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pyelonephritis acute in children

John Davis, Albert T Roh, Matthew B Petterson, Tammy R Kopelman, Samantha L Matz, Daniel G Gridley, Mary J Connell
BACKGROUND: Computed tomography (CT) is commonly used to evaluate suspected acute appendicitis. Although very effective, CT uses ionizing radiation, exposing patients to an increased risk of cancer. OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the potential for decreasing the field of view of the CT (and therefore the dose to the patient) in the evaluation of suspected acute appendicitis in children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was a retrospective review of prospectively collected data from 212 consecutive patients who underwent CT for suspected acute appendicitis...
January 14, 2017: Pediatric Radiology
Manabu Okawada, Ciro Esposito, Maria Escolino, Alessandra Farina, Mariapina Cerulo, Francesco Turrà, Atsuyuki Yamataka
Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) represents one of the most significant risk factors for acute pyelonephritis in children. Endoscopic treatment of VUR dates back to 1981 when Matouschek first described injection of the ureteral orifice in an attempt to correct VUR. In addition, also Politano and colleagues and McDonald described successful correction of reflux using endoscopic techniques. After these reports subureteral Teflon injection (STING) came to be appreciated as a viable new way to less invasively correct one of the most common pediatric urologic problems...
October 2016: Translational pediatrics
Byung Kwan Kim, Hyung Eun Yim, Kee Hwan Yoo
OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to compare the diagnostic accuracy of plasma neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) with procalcitonin (PCT), C-reactive protein (CRP), and white blood cells (WBCs) for predicting acute pyelonephritis (APN) in children with febrile urinary tract infections (UTIs). MATERIALS AND METHODS: In total, 138 children with febrile UTIs (APN 59, lower UTI 79) were reviewed retrospectively. Levels of NGAL, PCT, CRP, and WBCs in blood were measured on admission...
October 15, 2016: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
Azar Nickavar, Baranak Safaeian, Ehsan Valavi, Farhad Moradpour
PURPOSE: Novel biomarkers have been investigated for various renal disorders, including urinary tract infection (UTI). The aim of this study was to assess whether urine neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocaline (NGAL), could represent a reliable biomarker for diagnosis and treatment of children with acute pyelonephritis (APN). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 37 children (32 females, 5 males) with APN were included in this prospective study. Urine NGAL was measured before and 5-7 days after antibiotic treatment in the UTI group, using ELISA kit and compared with 26 (8 females, 18 males) control group children admitted for other bacterial infections...
October 10, 2016: Urology Journal
Leila Barati, Baranak Safaeian, Mahshid Mehrjerdian, Mohammad-Ali Vakili
INTRODUCTION: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common bacterial infections in children that can be associated with renal parenchymal injuries and late scars. Dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) renal scan is known as golden standard for detecting acute pyelonephritis (APN) that has a lot of difficulties and limitations. OBJECTIVES: we designed this study the accuracy of one inflammatory marker, serum procalcitonin (PCT) to identify as an early predictor of renal injuries...
2016: Journal of Renal Injury Prevention
Sherif Azab, Mostafa Zakaria, Mona Raafat, Hadeel Seief
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the role of renal ultrasound (RUS) and urinary IL-6 in the differentiation between acute pyelonephritis (APN) and lower urinary tract infection (LUTI). PATIENTS AND METHODS: This prospective study was carried out at the Pediatric and urology outpatient and inpatient departments of Cairo University Children's Hospital as well as October 6 University Hospital and it included 155 children between one month and fourteen years old with positive culture UTI...
July 2016: International Braz J Urol: Official Journal of the Brazilian Society of Urology
Toru Kameda, Nobuyuki Taniguchi
Point-of-care abdominal ultrasound (US), which is performed by clinicians at bedside, is increasingly being used to evaluate clinical manifestations, to facilitate accurate diagnoses, and to assist procedures in emergency and critical care. Methods for the assessment of acute abdominal pain with point-of-care US must be developed according to accumulated evidence in each abdominal region. To detect hemoperitoneum, the methodology of a focused assessment with sonography for a trauma examination may also be an option in non-trauma patients...
