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Glutamine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636949/cloning-expression-and-nutritional-regulation-of-the-glutamine-synthetase-gene-in-ctenopharyngodon-idellus
#1
Rong Hu, Fufa Qu, Jianzhou Tang, Qiong Zhao, Jinpeng Yan, Zhigang Zhou, Yi Zhou, Zhen Liu
Glutamine synthetase (GS) is considered a master enzyme that catalyses ATP-dependent biosynthesis of glutamine from glutamate. In the present study, the GS gene was cloned from the intestine of grass carp, (Ctenopharyngodon idellus). The full-length cDNA sequence of GS encodes a 371-amino-acid polypetide. Phylogenetic analysis of the C. idellus GS sequence reveals common carp (Cyprinus carpio) as its closest neighbor. GS mRNA was differentially expressed in different tissues, with high to low gradient expression the intestine, brain, muscle, heart, gill, liver, pituitary gland, and spleen...
June 18, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634390/increased-glutamate-in-somatosensory-cortex-in-functional-dyspepsia
#2
Arthur D P Mak, Georg Northoff, David K W Yeung, Winnie C W Chu, Steve C N Hui, Cynthia Cheung, Jessica Ching, Linda Lam, Sing Lee, Justin Wu
Functional Dyspepsia-Post-prandial Distress Syndrome (FD-PDS) was associated with mood-related increases in resting activity and lowered activation threshold in the somatosensory cortex (SSC), insula and perigenual anterior cingulate cortex(pgACC) in functional imaging studies. The underlying cortical neurochemical changes are unknown. We performed proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (1H-MRS) on 17 consecutive tertiary clinic-recruited psychotropic-naïve Rome III FD-PDS female and 17 age-sex matched healthy controls...
June 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633555/glutamine-administration-in-early-or-late-septic-phase-downregulates-lymphocyte-pd-1-pd-l1-expression-and-the-inflammatory-response-in-mice-with-polymicrobial-sepsis
#3
Ya-Mei Hu, Yuan-Chin Hsiung, Man-Hui Pai, Sung-Ling Yeh
BACKGROUND: Sepsis is a severe inflammatory response to infection. Excessive compensation to inflammation leads to dysregulated immune response that ultimately results in organ damage and lethality of sepsis. This study administered glutamine (GLN) in the early or late phase of sepsis to investigate its effects on regulating leukocyte programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) and its ligand (programmed cell death ligand 1 [PD-L1]) expression, macrophage function, inflammation, and acute kidney injury in sepsis...
March 1, 2017: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631172/glutamine-a-major-player-in-nitrogen-catabolite-repression-in-the-yeast-dekkera-bruxellensis
#4
Danielli Batista Bezerra Cajueiro, Denise Castro Parente, Fernanda Cristina Bezerra Leite, Marcos Antonio de Morais Junior, Will de Barros Pita
In the present work we studied the expression of genes from nitrogen central metabolism in the yeast Dekkera bruxellensis and under regulation by the Nitrogen Catabolite Repression mechanism (NCR). These analyses could shed some light on the biological mechanisms involved in the adaptation and survival of this yeast in the sugarcane fermentation process for ethanol production. Nitrogen sources (N-sources) in the form of ammonium, nitrate, glutamate or glutamine were investigated with or without the addition of methionine sulfoximine, which inhibits the activity of the enzyme glutamine synthetase and releases cells from NCR...
June 19, 2017: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630648/comparative-metabolic-profiling-of-the-lipid-producing-green-microalga-chlorella-reveals-that-nitrogen-and-carbon-metabolic-pathways-contribute-to-lipid-metabolism
#5
Hui Chen, Yanli Zheng, Jiao Zhan, Chenliu He, Qiang Wang
Microalgae are a promising feedstock for biofuel production. Microalgal metabolic pathways are heavily influenced by environmental factors. For instance, lipid metabolism can be induced by nitrogen-limiting conditions. However, the underlying mechanisms of lipid biosynthesis are unclear. In this study, we analyzed the global metabolic profiles of three genetically closely related Chlorella strains (C1, C2, and C3) with significant differences in lipid productivity to identify the contributions of key metabolic pathways to lipid metabolism...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630436/a-novel-gd-dtpa-conjugated-poly-l-%C3%AE-glutamyl-glutamine-paclitaxel-polymeric-delivery-system-for-tumor-theranostics
#6
Lipeng Gao, Jinge Zhou, Jing Yu, Qilong Li, Xueying Liu, Lei Sun, Ting Peng, Jing Wang, Jianzhong Zhu, Jihong Sun, Weiyue Lu, Lei Yu, Zhiqiang Yan, Yiting Wang
The conventional chemotherapeutics could not be traced in vivo and provide timely feedback on the clinical effectiveness of drugs. In this study, poly(L-γ-glutamyl-glutamine)-paclitaxel (PGG-PTX), as a model polymer, was chemically conjugated with Gd-DTPA (Gd-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid), a T1-contrast agent of MRI, to prepare a Gd-DTPA-conjugated PGG-PTX (PGG-PTX-DTPA-Gd) delivery system used for tumor theranostics. PGG-PTX-DTPA-Gd can be self-assembled to NPs in water with a z-average hydrodynamic diameter about 35...
