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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330181/optimization-of-medium-composition-for-in-vitro-shoot-proliferation-and-growth-of-date-palm-cv-mejhoul
#1
Mouaad Amine Mazri, Reda Meziani, Jamal El Fadile, Az-Eddine Ezzinbi
The effects of major mineral salts, L-glutamine, myo-inositol and carbon source on shoot bud proliferation of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) cv. Mejhoul were evaluated. Different concentrations of ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3; 550, 825 or 1650 mg/L), potassium nitrate (KNO3; 633.3, 950 or 1900 mg/L), calcium chloride dehydrate (CaCl2·2H2O; 147, 220 or 440 mg/L), potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KH2PO4; 57, 85 or 170 mg/L), magnesium sulfate heptahydrate (MgSO4·7H2O; 123, 185 or 370 mg/L), L-glutamine and myo-inositol (0...
June 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330175/exploration-of-the-binding-modes-of-l-asparaginase-complexed-with-its-amino-acid-substrates-by-molecular-docking-dynamics-and-simulation
#2
Erva Rajeswara Reddy, Rajulapati Satish Babu, Potla Durthi Chandrasai, Pola Madhuri
Acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) is an outrageous disease worldwide. L-Asparagine (L-Asn) and L-glutamine (L-Gln) deamination plays crucial role in ALL treatment. Role of Erwinaze(®) (L-asparaginase from Erwinia chrysanthemi) in regulation of L-Asn and L-Gln has been confirmed by the experimental studies. Therapeutic research against ALL remained elusive with the lack of structural information on Erwinaze(®) enzyme. In this present study, homology model of the Erwinaze(®) was developed using MODELLER and the same was validated by various quality indexing tools...
June 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330130/isolation-and-characterization-of-bacterial-endophytes-of-curcuma-longa-l
#3
Ajay Kumar, Ritu Singh, Akhilesh Yadav, D D Giri, P K Singh, Kapil D Pandey
Fourteen endophytic bacterial isolates were isolated from the rhizome of Curcuma longa L. were characterized on the basis of morphology, biochemical characteristics and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The isolates were identified to six strains namely Bacillus cereus (ECL1), Bacillus thuringiensis (ECL2), Bacillus sp. (ECL3), Bacillus pumilis (ECL4), Pseudomonas putida (ECL5), and Clavibacter michiganensis (ECL6). All the strains produced IAA and solubilized phosphate and only two strains produced siderophore (ECL3 and ECL5) during plant growth promoting trait analysis...
June 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330072/molecular-dynamic-simulations-of-escherichia-coli-l-asparaginase-to-illuminate-its-role-in-deamination-of-asparagine-and-glutamine-residues
#4
Rajeswara Reddy Erva, Satish Babu Rajulapati, Chandrasai Potla Durthi, Mayuri Bhatia, Madhuri Pola
Acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) is an outrageous disease worldwide. L-Asparagine (L-Asn) and L-Glutamine (L-Gln) deamination play a crucial role in ALL treatment. Role of Elspar(®) (L-asparaginase from Escherichia coli) in regulation of L-Asn and L-Gln has been confirmed by the other researchers through experimental studies. Therapeutic research against ALL remained elusive with the lack of information on molecular interactions of Elspar(®) with amino acid substrates. In the present study, using different docking tools binding cavities, key residues in binding and ligand binding mechanisms were identified...