2016: Journal of Intensive Care
Nihal Uyar Aksu, Zelal Ekinci, Devrim Dündar, Canan Baydemir
BACKGROUND: This study investigated risk factors of childhood urinary tract infection (UTI) associated with extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing bacteria (ESBL-positive UTI) and evaluated antimicrobial resistance as well as empiric treatment of childhood UTI. METHODS: The records of children with positive urine culture between 1 January 2008 and 31 December 2012 were evaluated. Patients with positive urine culture for ESBL-producing bacteria were defined as the ESBL-positive group, whereas patients of the same gender and similar age with positive urine culture for non-ESBL-producing bacteria were defined as the ESBL-negative group...
August 8, 2016: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
Ahmed Mohammed, Magid Abdelfattah, Ayman Ibraheem, Ahmad Younes
BACKGROUND: Urinary tract infections (UTI) are a common and important clinical problem in childhood. Upper urinary tract infections (i.e., acute pyelonephritis) may lead to renal scarring, hypertension, and end-stage renal disease. Despite the presence of simple and reliable methods of preliminary screening of children's urine, urinary tract infection continues to be under diagnosed. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to establish prevalence rates of significant bacteriuria in asymptomatic school children by simple urine tests in comparison to standard urine culture techniques in Giza, Egypt...
March 2016: African Health Sciences
Stylianos Roupakias, Xenophon Sinopidis, George Tsikopoulos, Ioannis Spyridakis, Ageliki Karatza, Anastasia Varvarigou
Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) is a precipitating factor in acute pyelonephritis (APN), and a risk factor for renal scar formation, even if VUR and APN occur independently. There is no scientific evidence on a specific diagnostic evaluation of children after a febrile urinary tract infection (UTI). Based on recent literature and our clinical experience, we reviewed the role of 99mTc dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) renal scan in UTI/VUR imaging. We also reviewed the DMSA challenges and controversies in UTI/VUR management...
June 29, 2016: Minerva Urologica e Nefrologica, the Italian Journal of Urology and Nephrology
L Bañuelos-Andrío, M Espino-Hernández, M Ruperez-Lucas, M C Villar-Del Campo, C I Romero-Carrasco, G Rodríguez-Caravaca
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the usefulness of procalcitonin (PCT) and other analytical parameters (white blood cell count [WBC], C-reactive protein [CRP]) as markers of acute renal damage in children after a first febrile or afebrile urinary tract infection (UTI). METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted on children with a first episode of UTI admitted between January 2009 to December 2011, and in whom serum PCT, CRP and white blood cell count were measured, as well as assessing the acute renal damage with renal scintigraphy with (99m)Tc-DMSA (DMSA) within the first 72h after referral...
January 2017: Revista Española de Medicina Nuclear e Imagen Molecular
Begoña Rodríguez Azor, José Miguel Ramos Fernández, Sonia Sánchiz Cárdenas, Ana Cordón Martínez, Begoña Carazo Gallego, David Moreno-Pérez, Antonio Urda Cardona
INTRODUCTION: Acute pyelonephritis (APN) is one of the most common causes of serious bacterial infection in infants. Renal scarring is the most prevalent long-term complication. OBJECTIVES: To review the incidence of renal scarring within 6 months after an episode of APN in children under 36 months and its relationship with imaging studies, clinical settings, and bacteriology. METHOD: A retrospective study of previously healthy patients aged one to 36 months, admitted for a first episode of APN, with a minimum follow-up of 6 months...
February 2017: Anales de Pediatría: Publicación Oficial de la Asociación Española de Pediatría (A.E.P.)
Song Yi Han, I Re Lee, Se Jin Park, Ji Hong Kim, Jae Il Shin
PURPOSE: Acute pyelonephritis (APN) is a serious bacterial infection that can cause renal scarring in children. Early identification of APN is critical to improve treatment outcomes. The neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is a prognostic marker of many diseases, but it has not yet been established in urinary tract infection (UTI). The aim of this study was to determine whether NLR is a useful marker to predict APN or vesicoureteral reflux (VUR). METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated 298 pediatric patients (age≤36 months) with febrile UTI from January 2010 to December 2014...
