia in adult swine but little is known about its efficacy in piglets. Thirty-two piglets (6-8 days old) were randomized to receive placebo saline (n = 11, group CONTROL) or flunixin meglumine intravenously at 2.2 (n = 11, group MEDIUM) or 4.4 (n = 10, group HIGH) mg/kg, 10 hr after subcutaneous injection of kaolin in the left metacarpal area. A hand-held algometer was used to determine each piglet's mechanical nociceptive threshold (MNT) from both front feet up to 50 hr after treatment (cut-off value of 24...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135586/increased-hyperalgesia-and-proinflammatory-cytokines-in-the-spinal-cord-and-dorsal-root-ganglion-after-surgery-and-or-fentanyl-administration-in-rats
#2
Lu Chang, Fang Ye, Quehua Luo, Yuanxiang Tao, Haihua Shu
BACKGROUND: Perioperative fentanyl has been reported to induce hyperalgesia and increase postoperative pain. In this study, we tried to investigate behavioral hyperalgesia, the expression of proinflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and the activation of microglia in the spinal cord and dorsal root ganglion (DRG) in a rat model of surgical plantar incision with or without perioperative fentanyl. METHODS: Four groups of rats (n = 32 for each group) were subcutaneously injected with fentanyl at 60 μg/kg or normal saline for 4 times with 15-minute intervals...
November 10, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082571/the-role-of-peripheral-vasopressin-1a-and-oxytocin-receptors-on-the-subcutaneous-vasopressin-antinociceptive-effects
#3
A Manzano-García, A González-Hernández, I A Tello-García, G Martínez-Lorenzana, M Condés-Lara
BACKGROUND: Vasopressin (AVP) seems to play a role as an antinociceptive neurohormone, but little is known about the peripheral site of action of its antinociceptive effects. Moreover, AVP can produce motor impairment that could be confused with behavioural antinociception. Finally, it is not clear which receptor is involved in the peripheral antinociceptive AVP effects. METHODS: In anaesthetized rats with end-tidal CO2 monitoring, extracellular unitary recordings were performed, measuring the evoked activity mediated by Aβ-, Aδ-, C-fibres and post-discharge...
October 30, 2017: European Journal of Pain: EJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079733/analgesic-effects-and-pharmacologic-mechanisms-of-the-gelsemium-alkaloid-koumine-on-a-rat-model-of-postoperative-pain
#4
Bo-Jun Xiong, Ying Xu, Gui-Lin Jin, Ming Liu, Jian Yang, Chang-Xi Yu
Postoperative pain (POP) of various durations is a common complication of surgical procedures. POP is caused by nerve damage and inflammatory responses that are difficult to treat. The neuroinflammation-glia-steroid network is known to be important in POP. It has been reported that the Gelsemium alkaloid koumine possesses analgesic, anti-inflammatory and neurosteroid modulating activities. This study was undertaken to test the analgesic effects of koumine against POP and explore the underlying pharmacologic mechanisms...
October 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069009/oxygen-embolism-caused-by-accidental-subcutaneous-injection-of-hydrogen-peroxide-during-orthopedic-surgery-a-case-report
#5
Jinhun Chung, Minyoung Jeong
INTRODUCTION: We report a 39-year-old male patient with a fracture of the right acetabulum undergoing open reduction and internal fixation with a plate under general anesthesia. At closure, the surgeons injected 0.75% ropivacaine into the subcutaneous tissue of the incision wound for postoperative analgesia. Soon after injection, subcutaneous emphysema at the injection site and a sudden decrease in end-tidal CO2 tension with crude oscillatory ripples during the alveolar plateau phase were observed...
