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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036718/glutamatergic-response-to-heat-pain-stress-in-schizophrenia
#1
Joshua Chiappelli, Qiaoyun Shi, Sarah Andrea Wijtenburg, Raimi Quiton, Krista Wisner, Frank Gaston, Priyadurga Kodi, Christopher Gaudiot, Peter Kochunov, Laura M Rowland, Liyi Elliot Hong
Regulation of stress response involves top-down mechanisms of the frontal-limbic glutamatergic system. As schizophrenia is associated with glutamatergic abnormalities, we hypothesized that schizophrenia patients may have abnormal glutamatergic reactivity within the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC), a key region involved in perception of and reaction to stress. To test this, we developed a somatic stress paradigm involving pseudorandom application of safe but painfully hot stimuli to the forearm of participants while they were undergoing serial proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy to measure changes in glutamate and glutamine levels in the dACC...
September 23, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036367/phenylalanine-as-a-nitrogen-source-induces-root-growth-and-nitrogen-use-efficiency-in-populus-%C3%A3-canescens
#2
Yu Jiao, Yinghao Chen, Chaofeng Ma, Jingjing Qin, Thi Hong Nhung Nguyen, Di Liu, Honghao Gan, Shen Ding, Zhi-Bin Luo
To investigate the physiological responses of poplars to amino acids as sole nitrogen (N) sources, Populus × canescens (Ait.) Smith plants were supplied with one of three nitrogen fertilizers (NH4NO3, phenylalanine (Phe) or the mixture of NH4NO3 and Phe) in sand culture. A larger root system, and decreased leaf size and CO2 assimilation rate was observed in Phe- versus NH4NO3-treated poplars. Consistently, a greater root biomass and a decreased shoot growth were detected in Phe-supplied poplars. Decreased enzymatic activities of nitrate reductase (NR), glutamate synthase (GOGAT) and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and elevated activities of nitrite reductase (NiR), phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), glutamine synthetase (GS) and asparagine synthase (AS) were found in Phe-treated roots...
September 19, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035687/acute-glutamine-ingestion-modulates-lymphocytic-responses-to-exhaustive-exercise-in-the-heat
#3
Chen Zheng, Xiang-Ke Chen, Yue Zhou
The purpose of this study was to determine if acute intake of glutamine modulates homeostatic, hematologic, immune, and inflammatory responses to exhaustive exercise in the heat. Thirteen healthy untrained young men participated in this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. They served as their own control and completed two trials of treadmill exercise at 40% VO2max to exhaustion in a hot environment (38.0 ± 1.0 °C, 60.0 ± 5.0 % relative humidity, and 20.8% oxygen) following placebo (PLA) and glutamine (GLN) consumption...
October 16, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034927/exploring-the-role-of-gs-gogat-cycle-in-microcystin-synthesis-and-regulation-a-model-based-analysis
#4
Swarnendu Banerjee, Abhishek Subramanian, Joydev Chattopadhyay, Ram Rup Sarkar
Toxic cyanobacteria blooms populate water bodies by consuming external nutrients and releasing cyanotoxins that are detrimental for other aquatic species, producing a significant impact on the plankton ecosystem and food web. To exercise population-level control of toxin production, understanding the biochemical mechanisms that explain cyanotoxin regulation within a bacterial cell is of utmost importance. In this study, we explore the mechanistic events to investigate the dependence of toxin microcystin on external nitrogen, a known regulator of the toxin, and for the first time, propose a kinetic model that analyzes the intracellular conditions required to ensure nitrogen dependence on microcystin...
October 16, 2017: Molecular BioSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031723/inhibition-of-cholinergic-potentiation-of-insulin-secretion-from-pancreatic-islets-by-chronic-elevation-of-glucose-and-fatty-acids-protection-by-casein-kinase-2-inhibitor
#5
Nicolai M Doliba, Qin Liu, Changhong Li, Pan Chen, Chengyang Liu, Ali Naji, Franz M Matschinsky
OBJECTIVES: Chronic hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia are characteristic features of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) that are thought to cause or contribute to β-cell dysfunction by "glucolipotoxicity." Previously we have shown that acute treatment of pancreatic islets with fatty acids (FA) decreases acetylcholine-potentiated insulin secretion. This acetylcholine response is mediated by M3 muscarinic receptors, which play a key role in regulating β-cell function. Here we examine whether chronic FA exposure also inhibits acetylcholine-potentiated insulin secretion using mouse and human islets...
