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Glutamine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432125/sequential-adaptive-changes-in-a-c-myc-driven-model-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#1
James M Dolezal, Huabo Wang, Sucheta Kulkarni, Laura Jackson, Jie Lu, Sarangarajan Ranganathan, Eric S Goetzman, Sivakama Bharathi, Kevin Beezhold, Craig A Byersdorfer, Edward V Prochownik
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common cancer that frequently over-expresses the c-Myc (Myc) oncoprotein. Using a mouse model of Myc-induced HCC, we studied the metabolic, biochemical and molecular changes accompanying HCC progression, regression and recurrence. These involved altered rates of pyruvate and fatty acid β-oxidation and the likely re-directing of glutamine into biosynthetic rather than energy-generating pathways. Initial tumors also showed reduced mitochondrial mass and differential contributions of electron transport chain Complexes I and II to respiration...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432100/casein-kinase-i-isoform-hrr25-is-a-negative-regulator-of-haa1-in-the-weak-acid-stress-response-pathway-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#2
Morgan E Collins, Joshua J Black, Zhengchang Liu
Haa1 is a transcription factor that adapts Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells to weak organic acid stresses by activating the expression of various genes. Many of these genes encode membrane proteins such as TPO2 and YRO2 How Haa1 is activated by weak acids is not clear. Here, we show that casein kinase I isoform Hrr25 is an important negative regulator of Haa1. Haa1 is known to be multiply phosphorylated. We found that mutations in HRR25 lead to reduced Haa1 phosphorylation and increased expression of Haa1-target genes, and that Hrr25 interacts with Haa1...
April 21, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432097/diazotrophy-overcomes-the-deleterious-growth-phenotype-of-glne-deletion-in-azotobacter-vinelandii
#3
Florence Mus, Alex Tseng, Ray Dixon, John W Peters
Overcoming the inhibitory effects of excess environmental ammonium on nitrogenase synthesis or activity, or preventing ammonium assimilation, have both been considered as strategies to increase the amount of fixed nitrogen transferred from bacterial to plant partners in associative or symbiotic plant-diazotroph relationships. The GlnE adenylyltransferase/adenylyl-removing enzyme catalyzes reversible adenylylation of glutamine synthetase (GS), thereby affecting the post translational regulation of ammonium assimilation critical for appropriate coordination of carbon and nitrogen assimilation...
April 21, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431605/global-brain-atrophy-and-metabolic-dysfunction-in-lgi1-encephalitis-a-prospective-multimodal-mri-study
#4
Monika Szots, Morten Blaabjerg, Gergely Orsi, Pernille Iversen, Daniel Kondziella, Camilla G Madsen, Ellen Garde, Peter O Magnusson, Peter Barsi, Ferenc Nagy, Hartwig R Siebner, Zsolt Illes
BACKGROUND: Chronic cognitive deficits are frequent in leucin-rich glioma-inactivated 1 protein (LGI1) encephalitis. We examined structural and metabolic brain abnormalities following LGI1 encephalitis and correlated findings with acute and follow-up clinical outcomes. METHODS: Nine patients underwent prospective multimodal 3 Tesla MRI 33.1±18months after disease onset, including automated volumetry, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS)...