October 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066180/preliminary-pharmacokinetics-of-tramadol-hydrochloride-after-administration-via-different-routes-in-male-and-female-b6-mice
#6
Rocio Evangelista Vaz, Dragomir I Draganov, Christelle Rapp, Frederic Avenel, Guido Steiner, Margarete Arras, Alessandra Bergadano
OBJECTIVE: 1) Determine the pharmacokinetics of tramadol hydrochloride and its active metabolite, O-desmethyltramadol (M1), after administration through different routes in female and male C57Bl/6 mice; 2) evaluate the stability of tramadol solutions; 3) identify a suitable dose regimen for prospective clinical analgesia in B6 mice. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, randomized, blinded, parallel design. ANIMALS: Eighteen male and 18 female C57Bl/6 mice (20-30 g)...
August 16, 2017: Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046095/surgical-placement-of-rectus-sheath-catheters-in-a-cadaveric-cystectomy-model
#7
Ecp Chedgy, G Lowe, R Tang, C Krebs, A Sawka, H Vaghadia, M E Gleave, A I So
Introduction Surgically inserted rectus sheath catheters (RSCs) are used increasingly for analgesia after cystectomy and other abdominal surgery. Currently, there is little information on the optimal positioning of RSCs to allow maximal spread of local anaesthetic. This study sought to assess the spread of dye injected via RSCs and to highlight the extent of its coverage in a fresh unembalmed cadaveric cystectomy model in order to confirm the nerve endings that are likely to be anaesthetised with RSCs. Methods Four cadavers underwent lower midline incision with limited bladder mobilisation...
October 19, 2017: Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035643/role-of-bone-modifying-agents-in-metastatic-breast-cancer-an-american-society-of-clinical-oncology-cancer-care-ontario-focused-guideline-update
#8
Catherine Van Poznak, Mark R Somerfield, William E Barlow, J Sybil Biermann, Linda D Bosserman, Mark J Clemons, Sukhbinder K Dhesy-Thind, Melissa S Dillmon, Andrea Eisen, Elizabeth S Frank, Reshma Jagsi, Rachel Jimenez, Richard L Theriault, Theodore A Vandenberg, Gary C Yee, Beverly Moy
Purpose To update, in collaboration with Cancer Care Ontario (CCO), key recommendations of the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) guideline on the role of bone-modifying agents (BMAs) in metastatic breast cancer. This focused update addressed the new data on intervals between dosing and the role of BMAs in control of bone pain. Methods A joint ASCO-CCO Update Committee conducted targeted systematic literature reviews to identify relevant studies. Results The Update Committee reviewed three phase III noninferiority trials of dosing intervals, one systematic review and meta-analysis of studies of de-escalation of BMAs, and two randomized trials of BMAs in control of pain secondary to bone metastases...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976422/antisense-oligonucleotides-selectively-suppress-target-rna-in-nociceptive-neurons-of-the-pain-system-and-can-ameliorate-mechanical-pain
#9
Apoorva Mohan, Bethany Fitzsimmons, Hien T Zhao, Yuhong Jiang, Curt Mazur, Eric E Swayze, Holly B Kordasiewicz
There is an urgent need for better treatments for chronic pain, which affects more than 1 billion people worldwide. Antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) have proven successful in treating children with spinal muscular atrophy, a severe infantile neurological disorder, and several compounds based on ASOs are currently being tested in clinical trials for various neurological disorders. Here we characterize the pharmacodynamic activity of ASOs in spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia (DRG), key tissues for pain signaling...
September 30, 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948894/minimally-invasive-technique-for-intrathecal-administration-of-morphine-in-rats-practicality-and-antinociceptive-properties
#10
Aurelie Anic Thomas, Johann Detilleux, Charlotte Friederike Sandersen, Paul Andrew Flecknell
The intrathecal (IT) route of administration represents a means to reduce the dose of morphine administered for analgesia, potentially minimizing interactions between opioid effects and experimental outcomes. Perceived technical difficulty, and previously described invasive methods, may limit its use. This report describes a minimally invasive technique for IT administration of morphine by direct transcutaneous lumbosacral puncture in rats; and assesses antinociceptive properties of morphine in anaesthetized rats...