October 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029417/anti-tumor-activity-of-anthrax-toxin-variants-that-form-a-functional-translocation-pore-by-intermolecular-complementation
#6
Shihui Liu, Qian Ma, Rasem Fattah, Thomas H Bugge, Stephen H Leppla
Anthrax lethal toxin is a typical A-B type protein toxin secreted by Bacillus anthracis. Lethal factor (LF) is the catalytic A-subunit, a metalloprotease having MEKs as targets. LF relies on the cell-binding B-subunit, protective antigen (PA), to gain entry into the cytosol of target cells. PA binds to cell surface toxin receptors and is activated by furin protease to form an LF-binding-competent oligomer-PA pre-pore, which converts to a functional protein-conductive pore in the acidic endocytic vesicles, allowing translocation of LF into the cytosol...
September 12, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029389/a-ketogenic-diet-supplemented-with-medium-chain-triglycerides-enhances-the-anti-tumor-and-anti-angiogenic-efficacy-of-chemotherapy-on-neuroblastoma-xenografts-in-a-cd1-nu-mouse-model
#7
Sepideh Aminzadeh-Gohari, René Günther Feichtinger, Silvia Vidali, Felix Locker, Tricia Rutherford, Maura O'Donnel, Andrea Stöger-Kleiber, Johannes Adalbert Mayr, Wolfgang Sperl, Barbara Kofler
Neuroblastoma (NB) is a pediatric malignancy characterized by a marked reduction in aerobic energy metabolism. Recent preclinical data indicate that targeting this metabolic phenotype by a ketogenic diet (KD), especially in combination with calorie restriction, slows tumor growth and enhances metronomic cyclophosphamide (CP) therapy of NB xenografts. Because calorie restriction would be contraindicated in most cancer patients, the aim of the present study was to optimize the KD such that the tumors are sensitized to CP without the need of calorie restriction...
September 12, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029014/1-25-dihydroxyvitamin-d-regulation-of-glutamine-synthetase-and-glutamine-metabolism-in-human-mammary-epithelial-cells
#8
Sarah Beaudin, JoEllen Welsh
Genomic profiling has identified a subset of metabolic genes that are altered by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25D) in breast cells including GLUL, the gene that encodes glutamine synthetase (GS). Here, we explored the relevance of vitamin D modulation of GLUL and other metabolic genes in the context of glutamine utilization and dependence. We show that exposure of breast epithelial cells to glutamine deprivation or a GS inhibitor reduced growth and these effects were exacerbated by co-treatment with 1,25D. 1,25D down-regulation of GLUL was sufficient to reduce abundance and activity of GS...
September 28, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027024/studies-on-the-constituents-of-helleborus-purpurascens-analysis-and-biological-activity-of-the-aqueous-and-organic-extracts
#9
M Heiko Franz, Roxana Birzoi, Catalin-Vasile Maftei, Elena Maftei, Gerhard Kelter, Heinz-Herbert Fiebig, Ion Neda
In Southeast Europe, the ethnomedicinal use of Helleborus species has a very long tradition. Cardiac steroids (Hellebrin), cysteine-rich proteins (Hellethionins) and several steroidal saponins have been identified in these plants. Aim of the present work was to investigate the amino acid composition of native extracts from the root and rootstock of Helleborus purpurascens. The amino acids have been identified by the GC-MS technique on the previously derivatised (Phenomenex Faast Kit) extract samples by comparison with the mass spectra and retention-time of the standards...
October 12, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025897/a-drosophila-model-of-insulin-resistance-associated-with-the-human-trib3-q-r-polymorphism
#10
Zachary Fischer, Rahul Das, Anna Shipman, Jin-Yuan Fan, Laramie Pence, Samuel Bouyain, Leonard L Dobens
Members of the Tribbles family of proteins are conserved pseudokinases with diverse roles in cell growth and proliferation. Both Drosophila Tribbles (Trbl) and vertebrate Trib3 proteins bind to Akt kinase to block its phosphorylation-activation and reduce downstream insulin-stimulated anabolism. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) variant in human Trib3, which results in a glutamine (Q) to arginine (R) missense mutation in a conserved motif at position 84, confers stronger Akt binding resulting in reduced Akt phosphorylation and is associated with a predisposition to Type II diabetes, cardiovascular disease, diabetic nephropathy, chronic kidney disease and leukemogenesis...