May 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431321/atherogenicity-of-amino-acids-in-the-lipid-laden-macrophage-model-system-in-vitro-and-in-atherosclerotic-mice-a-key-role-for-triglyceride-metabolism
#5
Oren Rom, Claudia Grajeda-Iglesias, Mahmoud Najjar, Niroz Abu-Saleh, Nina Volkova, Dalit Esther Dar, Tony Hayek, Michael Aviram
Atherosclerosis-related research has focused mainly on the effects of lipids on macrophage foam cell formation and atherogenesis, whereas the role of amino acids (AAs) was understudied. The current study aimed to identify anti- or pro-atherogenic AA in the macrophage model system and to elucidate the underlying metabolic and molecular mechanisms. J774A.1 cultured macrophages were treated with increasing concentrations of each 1 of the 20 AAs. Macrophage atherogenicity was assessed in terms of cellular toxicity, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cellular cholesterol or triglyceride content...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430781/an-unmodified-wobble-uridine-in-trnas-specific-for-glutamine-lysine-and-glutamic-acid-from-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhimurium-results-in-nonviability-due-to-increased-missense-errors
#6
Kristina Nilsson, Gunilla Jäger, Glenn R Björk
In the wobble position of tRNAs specific for Gln, Lys, and Glu a universally conserved 5-methylene-2-thiouridine derivative (xm5s2U34, x denotes any of several chemical substituents and 34 denotes the wobble position) is present, which is 5-(carboxy)methylaminomethyl-2-thiouridine ((c)mnm5s2U34) in Bacteria and 5-methylcarboxymethyl-2-thiouridine (mcm5s2U34) in Eukarya. Here we show that mutants of the bacterium Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium LT2 lacking either the s2- or the (c)mnm5-group of (c)mnm5s2U34 grow poorly especially at low temperature and do not grow at all at 15°C in both rich and glucose minimal media...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430666/myc-induced-glutaminolysis-bypasses-hif-driven-glycolysis-in-hypoxic-small-cell-lung-carcinoma-cells
#7
Matilda Munksgaard Thorén, Marica Vaapil, Johan Staaf, Maria Planck, Martin E Johansson, Sofie Mohlin, Sven Påhlman
We previously demonstrated that small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) cells lack HIF-2α protein expression, whereas HIF-1α in these cells is expressed at both acute and prolonged hypoxia. Here we show that low HIF2A expression correlates with high expression of MYC genes. Knockdown of HIF1A expression had no or limited effect on cell survival and growth in vitro. Unexpectedly, hypoxic ATP levels were not affected by HIF-1α knockdown and SCLC cell viability did not decrease upon glucose deprivation. In line with these in vitro data, xenograft tumor-take and growth were not significantly affected by repressed HIF1A expression...
April 6, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429737/the-glutamate-cystine-xct-antiporter-antagonizes-glutamine-metabolism-and-reduces-nutrient-flexibility
#8
Chun-Shik Shin, Prashant Mishra, Jeramie D Watrous, Valerio Carelli, Marilena D'Aurelio, Mohit Jain, David C Chan
As noted by Warburg, many cancer cells depend on the consumption of glucose. We performed a genetic screen to identify factors responsible for glucose addiction and recovered the two subunits of the xCT antiporter (system xc(-)), which plays an antioxidant role by exporting glutamate for cystine. Disruption of the xCT antiporter greatly improves cell viability after glucose withdrawal, because conservation of glutamate enables cells to maintain mitochondrial respiration. In some breast cancer cells, xCT antiporter expression is upregulated through the antioxidant transcription factor Nrf2 and contributes to their requirement for glucose as a carbon source...
April 21, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429510/mixing-of-water-masses-caused-by-a-drifting-iceberg-affects-bacterial-activity-community-composition-and-substrate-utilization-capability-in-the-southern-ocean
#9
Julie Dinasquet, Inga Richert, Ramiro Logares, Patricia Yager, Stefan Bertilsson, Lasse Riemann
The number of icebergs produced from ice-shelf disintegration has increased over the past decade in Antarctica. These drifting icebergs mix the water column, influence stratification and nutrient condition, and can affect local productivity and food web composition. Data on whether icebergs affect bacterioplankton function and composition are scarce, however. We assessed the influence of iceberg drift on bacterial community composition and on their ability to exploit carbon substrates during summer in the coastal Southern Ocean...
April 21, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428629/the-role-of-glutamine-synthetase-isozymes-in-enhancing-nitrogen-use-efficiency-of-n-efficient-winter-wheat
#10
Zhiyong Zhang, Shuping Xiong, Yihao Wei, Xiaodan Meng, Xiaochun Wang, Xinming Ma
Glutamine synthetase (GS) isozymes play critical roles in nitrogen (N) metabolism. However, the exact relationship between GS and nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) remain unclear. We have selected and compared two wheat cultivars, YM49 and XN509, which were identified as the N-efficient and N-inefficient genotypes, respectively. In this study, agronomical, morphological, physiological and biochemical approaches were performed. The results showed that TaGS1 was high expressed post-anthesis, and TaGS2 was highly expressed pre-anthesis in N-efficient genotype compared to N-inefficient genotype...