October 2017: Laboratory Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946783/peripherally-acting-%C3%A2%C2%B5-opioid-receptor-antagonists-for-the-treatment-of-opioid-related-side-effects-mechanism-of-action-and-clinical-implications
#11
John M Streicher, Edward J Bilsky
Opioid receptors are distributed throughout the central and peripheral nervous systems and on many nonneuronal cells. Therefore, opioid administration induces effects beyond analgesia. In the enteric nervous system (ENS), stimulation of µ-opioid receptors triggers several inhibitory responses that can culminate in opioid-induced bowel dysfunction (OBD) and its most common side effect, opioid-induced constipation (OIC). OIC negatively affects patients' quality of life (QOL), ability to work, and pain management...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919678/cortisol-concentration-pain-and-sedation-scale-in-free-roaming-dogs-treated-with-carprofen-after-ovariohysterectomy
#12
Katarina Nenadović, Marijana Vučinić, Brana Radenković-Damnjanović, Ljiljana Janković, Radislava Teodorović, Eva Voslarova, Zsolt Becskei
BACKGROUND AND AIM: One of the topic issues in animal welfare activities is the free roaming dog welfare especially in developing countries such as Serbia. The way of controlling population of free roaming dogs is their reproduction with the method of "Catch-Neuter-Release." This complex process consists of capturing free roaming dogs in public areas, sterilizing, and returning them to the public area from which they were temporarily removed. Ovariohysterectomy present the period with a high intensity of stress reaction since many veterinarians in Serbia do not use analgesia for this group of dogs...
August 2017: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919541/drugs-for-treating-opioid-induced-constipation-a-mixed-treatment-comparison-network-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-clinical-trials
#13
Kannan Sridharan, Gowri Sivaramakrishnan
CONTEXT: Opioid-induced constipation is a common problem associated with chronic use of opioid analgesics. OBJECTIVES: To compare available interventions for the treatment of opioid-induced constipation, using principles of network meta-analysis. METHODS: Electronic databases were searched for randomized controlled clinical trials evaluating drugs used in opioid induced constipation. Number of patients with rescue-free bowel movements (RFBM) was the primary outcome and time for achieving RFBM, adverse events and changes in the analgesic activity of the opioid analgesics were the secondary outcomes...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837793/inducing-rat-brain-cyp2d-with-nicotine-increases-the-rate-of-codeine-tolerance-predicting-the-rate-of-tolerance-from-acute-analgesic-response
#14
Douglas M McMillan, Rachel F Tyndale
Repeated opioid administration produces analgesic tolerance, which may lead to dose escalation. Brain CYP2D metabolizes codeine to morphine, a bioactivation step required for codeine analgesia. Higher brain, but not liver, CYP2D is found in smokers and nicotine induces rat brain, but not liver, CYP2D expression and activity. Nicotine induction of rat brain CYP2D increases acute codeine conversion to morphine, and analgesia, however the role of brain CYP2D on the effects of repeated codeine exposure and tolerance is unknown...
August 21, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807643/-use-of-subcutaneous-route-for-comfort-care%C3%A2-in-neonatal-palliative-population-systematic-review-and-survey-of-practices-in-france
#15
N Pouvreau, J Tandonnet, O Tandonnet, L Renesme
INTRODUCTION: Subcutaneous hydration (hypodermoclysis) and drug administration is a widely used method of analgesic therapy in adult palliative care medicine. Very little is known about its use in neonatal medicine. Evidence-based guidelines do not exist due to a lack of data. In this study, the advantages of subcutaneous analgesic therapy in terms of comfort in neonatal palliative care situations were investigated. METHODS: This report details the results of a systematic review associated with a survey in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) and pediatric palliative care departments (PPCTs) in France...