October 12, 2017: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025409/genes-for-asparagine-metabolism-in-lotus-japonicus-differential-expression-and-interconnection-with-photorespiration
#11
Margarita García-Calderón, Carmen M Pérez-Delgado, Alfredo Credali, José M Vega, Marco Betti, Antonio J Márquez
BACKGROUND: Asparagine is a very important nitrogen transport and storage compound in plants due to its high nitrogen/carbon ratio and stability. Asparagine intracellular concentration depends on a balance between asparagine biosynthesis and degradation. The main enzymes involved in asparagine metabolism are asparagine synthetase (ASN), asparaginase (NSE) and serine-glyoxylate aminotransferase (SGAT). The study of the genes encoding for these enzymes in the model legume Lotus japonicus is of particular interest since it has been proposed that asparagine is the principal molecule used to transport reduced nitrogen within the plant in most temperate legumes...
October 12, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024770/biochemical-biological-and-molecular-characterization-of-an-l-amino-acid-oxidase-laao-purified-from-bothrops-pictus-peruvian-snake-venom
#12
Fanny Lazo, Dan E Vivas-Ruiz, Gustavo A Sandoval, Edith F Rodríguez, Edgar E G Kozlova, F Costal-Oliveira, Carlos Chávez-Olórtegui, Ruperto Severino, Armando Yarlequé, Eladio F Sanchez
An L-amino acid oxidase from Peruvian Bothrops pictus (Bpic-LAAO) snake venom was purified using a combination of size-exclusion and ion-exchange chromatography. Bpic-LAAO is an homodimeric glycosylated flavoprotein with molecular mass of ∼65 kDa under reducing conditions and ∼132 kDa in its native form as analyzed by SDS-PAGE and gel filtration chromatography, respectively. N-terminal amino acid sequencing showed highly conserved residues in a glutamine-rich motif related to binding substrate. The enzyme exhibited optimal activity towards L-Leu at pH 8...
October 9, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024237/sterol-content-in-the-artificial-diet-of-mythimna-separata-affects-the-metabolomics-of-arma-chinensis-fallou-as-determined-by-proton-nuclear-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy
#13
Yi Guo, Chen-Xi Liu, Li-Sheng Zhang, Meng-Qing Wang, Hong-Yin Chen
Insects cannot synthesize sterols and must obtain them from plants. Therefore, reducing plant sterol content or changing sterol type might be an effective pest control strategy. However, the impacts of these changes on pests' natural predators remain unknown. Here, we fed artificial diets with reduced sterol content to Mythimna separata (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and investigated the effects on its natural predator, Arma chinensis (Fallou) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). Reduced sterol content in M. separata (MS1, MS2, and MS5) was achieved by feeding them artificial diets prepared from a feed base subjected to one, two, or five cycles of sterol extractions, respectively...
October 11, 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023495/the-hnrnp-like-nab3-termination-factor-can-employ-heterologous-prion-like-domains-in-place-of-its-own-essential-low-complexity-domain
#14
Travis J Loya, Thomas W O'Rourke, Daniel Reines
Many RNA-binding proteins possess domains with a biased amino acid content. A common property of these low complexity domains (LCDs) is that they assemble into an ordered amyloid form, juxtaposing RNA recognition motifs in a subcellular compartment in which RNA metabolism is focused. Yeast Nab3 is one such protein that contains RNA-binding domains and a low complexity, glutamine/proline-rich, prion-like domain that can self-assemble. Nab3 also contains a region of structural homology to human hnRNP-C that resembles a leucine zipper which can oligomerize...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023101/biosynthesis-of-nucleoside-diphosphoramidates-in-campylobacter-jejuni
#15
Zane Taylor, Haley A Brown, Hazel M Holden, Frank M Raushel
Campylobacter jejuni is a pathogenic Gram-negative bacterium and a leading cause of food-borne gastroenteritis. C. jejuni produces a capsular polysaccharide (CPS) that contains a unique O-methyl phosphoramidate modification (MeOPN). Recently, the first step in the biosynthetic pathway for the assembly of the MeOPN modification to the CPS was elucidated. It was shown that the enzyme Cj1418 catalyzes the phosphorylation of the amide nitrogen of L-glutamine to form L-glutamine phosphate. In this investigation the metabolic fate of L-glutamine phosphate was determined...