April 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428079/mineralization-inhibiting-effects-of-transglutaminase-crosslinked-polymeric-osteopontin
#11
Betty Hoac, Valentin Nelea, Wenge Jiang, Mari T Kaartinen, Marc D McKee
Osteopontin (OPN) belongs to the SIBLING family (Small, Integrin-Binding LIgand N-linked Glycoproteins) of mineral-binding matrix proteins found in bones and teeth. OPN is a well-known inhibitor of matrix mineralization, and enzymatic modification of OPN can affect this inhibitory function. In bone, OPN exists both as a monomer and as a high-molecular-weight polymer - the latter is formed by transglutaminase-mediated crosslinking of glutamine and lysine residues in OPN to create homotypic protein assemblies...
April 17, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427419/tnf-%C3%AE-promotes-extracellular-vesicle-release-in-mouse-astrocytes-through-glutaminase
#12
Kaizhe Wang, Ling Ye, Hongfang Lu, Huili Chen, Yanyan Zhang, Yunlong Huang, Jialin C Zheng
BACKGROUND: Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are membrane-contained vesicles shed from cells. EVs contain proteins, lipids, and nucleotides, all of which play important roles in intercellular communication. The release of EVs is known to increase during neuroinflammation. Glutaminase, a mitochondrial enzyme that converts glutamine to glutamate, has been implicated in the biogenesis of EVs. We have previously demonstrated that TNF-α promotes glutaminase expression in neurons. However, the expression and the functionality of glutaminase in astrocytes during neuroinflammation remain unknown...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427348/comparative-genomics-and-evolution-of-the-amylase-binding-proteins-of-oral-streptococci
#13
Elaine M Haase, Yurong Kou, Amarpreet Sabharwal, Yu-Chieh Liao, Tianying Lan, Charlotte Lindqvist, Frank A Scannapieco
BACKGROUND: Successful commensal bacteria have evolved to maintain colonization in challenging environments. The oral viridans streptococci are pioneer colonizers of dental plaque biofilm. Some of these bacteria have adapted to life in the oral cavity by binding salivary α-amylase, which hydrolyzes dietary starch, thus providing a source of nutrition. Oral streptococcal species bind α-amylase by expressing a variety of amylase-binding proteins (ABPs). Here we determine the genotypic basis of amylase binding where proteins of diverse size and function share a common phenotype...
April 20, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427169/therapeutic-role-of-glutamine-in-management-of-radiation-enteritis-a-meta-analysis-of-13-randomized-controlled-trials
#14
REVIEW
De-Dong Cao, Hui-Lin Xu, Min Xu, Xiang-Yun Qian, Zhu-Cheng Yin, Wei Ge
OBJECTIVE: To systematically evaluate the clinical efficacy of glutamine in treating radiation enteritis in cancer patients treated with radiotherapy. METHODS: Electronic databases including Pubmed, Embase, the Cochrane library, and CNKI were systematically searched, until April 2016. Randomized controlled trials (RCT) of glutamine in the treatment of radiation enteritis in cancer patients were searched, and RevMan 5.3 software was used for Meta-analysis. RESULTS: A total of 13 RCTs were included, involving 979 patients...
February 25, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426698/extensive-alterations-of-blood-metabolites-in-pediatric-cerebral-malaria
#15
Sanchit Gupta, Karl Seydel, Miguel A Miranda-Roman, Catherine M Feintuch, Alex Saidi, Ryung S Kim, Gretchen L Birbeck, Terrie Taylor, Johanna P Daily
Cerebral malaria (CM) presents as an encephalopathy and is due to infection with Plasmodium falciparum. Patients are comatose, often with fever, recurrent seizures and this condition is associated with a high mortality rate. The etiology of the coma and seizures are poorly understood. Circulating small molecules and lipids have bioactive functions and alterations in their concentrations have been implicated in seizure disorders and other forms of encephalopathy. We carried out a comprehensive analysis of blood metabolites during CM to explore a biochemical basis of this encephalopathy...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424408/synthetic-lethality-of-glutaminolysis-inhibition-autophagy-inactivation-and-asparagine-depletion-in-colon-cancer
#16
Jiaqiu Li, Ping Song, Liyuan Zhu, Neelum Aziz, Qiyin Zhou, Yulong Zhang, Wenxia Xu, Lifeng Feng, Dingwei Chen, Xian Wang, Hongchuan Jin
Cancer cells reprogram metabolism to coordinate their rapid growth. They addict on glutamine metabolism for adenosine triphosphate generation and macromolecule biosynthesis. In this study, we report that glutamine deprivation retarded cell growth and induced prosurvival autophagy. Autophagy inhibition by chloroquine significantly enhanced glutamine starvation induced growth inhibition and apoptosis activation. Asparagine deprivation by L-asparaginase exacerbated growth inhibition induced by glutamine starvation and autophagy blockage...