June 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629384/involvement-of-the-glutamate-glutamine-cycle-and-glutamate-transporter-glt-1-in-antidepressant-like-effects-of-xiao-yao-san-on-chronically-stressed-mice
#7
Xiu-Fang Ding, Yue-Hua Li, Jia-Xu Chen, Long-Ji Sun, Hai-Yan Jiao, Xin-Xin Wang, Yan Zhou
BACKGROUND: Xiao Yao San (XYS) is an herbal prescription which is used in the treatment of depression for thousands of years from Song dynasty in China (960-1127 A.D.), and is the bestselling and most popular herb formula for treating major depression. This study aimed to assess the chronic antidepressant effects of XYS and fluoxetine in depressed mice induced by chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) and its association with  alterations in glutamate/glutamine cycle and glutamate transporters...
June 19, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629263/mass-spectrometry-based-analysis-of-murine-bronchoalveolar-lavage-fluid-following-respiratory-exposure-to-4-4-methylene-diphenyl-diisocyanate-aerosol
#8
Justin M Hettick, Brandon F Law, Chen-Chung Lin, Adam V Wisnewski, Paul D Siegel
Diisocyanates are highly reactive electrophiles utilized in the manufacture of a wide range of polyurethane products, and have been identified as causative agents of occupational allergic respiratory disease. However, in spite of the significant occupational health burden associated with diisocyanate-induced asthma, the mechanism of disease pathogenesis remains largely unknown. To better understand the fate of inhaled diisocyanates, a nose-only aerosol exposure system was constructed and utilized to expose a BALB/c mouse model to aerosol generated from 4,4'-methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI)...
June 20, 2017: Xenobiotica; the Fate of Foreign Compounds in Biological Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629183/an-amyloidogenic-sequence-at-the-n-terminus-of-the-androgen-receptor-impacts-polyglutamine-aggregation
#9
Emmanuel Oppong, Gunter Stier, Miriam Gaal, Rebecca Seeger, Melanie Stoeck, Marc-André Delsuc, Andrew C B Cato, Bruno Kieffer
The human androgen receptor (AR) is a ligand inducible transcription factor that harbors an amino terminal domain (AR-NTD) with a ligand-independent activation function. AR-NTD is intrinsically disordered and displays aggregation properties conferred by the presence of a poly-glutamine (polyQ) sequence. The length of the polyQ sequence as well as its adjacent sequence motifs modulate this aggregation property. AR-NTD also contains a conserved KELCKAVSVSM sequence motif that displays an intrinsic property to form amyloid fibrils under mild oxidative conditions...
June 19, 2017: Biomolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628108/germline-hypomorphic-card11-mutations-in-severe-atopic-disease
#10
Chi A Ma, Jeffrey R Stinson, Yuan Zhang, Jordan K Abbott, Michael A Weinreich, Pia J Hauk, Paul R Reynolds, Jonathan J Lyons, Celeste G Nelson, Elisa Ruffo, Batsukh Dorjbal, Salomé Glauzy, Natsuko Yamakawa, Swadhinya Arjunaraja, Kelsey Voss, Jennifer Stoddard, Julie Niemela, Yu Zhang, Sergio D Rosenzweig, Joshua J McElwee, Thomas DiMaggio, Helen F Matthews, Nina Jones, Kelly D Stone, Alejandro Palma, Matías Oleastro, Emma Prieto, Andrea R Bernasconi, Geronimo Dubra, Silvia Danielian, Jonathan Zaiat, Marcelo A Marti, Brian Kim, Megan A Cooper, Neil D Romberg, Eric Meffre, Erwin W Gelfand, Andrew L Snow, Joshua D Milner
Few monogenic causes for severe manifestations of common allergic diseases have been identified. Through next-generation sequencing on a cohort of patients with severe atopic dermatitis with and without comorbid infections, we found eight individuals, from four families, with novel heterozygous mutations in CARD11, which encodes a scaffolding protein involved in lymphocyte receptor signaling. Disease improved over time in most patients. Transfection of mutant CARD11 expression constructs into T cell lines demonstrated both loss-of-function and dominant-interfering activity upon antigen receptor-induced activation of nuclear factor-κB and mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1)...