October 12, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022553/polynucleobacter-aenigmaticus-sp-nov-isolated-from-the-permanently-anoxic-monimolimnion-of-a-temperate-meromictic-lake
#16
Martin W Hahn, Ulrike Koll, Gerlinde Karbon, Johanna Schmidt, Elke Lang
The bacterial strain MWH-K35W1(T) was isolated from a permanently anoxic water layer of a meromictic lake located in the Austrian Salzkammergut area. The basically chemo-organoheterotrophic strain was isolated and maintained under aerobic conditions. Phylogenetic analyses of the 16S rRNA gene and the glutamine synthetase gene (glnA) of the strain suggested an affiliation to the genus Polynucleobacter and the cryptic species complex PnecC. Strain MWH-K35W1(T) shares with the type strains of the six free-living species of the genus Polynucleobacter affiliated with this species complex 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities of 99...
October 12, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021216/multiple-interactions-are-involved-in-a-highly-specific-association-of-the-mod-mdg4-67-2-isoform-with-the-su-hw-sites-in-drosophila
#17
Larisa Melnikova, Margarita Kostyuchenko, Varvara Molodina, Alexander Parshikov, Pavel Georgiev, Anton Golovnin
The best-studied Drosophila insulator complex consists of two BTB-containing proteins, the Mod(mdg4)-67.2 isoform and CP190, which are recruited to the chromatin through interactions with the DNA-binding Su(Hw) protein. It was shown previously that Mod(mdg4)-67.2 is critical for the enhancer-blocking activity of the Su(Hw) insulators and it differs from more than 30 other Mod(mdg4) isoforms by the C-terminal domain required for a specific interaction with Su(Hw) only. The mechanism of the highly specific association between Mod(mdg4)-67...
October 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021138/glutamine-addiction-in-kidney-cancer-suppresses-oxidative-stress-and-can-be-exploited-for-real-time-imaging
#18
Omran Abu Aboud, Samy Habib, Josephine F Trott, Benjamin Stewart, Sitai Liang, Abhijit J Chaudhari, Julie L Sutcliffe, Robert H Weiss
Many cancers appear to activate intrinsic antioxidant systems as a means to counteract oxidative stress. Some cancers, such as clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC), require exogenous glutamine for growth and exhibit reprogrammed glutamine metabolism, at least in part due to the glutathione pathway, an efficient cellular buffering system that counteracts reactive oxygen species (ROS) and other oxidants. We show here that ccRCC xenograft tumors under the renal capsule exhibit enhanced oxidative stress compared to adjacent normal tissue and the contralateral kidney...
October 11, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019707/glutaminolysis-promotes-collagen-translation-and-stability-via-%C3%AE-ketoglutarate-mediated-mtor-activation-and-proline-hydroxylation
#19
Jing Ge, Huachun Cui, Na Xie, Sami Banerjee, Sijia Guo, Shubham Dubey, Stephen Barnes, Gang Liu
Glutaminolysis is the metabolic process of glutamine, of which aberration has been implicated in several pathogeneses. While we and others recently found a diversity of metabolic dysregulations in organ fibrosis, it is unknown if glutaminolysis regulates the pro-fibrotic activities of myofibroblasts, the primary effector in this pathology. In this study, we found that lung myofibroblasts demonstrated significantly augmented glutaminolysis that was mediated by elevated Glutaminase 1 (Gls1). Inhibition of glutaminolysis by specific Gls1 inhibitors CB-839 and BPTES as well as Gls1 siRNA blunted the expression of collagens, but not that of Fibronectin, Elastin or myofibroblastic marker smooth muscle actin α (SMA-α)...
October 11, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018323/cerebrospinal-fluid-amino-acid-profiling-of-pediatric-cases-with-tuberculous-meningitis
#20
Shayne Mason, Carolus J Reinecke, Regan Solomons
Background: In Africa, tuberculosis is generally regarded as persisting as one of the most devastating infectious diseases. The pediatric population is particularly vulnerable, with infection of the brain in the form of tuberculous meningitis (TBM) being the most severe manifestation. TBM is often difficult to diagnose in its early stages because of its non-specific clinical presentation. Of particular concern is that late diagnosis, and subsequent delayed treatment, leads to high risk of long-term neurological sequelae, and even death...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
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