April 5, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423185/functional-identification-of-activity-regulated-high-affinity-glutamine-transport-in-hippocampal-neurons-inhibited-by-riluzole
#17
Jeffrey D Erickson
Glutamine (Gln) is considered the preferred precursor for the neurotransmitter pool of glutamate (Glu), the major excitatory transmitter in the mammalian CNS. Here, an activity-regulated, high-affinity Gln transport system is described in developing and mature neuron-enriched hippocampal cultures that is potently inhibited by riluzole (IC50 1.3 +/- 0.5μM), an anti-glutamatergic drug, and is blocked by low concentrations of 2-(methylamino)isobutyrate (MeAIB), a system A transport inhibitor. K(+) -stimulated MeAIB transport displays an affinity (Km ) for MeAIB of 37 +/- 1...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421779/oral-glutamine-reduces-myocardial-damage-after-coronary-revascularization-under-cardiopulmonary-bypass-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#18
Mariana Chávez-Tostado, Fernando Carrillo-Llamas, Porfirio Eduardo Martínez-Gutiérrez, Araceli Alvarado-Ramírez, Jaime Gilberto López-Taylor, José Clemente Vásquez-Jiménez, Clotilde Fuentes-Orozco, Jorge Rendón-Félix, Leire Irusteta-Jiménez, Vanessa Carolina Calil-Romero, José Antonio Ramírez-Jiménez, Luis Rodrigo Michel-Espinoza, Carmen Karina Contreras-López, Lizbeth Araceli Cuesta-Maquez, Alejandro González-Ojeda
BACKGROUND: Glutamine is the most abundant free amino acid in the body. It modulates immune cell function and is an important energy substrate for cells in critically ill patients. Reduction of injury cardiac markers had been observed in patients receiving intravenous glutamine and in a pilot study with oral glutamine. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of preoperative oral supplementation of glutamine on postoperative serum levels of cardiac injury markers. METHODS: A randomized clinical trial was performed in 28 Mexican patients with ischemic heart disease who underwent cardiopulmonary bypass with extracorporeal circulation...
March 30, 2017: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420743/cancer-cell-metabolism-the-essential-role-of-the-nonessential-amino-acid-glutamine
#19
REVIEW
Ji Zhang, Natalya N Pavlova, Craig B Thompson
Biochemistry textbooks and cell culture experiments seem to be telling us two different things about the significance of external glutamine supply for mammalian cell growth and proliferation. Despite the fact that glutamine is a nonessential amino acid that can be synthesized by cells from glucose-derived carbons and amino acid-derived ammonia, most mammalian cells in tissue culture cannot proliferate or even survive in an environment that does not contain millimolar levels of glutamine. Not only are the levels of glutamine in standard tissue culture media at least ten-fold higher than other amino acids, but glutamine is also the most abundant amino acid in the human bloodstream, where it is assiduously maintained at approximately 0...
April 18, 2017: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420467/-study-of-plasma-amino-acid-related-metabolites-of-septic-rats-using-gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry
#20
Jin Su, Yimin Zhu, Yu Jiang, Lianhong Zou, Xiaoliang Liu, Yixiao Xu
OBJECTIVE: To reveal the pathophysiological changes of sepsis, the plasma metabonomics of septic rats was determined and differential metabolites were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). METHODS: Male Spraguee-Dawley (SD) rats about 8 weeks were randomly divided into sham group (n = 18) and sepsis group (n = 24). Cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) was used to build sepsis model, while cecum was kept intact only in the sham group. 6 hours after the operation, rats were anesthetized, and blood was harvested through heart thoracotomy...
April 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
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