June 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329249/acetylation-regulates-protein-stability-and-dna-binding-ability-of-hild-to-modulate-salmonella-typhimurium-virulence
#5
Yu Sang, Jie Ren, Ran Qin, Shuting Liu, Zhongli Cui, Sen Cheng, Xiaoyun Liu, Jie Lu, Jing Tao, Yu-Feng Yao
HilD, a dominant regulator of Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI-1), can be acetylated by acetyltransferase Pat in Salmonella Typhimurium, and the acetylation is beneficial to its stability. However, the underlying mechanism of HilD stability regulated by acetylation is not clear. We show here that lysine 297 (K297) located in the helix-turn-helix motif, can be acetylated by Pat. Acetylation of K297 increases HilD stability, but reduces its DNA-binding affinity. In turn, the deacetylated K297 enhances the DNA-binding ability, but decreases HilD stability...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327992/cyst-fluid-from-cystic-malignant-brain-tumors-a-reservoir-of-nutrients-including-growth-factor-like-nutrients-for-tumor-cells
#6
Daniel Dahlberg, Eduard A Struys, Erwin E Jansen, Lars Mørkrid, Øivind Midttun, Bjørnar Hassel
BACKGROUND: Brain tumors may have cysts, whose content of nutrients could influence tumor cell microenvironment and growth. OBJECTIVE: To measure nutrients in cyst fluid from glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and metastatic brain tumors. METHODS: Quantification of nutrients in cyst fluid from 12 to 18 GBMs and 4 to 10 metastatic brain tumors. RESULTS: GBM cysts contained glucose at 2.2 mmol/L (median value; range <0.8-3...
January 25, 2017: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327670/global-identification-and-analysis-of-isozyme-specific-possible-substrates-crosslinked-by-transglutaminases-using-substrate-peptides-in-mouse-liver-fibrosis
#7
Hideki Tatsukawa, Yuji Tani, Risa Otsu, Haruka Nakagawa, Kiyotaka Hitomi
The transglutaminase (TG) family comprises eight isozymes that form the isopeptide bonds between glutamine and lysine residues and contribute to the fibrotic diseases via crosslinking-mediated stabilization of ECM and the activation of TGF-β in several tissues. However, despite a growing body of evidence implicating TG2 as a key enzyme in fibrosis, the causative role of TG2 and the involvement of the other isozymes have not yet been fully elucidated. Therefore, here we clarified the distributions of TG isozymes and their in situ activities and identified the isozyme-specific possible substrates for both TG1 and TG2 using their substrate peptides in mouse fibrotic liver...
March 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327303/molecular-physiology-reveals-ammonium-uptake-and-related-gene-expression-in-the-seagrass-zostera-muelleri
#8
Mathieu Pernice, Sutinee Sinutok, Gaurav Sablok, Audrey S Commault, Martin Schliep, Peter I Macreadie, Michael A Rasheed, Peter J Ralph
Seagrasses are important marine foundation species, which are presently threatened by coastal development and global change worldwide. The molecular mechanisms that drive seagrass responses to anthropogenic stresses, including elevated levels of nutrients such as ammonium, remains poorly understood. Despite the evidence that seagrasses can assimilate ammonium by using glutamine synthetase (GS)/glutamate synthase (glutamine-oxoglutarate amidotransferase or GOGAT) cycle, the regulation of this fundamental metabolic pathway has never been studied at the gene expression level in seagrasses so far...
December 2016: Marine Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323201/the-recency-ratio-is-associated-with-reduced-csf-glutamate-in-late-life-depression
#9
Davide Bruno, Jay Nierenberg, Thomas B Cooper, Charles R Marmar, Henrik Zetterberg, Kaj Blennow, Kenji Hashimoto, Nunzio Pomara
Glutamate is the principal excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, and is thought to be involved in the process of memory encoding and storage. Glutamate disturbances have also been reported in psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia and major depressive disorder (MDD), and in Alzheimer's disease. In this paper, we set out to study the relationship between cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) glutamate levels and memory performance, which we believe has not been reported previously. In particular, we focused on recall performance broken down by serial position...
March 16, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323087/identification-of-the-isomer-of-methionine-sulfoximine-that-extends-the-lifespan-of-the-sod1-g93a-mouse
#10
William S A Brusilow
In previous studies methionine sulfoximine (MSO) significantly extended the lifespan of the SOD1 G93A mouse model for ALS. Those studies used commercially available MSO, which is a racemic mixture of the LS and LR diastereomers, leaving unanswered the question of which isomer was responsible for the therapeutic effects. In this study we tested both purified isomers and showed that the LS isomer, a well-characterized inhibitor of glutamine synthetase, extends the lifespan of these mice, but the LR isomer, which has no known activity, does not...