September 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763302/intramuscularly-injected-neurotropin-reduced-muscular-mechanical-hyperalgesia-induced-by-repeated-cold-stress-in-rats
#16
Teruaki Nasu, Shiori Murase, Yoshiko Takeda-Uchimura, Kazue Mizumura
An extract of rabbit skin inflamed by inoculation with the vaccinia virus, neurotropin [by intravenous, oral, and intramuscular (i.m.) administration], has been used in China and Japan for the treatment of chronic pain. In this study, we investigated the analgesic mechanism of i.m. neurotropin. Rats were exposed to repeated cold stress, and muscular mechanical hyperalgesia was evaluated by measuring the withdrawal threshold of the gastrocnemius muscle using Randall-Selitto apparatus. I.m. but not subcutaneous, neurotropin dose dependently reduced the repeated cold stress-induced muscular mechanical hyperalgesia for 3 h, but it had no effect in normal rats...
July 31, 2017: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757824/effects-of-preincisional-analgesia-with-surgical-site-infiltration-of-ketamine-or-levobupivacaine-in-patients-undergoing-abdominal-hysterectomy-under-general-anesthesia-a-randomized-double-blind-study
#17
Nasr Mahmoud Abdallah, Atef Kamel Salama, Ahmed Mohamed Ellithy
CONTEXT: Postoperative pain management remains a cornerstone in patient's management to ensure a better quality of life. Preemptive analgesia is reported to inhibit the persistence of postoperative pain. AIMS: The aim of this study is to assess the analgesic effectiveness of preincisional infiltration of ketamine following elective abdominal hysterectomy as compared to levobupivacaine. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: This was a prospective, randomized, double-blind study...
July 2017: Saudi Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735031/taking-the-alternative-route-women-s-experience-of-intranasal-fentanyl-subcutaneous-fentanyl-or-intramuscular-pethidine-for-labour-analgesia
#18
Julie-Anne Fleet, Meril Jones, Ingrid Belan
OBJECTIVE: To compare women's experience of receiving either intranasal fentanyl, subcutaneous fentanyl or intramuscular pethidine for labour analgesia. DESIGN: A content analysis was undertaken as part of the third phase of a larger randomised controlled trial, using the per-protocol dataset to examine women's experiences of treatment received. Healthy women birthing at term, who received intranasal fentanyl (n=41), subcutaneous fentanyl (n=37) and/or intramuscular pethidine (n=38) for labour analgesia, were contacted at 6 weeks postpartum to complete a phone questionnaire...
October 2017: Midwifery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723417/long-term-morphine-delivery-via-slow-release-morphine-pellets-or-osmotic-pumps-plasma-concentration-analgesia-and-naloxone-precipitated-withdrawal
#19
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Virginia D McLane, Ivy Bergquist, James Cormier, Deborah J Barlow, Karen L Houseknecht, Edward J Bilsky, Ling Cao
AIMS: Slow-release morphine sulfate pellets and osmotic pumps are common routes of chronic morphine delivery in mouse models, but direct comparisons of these drug delivery systems are lacking. In this study, we assessed the efficacy of slow-release pellets versus osmotic pumps in delivering morphine to adult mice. MAIN METHODS: Male C57BL/6NCr mice (8weeksold) were implanted subcutaneously with slow-release pellets (25mg morphine sulfate) or osmotic pumps (64mg/mL, 1...
September 15, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716738/photodynamic-therapy-and-pain-a-systematic-review
#20
Jennifer Maria Ang, Irbaz Bin Riaz, Muhammad Umar Kamal, Gyorgy Paragh, Nathalie C Zeitouni
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an effective treatment for actinic keratoses and early skin cancers, and the only office procedure to control field cancerization. Procedure-associated pain limits widespread PDT use and by early termination of treatment can decrease overall therapeutic efficacy. Here we review and assess reported interventions on PDT-associated pain, in order to identify the most promising methods to manage treatment-associated pain and identify focus for future studies. Literature search was performed using MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library by two independent reviewers to select publications that assessed and compared pain quantitatively during PDT treatment for actinic keratoses, basal cell carcinomas, and/or in situ squamous cell carcinomas...
July 14, 2017: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
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