June 19, 2017: Nature Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627692/the-role-of-intestinal-endotoxemia-in-a-rat-model-of-aluminum-neurotoxicity
#11
Feng Wang, Rui-Xia Guo, Wen-Xing Li, Bao-Feng Yu, Bai Han, Li-Xin Liu, De-Wu Han
The present study aimed to investigate the effects of intestinal endotoxemia (IETM) in a rat model of aluminum neurotoxicity established by D-galactose and aluminum trichloride (AlCl3). Adult Wistar rats were administered D‑galactose and AlCl3 to create the aluminum neurotoxicity model. The learning and memory abilities of the rats were subsequently observed using a Morris water maze test and the serum levels of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)‑α, interleukin (IL)‑1, diamine oxidase (DAO), glutamine (Gln) and glutaminase were measured...
June 15, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627188/effect-of-glutamine-on-liver-injuries-induced-by-intestinal-ischemia-reperfusion-in-rats
#12
Renata Hartmann, Francielli Licks, Elizângela Gonçalves Schemitt, Josieli Raskopf Colares, Juliana Da Silva, Rosa Maria Moura, Gilmara Pandolfo Zabot, Henrique Sarubbi Fillmann, Norma Possa Marroni
INTRODUCTION: Intestinal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury may cause cell and tissue damage, reaching also other organs such as the liver. Because of the involvement of free radicals in I/R injury, treatment options with antioxidants have been studied and tested. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of glutamine (Gln) in the liver of animals with intestinal I/R injury. METHODS: We used 20 male Wistar rats divided into four groups: sham-operated (SO); glutamine + sham-operated (G+SO); intestinal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R); glutamine + intestinal ischemia-reperfusion (G+I/R)...
June 5, 2017: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625764/genome-wide-identification-and-expression-profiling-of-eil-gene-family-in-woody-plant-representative-poplar-populus-trichocarpa
#13
Ertugrul Filiz, Recep Vatansever, Ibrahim Ilker Ozyigit, Mehmet Emin Uras, Ugur Sen, Naser A Anjum, Eduarda Pereira
This study aimed to improve current understanding on ethylene-insensitive 3-like (EIL) members, least explored in woody plants such as poplar (Populus trichocarpa Torr. & Grey). Herein, seven putative EIL members were identified in P. trichocarpa genome and were roughly annotated either as EIN3-like sequence associated with ethylene pathway or EIL3-like sequences related with sulfur (S)-pathway. Motif-distribution pattern of proteins also corroborated this annotation. They were distributed on six chromosomes (chr1, 3, 4 and 8-10), and were revealed to encode a protein of 509-662 residues with nuclear localization...
June 15, 2017: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624534/glutaminase-c-overexpression-in-the-brain-induces-learning-deficits-synaptic-dysfunctions-and-neuroinflammation-in-mice
#14
Yi Wang, Yuju Li, Runze Zhao, Beiqing Wu, Blaise Lanoha, Zenghan Tong, Justin Peer, Jianhui Liu, Huangui Xiong, Yunlong Huang, Jialin Zheng
Glutaminolysis, a metabolic process that converts glutamine to glutamate, is particularly important for the central nervous system since glutamate is the major transmitter of excitatory synapses. Glutaminase is the mitochondrial enzyme that catalyzes the first step of glutaminolysis. Two genes encode at least four isoforms of glutaminase in humans. GLS1 gene encodes isoforms kidney-type glutaminase and glutaminase C (GAC) through alternative splicing, whereas GLS2 gene encodes liver-type glutaminase isoforms...
June 14, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624247/production-of-l-alanyl-l-glutamine-by-recycling-e-coli-expressing-%C3%AE-amino-acid-ester-acyltransferase
#15
Yimin Li, Wenjie Yuan, Jiaoqi Gao, Chao Fan, Wenzhong Wu, Fengwu Bai
In this study, the optimum induction and reaction conditions, and fermentation process of producing Ala-Gln by E. coli Origami 2 overexpressing α-amino acid ester acyltransferase (OPA) were investigated. Besides, the Ala-Gln synthesis by OPA achieved the maximum molar yield of 94.7% and productivity of 1.89g/L/min due to the extremely high enzyme activity. On this basis, repeated-cycle batch fermentation to produce Ala-Gln indicated that OPA could maintain high Ala-Gln yields and enzyme stabilities after several cell recycling...