March 17, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322622/central-nervous-system-changes-induced-by-underbody-blast-induced-hyperacceleration-an-in-vivo-diffusion-tensor-imaging-and-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-study
#11
Shiyu Tang, Su Xu, William L Fourney, Ulrich H Leiste, Julie L Proctor, Gary Fiskum, Rao P Gullapalli
Blast-related traumatic brain injury (bTBI) resulting from improvised explosive devices is the hallmark injury of recent wars, and affects many returning veterans who experienced either direct or indirect exposure. Many of these veterans have long-term neurocognitive symptoms. However, there is very little evidence to show whether blast-induced acceleration alone, in the absence of secondary impacts, can cause mild TBI. In this study, we examine the effect of under-vehicle blast-induced hyperacceleration (uBIH) of ∼1700 g on the biochemical and microstrucutral changes in the brain using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS)...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321230/integrated-transcriptome-and-metabolic-analyses-reveals-novel-insights-into-free-amino-acid-metabolism-in-huangjinya-tea-cultivar
#12
Qunfeng Zhang, Meiya Liu, Jianyun Ruan
The chlorotic tea variety Huangjinya, a natural mutant, contains enhanced levels of free amino acids in its leaves, which improves the drinking quality of its brewed tea. Consequently, this chlorotic mutant has a higher economic value than the non-chlorotic varieties. However, the molecular mechanisms behind the increased levels of free amino acids in this mutant are mostly unknown, as are the possible effects of this mutation on the overall metabolome and biosynthetic pathways in tea leaves. To gain further insight into the effects of chlorosis on the global metabolome and biosynthetic pathways in this mutant, Huangjinya plants were grown under normal and reduced sunlight, resulting in chlorotic and non-chlorotic leaves, respectively; their leaves were analyzed using transcriptomics as well as targeted and untargeted metabolomics...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320958/p97-vcp-promotes-degradation-of-crbn-substrate-glutamine-synthetase-and-neosubstrates
#13
Thang Van Nguyen, Jing Li, Chin-Chun Jean Lu, Jennifer L Mamrosh, Gang Lu, Brian E Cathers, Raymond J Deshaies
Glutamine synthetase (GS) plays an essential role in metabolism by catalyzing the synthesis of glutamine from glutamate and ammonia. Our recent study showed that CRBN, a direct protein target for the teratogenic and antitumor activities of immunomodulatory drugs such as thalidomide, lenalidomide, and pomalidomide, recognizes an acetyl degron of GS, resulting in ubiquitylation and degradation of GS in response to glutamine. Here, we report that valosin-containing protein (VCP)/p97 promotes the degradation of ubiquitylated GS, resulting in its accumulation in cells with compromised p97 function...
March 20, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319096/hyperglycemia-exacerbates-colon-cancer-malignancy-through-hexosamine-biosynthetic-pathway
#14
A Vasconcelos-Dos-Santos, H F B R Loponte, N R Mantuano, I A Oliveira, I F de Paula, L K Teixeira, J C M de-Freitas-Junior, K C Gondim, N Heise, R Mohana-Borges, J A Morgado-Díaz, W B Dias, A R Todeschini
Hyperglycemia is a common feature of diabetes mellitus, considered as a risk factor for cancer. However, its direct effects in cancer cell behavior are relatively unexplored. Herein we show that high glucose concentration induces aberrant glycosylation, increased cell proliferation, invasion and tumor progression of colon cancer. By modulating the activity of the rate-limiting enzyme, glutamine-fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase (GFAT), we demonstrate that hexosamine biosynthetic pathway (HBP) is involved in those processes...
March 20, 2017: Oncogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317865/complete-genome-sequencing-and-antibiotics-biosynthesis-pathways-analysis-of-streptomyces-lydicus-103
#15
Nan Jia, Ming-Zhu Ding, Hao Luo, Feng Gao, Ying-Jin Yuan
More and more new natural products have been found in Streptomyces species, which become the significant resource for antibiotics production. Among them, Streptomyces lydicus has been known as its ability of streptolydigin biosynthesis. Herein, we present the genome analysis of S. lydicus based on the complete genome sequencing. The circular chromosome of S. lydicus 103 comprises 8,201,357 base pairs with average GC content 72.22%. With the aid of KEGG analysis, we found that S. lydicus 103 can transfer propanoate to succinate, glutamine or glutamate to 2-oxoglutarate, CO2 and L-glutamate to ammonia, which are conducive to the the supply of amino acids...