March 2016: Korean Journal of Pediatrics
Dongwan Kim, Sung Hyun Lee, Hann Tchah, Eell Ryoo, Hye Kyung Cho, Yun Mi Kim
PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to investigate the association between elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and urosepsis in children with acute pyelonephritis (APN). METHODS: We retrospectively identified all children who were managed in our hospital with APN during a decade period. In our study a diagnosis of APN was defined as having a positive urine culture and a positive (99m)Tc-dimercaptosuccinic acid scintigraphy. We compared those with elevated ALT and those with normal ALT according to the following variables: age, gender, duration of fever prior to admission, presence of hypotension, C-reactive protein (CRP), creatinine, presence of anemia, white blood cells count, platelet count, blood culture result, and grades of vesicoureteral reflux...
March 2016: Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
Kambiz Ghasemi, Maryam Esteghamati, Sara Borzoo, Erfan Parvaneh, Samira Borzoo
INTRODUCTION: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most prevalent infections in children and infants. Early and accurate detection of renal parenchymal involvement in UTI is necessary for decision making and determining treatment strategies. The aim of this study was to determine the predictive accuracy of urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) for renal parenchymal involvement in children with acute pyelonephritis. METHODS: This descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted in 2014 on children who had been diagnosed with UTI...
February 2016: Electronic Physician
Abolfazl Mahyar, Parviz Ayazi, Parisa Gholmohammadi, Seyed Alireza Moshiri, Sonia Oveisi, Shiva Esmaeily
This study was conducted to determine the relationship between overweight/obesity and UTI in children. A comparison was made, in terms of overweight and obesity, between 135 children with UTI (case group) and 135 healthy children (control group). UTI was diagnosed through urine culture. Dimercaptosuccinic acid renal scanning (DMSA) was also used to distinguish between lower UTI and acute pyelonephritis. Overweight and obesity were determined based on standard body mass index (BMI) curves. There were 12 (8.8%) overweight and 26 (19...
2016: Le Infezioni in Medicina
Roberto Hernández Marco, Elena Guillén Olmos, José Rafael Bretón-Martínez, Lourdes Giner Pérez, Benedicta Casado Sánchez, Julia Fujkova, Marina Salamanca Campos, José Miguel Nogueira Coito
INTRODUCTION: Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing bacteria are infrequent pathogens of urinary tract infections in children. The objective of our study was to investigate the presence, clinically associated characteristics and risk factors for acquisition of urinary tract infection/acute pyelonephritis (UTI/APN) in hospitalised children <2years old caused by community-acquired ESBL. METHODS: A case-control study in a second level community hospital in Spain, in which 537 episodes of UTI/APN were investigated in a retrospective study between November 2005 and August 2014...
March 11, 2016: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
Cristina Bibalo, Andrea Apicella, Veronica Guastalla, Pierluigi Marzuillo, Floriana Zennaro, Carmela Tringali, Andrea Taddio, Claudio Germani, Egidio Barbi
Acute lobar nephritis (ALN) is a localized non-liquefactive inflammatory renal bacterial infection, which typically involves one or more lobes. ALN is considered to be a midpoint in the spectrum of upper urinary tract infection, a spectrum ranging from uncomplicated pyelonephritis to intrarenal abscess. This condition may be difficult to recognize due to the lack of specific symptoms and laboratory findings. Therefore the disease is probably underdiagnosed. Computed tomography scanning represents the diagnostic gold standard for ALN, but magnetic resonance imagine could be considered in order to limit irradiation...
February 8, 2016: World Journal of Clinical Pediatrics
Bradley Kushner, Paul D Allen, Benjamin T Crane
OBJECTIVE: To understand how aminoglycosides such as gentamicin are used in a tertiary care setting. To familiarize otologists with the demographics and risk factors associated with gentamicin use at major medical centers to allow the possibility of early intervention. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective review of existing clinical data. SETTING: University of Rochester Medical Center (URMC), including all associated hospitals (Strong Memorial Hospital, Highland Hospital, etc...
February 2016: Otology & Neurotology
I Re Lee, Jae Il Shin, Se Jin Park, Ji Young Oh, Ji Hong Kim
Mean platelet volume (MPV) has not yet been well-established in urinary tract infection (UTI). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of MPV as an acute phase reactant in children with UTI. Data from 118 young children (<2 years) with UTI between 2012 and 2013 were grouped as acute pyelonephritis (APN) and lower UTI according to the dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scan abnormalities. MPV, platelet distribution width (PDW) platelet count, and other infection markers (white blood cell [WBC] count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate [ESR], and C-reactive protein [CRP]) were measured...
December 15, 2015: Scientific Reports
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