June 14, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623324/rapid-discrimination-of-human-oesophageal-squamous-cell-carcinoma-by-mass-spectrometry-based-on-differences-in-amino-acid-metabolism
#16
Zhang Jianyong, Xu Jianjun, Ouyang Yongzhong, Liu Junwen, Lu Haiyan, Yu Dongliang, Peng Jinhua, Xiong Junwen, Chen Huanwen, Wei Yiping
Oesophageal cancer (OC) is associated with high morbidity and mortality, and surgery is the most effective approach to treat it. In order to reduce surgical risks and duration of surgery, we explored a new strategy to determine tumour margins in surgery. In this study, we included 128 cancerous and 128 noncancerous database entries obtained from 32 human patients. Using internal extractive electrospray ionization-MS, in positive ion detection mode, the relative abundances of m/z 104.13, m/z 116.10, m/z 132...
June 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622800/analysis-of-stable-isotope-assisted-metabolomics-data-acquired-by-gc-ms
#17
Xiaoli Wei, Biyun Shi, Imhoi Koo, Xinmin Yin, Pawel Lorkiewicz, Hamid Suhail, Ramandeep Rattan, Shailendra Giri, Craig J McClain, Xiang Zhang
Stable isotope assisted metabolomics (SIAM) measures the abundance levels of metabolites in a particular pathway using stable isotope tracers (e.g., (13)C, (18)O and/or (15)N). We report a method termed signature ion approach for analysis of SIAM data acquired on a GC-MS system equipped with an electron ionization (EI) ion source. The signature ion is a fragment ion in EI mass spectrum of a derivatized metabolite that contains all atoms of the underivatized metabolite, except the hydrogen atoms lost during derivatization...
August 8, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621566/glutamate-dehydrogenase-is-essential-to-sustain-neuronal-oxidative-energy-metabolism-during-stimulation
#18
Michaela C Hohnholt, Vibe H Andersen, Jens V Andersen, Sofie K Christensen, Melis Karaca, Pierre Maechler, Helle S Waagepetersen
The enzyme glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH; Glud1) catalyzes the (reversible) oxidative deamination of glutamate to α-ketoglutarate accompanied by a reduction of NAD(+) to NADH. GDH connects amino acid, carbohydrate, neurotransmitter and oxidative energy metabolism. Glutamine is a neurotransmitter precursor used by neurons to sustain the pool of glutamate, but glutamine is also vividly oxidized for support of energy metabolism. This study investigates the role of GDH in neuronal metabolism by employing the Cns- Glud1(-/-) mouse, lacking GDH in the brain (GDH KO) and metabolic mapping using (13)C-labelled glutamine and glucose...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621016/acute-effects-of-phenylbutyrate-on-glutamine-branched-chain-amino-acid-and-protein-metabolism-in-skeletal-muscles-of-rats
#19
Milan Holecek, Melita Vodenicarovova, Pavel Siman
Phenylbutyrate (PB) acts as chemical chaperone and histone deacetylase inhibitor, which is used to decrease ammonia in urea cycle disorders and has been investigated for use in the treatment of a number of lethal illnesses. We performed in vivo and in vitro experiments to examine the effects of PB on glutamine (GLN), branched-chain amino acid (BCAA; valine, leucine and isoleucine) and protein metabolism in rats. In the first study, animals were sacrificed one hour after three injections of PB (300mg/kg b...
June 16, 2017: International Journal of Experimental Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620826/individual-amino-acid-supplementation-can-improve-energy-metabolism-and-decrease-ros-production-in-neuronal-cells-overexpressing-alpha-synuclein
#20
Vedad Delic, Jeddidiah W D Griffin, Sandra Zivkovic, Yumeng Zhang, Tam-Anh Phan, Henry Gong, Dale Chaput, Christian Reynes, Vinh B Dinh, Josean Cruz, Eni Cvitkovic, Devon Placides, Ernide Frederic, Hamed Mirzaei, Stanley M Stevens, Umesh Jinwal, Daniel C Lee, Patrick C Bradshaw
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by alpha-synuclein accumulation and loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) region of the brain. Increased levels of alpha-synuclein have been shown to result in loss of mitochondrial electron transport chain complex I activity leading to increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. WT alpha-synuclein was stably overexpressed in human BE(2)-M17 neuroblastoma cells resulting in increased levels of an alpha-synuclein multimer, but no increase in alpha-synuclein monomer levels...
June 15, 2017: Neuromolecular Medicine
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