March 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316083/energy-metabolism-in-the-rat-cortex-under-thiopental-anaesthesia-measured-in-vivo-by-13-c-mrs
#16
Sarah Sonnay, João M N Duarte, Nathalie Just, Rolf Gruetter
Barbiturates, commonly used as general anaesthetics, depress neuronal activity and thus cerebral metabolism. Moreover, they are likely to disrupt the metabolic support of astrocytes to neurons, as well as the uptake of nutrients from circulation. By employing (13) C magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in vivo at high magnetic field, we characterized neuronal and astrocytic pathways of energy metabolism in the rat cortex under thiopental anaesthesia. The neuronal tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle rate was 0.46 ± 0...
March 19, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316081/the-antidiabetic-drug-metformin-decreases-mitochondrial-respiration-and-tricarboxylic-acid-cycle-activity-in-cultured-primary-rat-astrocytes
#17
Michaela C Hohnholt, Eva-Maria Blumrich, Helle S Waagepetersen, Ralf Dringen
Metformin is an antidiabetic drug that is used daily by millions of patients worldwide. Metformin is able to cross the blood-brain barrier and has recently been shown to increase glucose consumption and lactate release in cultured astrocytes. However, potential effects of metformin on mitochondrial tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle metabolism in astrocytes are unknown. We investigated this by mapping (13) C labeling in TCA cycle intermediates and corresponding amino acids after incubation of primary rat astrocytes with [U-(13) C]glucose...
March 19, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316020/%C3%AE-hydroxybutyrate-boosts-mitochondrial-and-neuronal-metabolism-but-is-not-preferred-over-glucose-under-activated-conditions
#18
Lavanya B Achanta, Benjamin D Rowlands, Donald S Thomas, Gary D Housley, Caroline D Rae
The ketone body, β-hydroxybutyrate (βOHB), is metabolised by the brain alongside the mandatory brain fuel glucose. To examine the extent and circumstances by which βOHB can supplement glucose metabolism, we studied guinea pig cortical brain slices using increasing concentrations of [U-(13)C]D-βOHB in conjunction with [1-(13)C]D-glucose under conditions of normo- and hypoglycaemia, as well as under high potassium (40 mmol/L K(+)) depolarization in normo- and hypoglycaemic conditions. The contribution of βOHB to synthesis of GABA was also probed by inhibiting the synthesis of glutamine, a GABA precursor, with methionine sulfoximine (MSO)...
March 18, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315295/proton-nmr-metabolic-profiling-of-csf-reveals-distinct-differentiation-of-meningitis-from-negative-controls
#19
Tanushri Chatterji, Suruchi Singh, Manodeep Sen, Ajai Kumar Singh, Gaurav Raj Agarwal, Deepak Kumar Singh, Janmejai Kumar Srivastava, Alka Singh, Rajendra Nath Srivastava, Raja Roy
BACKGROUND: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is an essential bio-fluid of the central nervous system (CNS), playing a vital role in the protection of CNS and performing neuronal function regulation. The chemical composition of CSF varies during onset of meningitis, neurodegenerative disorders (positive controls) and in traumatic cases (negative controls). METHODS: The study design was broadly categorized into meningitis cases, negative controls and positive controls. Further differentiation among the three groups was carried out using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) followed by supervised Partial Least Square Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA)...
March 14, 2017: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314989/inhibition-of-got1-sensitizes-colorectal-cancer-cells-to-5-fluorouracil
#20
Chengyu Hong, Jian Zheng, Xiaoling Li
PURPOSE: Almost all colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines are known to overexpress aspartate aminotransferase (GOT1), which potentially regulates the intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) via the production of NADPH, and supports tumor growth. In our study, the role of GOT1 in the anticancer efficacy of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) was examined. METHODS: HCT116, SW480, and HT-29 cells were transfected with lentiviral vectors expressing short hairpin RNA (shRNA) against GOT1...
March 17, 2017: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
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