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pyelonephritis acute in children

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142969/elucidation-of-renal-scars-in-children-with%C3%A2-vesicoureteral-reflux-using-contrast-enhanced-ultrasound-a-pilot%C3%A2-study
#1
David S Hains, Harris L Cohen, M Beth McCarville, Ellen E Ellison, Amy Huffman, Stacey Glass, Aslam H Qureshi, Keith R Pierce, Ashlyn L Cahill, Ashley Dixon, Noel Delos Santos
Introduction: Vesicoureteral reflux is a common disorder in children but can result in kidney scarring following acute pyelonephritis. The gold standard diagnostic to detect renal scars in children is (99m)Tc-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scintigraphy. DMSA has a number of limitations including radiation exposure, need for sedation, and radiotracer supply shortages. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) is a technique whereby biocompatible microspheres of inert gas are administered i.v...
May 2017: KI Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138582/once-daily-intramuscular-amikacin-for-outpatient-treatment-of-lower-urinary-tract-infections-caused-by-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-escherichia-coli-in-children
#2
Meltem Polat, Soner Sertan Kara
Background: The rise in community-acquired urinary tract infections (UTIs) with extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli strains raises the question of how to treat these infections effectively in pediatric outpatients. Amikacin has shown promising in vitro activity against ESBL-producing urinary isolates of E. coli; however, clinical data are limited. Objective: To investigate the clinical and microbiological outcomes of community-acquired lower UTIs caused by ESBL-producing E...
2017: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134126/the-urinary-and-serum-levels-of-il-32-in-children-with-febrile-urinary-tract-infections
#3
Alireza Rafiei, Hamid Mohammadjafari, Ayat Ahifar, Abbas Alipour, Araz Mohammad Mirabi
Aim: We assessed the urinary and serum levels of IL-32 in pediatric patients with acute pyelonephritis (APN) with and without renal scarring. Results: We enrolled children aged 2 months to 16 years with APN. Dimercaptosuccinic acid scans and ultrasonography studies were ordered for all patients, and a voiding. A total of 86 children (aged 57 ± 39 months, 74 [86%] female) were enrolled in this study. Group 1 was composed of 19 (16 female) patients, group 2 of 38 (35 female) patients and group 3 of 29 (23 female) patients...
November 2017: Future Science OA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100793/discrimination-of-culture-negative-pyelonephritis-in-children-with-suspected-febrile-urinary-tract-infection-and-negative-urine-culture-results
#4
Jun Ho Lee
BACKGROUND: We investigated whether the C-reactive protein (CRP) level, urine electrolytes, and urine sodium-potassium ratio (uNa/K) could be useful markers for discriminating children with culture negative pyelonephritis (CNP) from children with suspected febrile urinary tract infection (fUTI) and negative urine culture results. METHODS: We examined 264 children experiencing their first fUTI consecutively admitted to our hospital between January 2011 and October 2014...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090653/tuberculous-pyelonephritis-in-children-three-case-reports
#5
Nimisha Arora, Abhijeet Saha, Manpreet Kaur
Tuberculous pyelonephritis is rare in children; three case reports are presented. Case 1 was an 11-year-old girl with a previous history of pulmonary tuberculosis who presented with flank pain and fever for 10 days. An ultrasound suggested focal pyelonephritis, and a contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT) scan demonstrated acute focal pyelonephritis and a perinephric collection. Mycobacterium tuberculosis was cultured in the urine. She responded well to anti-tuberculous treatment (ATT). Case 2 was a 13-year-old boy who presented with fever, haematuria, burning micturition, proteinuria (3+) and cervical lymphadenopathy...
November 1, 2017: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028278/functional-variants-in-intercellular-adhesion-molecule-1-and-toll-like-receptor-4-genes-are-more-frequent-in-children-with-febrile-urinary-tract-infection-with-renal-parenchymal-involvement
#6
Almontaser Hussein, Khaled Saad, Eman Askar, Asmaa M Zahran, Hekma Farghaly, Kotb Metwalley, Ahmad A Elderwy
AIM: We studied the functional polymorphisms of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and toll-like receptor-4 (TLR-4) genes and risk of acute pyelonephritis (APN) in children attending Assiut University Children's Hospitals, Egypt, from 2011 to 2015. METHODS: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) were diagnosed in 380 children: 98 had APN and 282 had lower UTIs. Four single-nucleotide polymorphisms in ICAM-1 and TLR-4 genes were genotyped in all subjects: ICAM-1 rs1799969 Gly241Arg, ICAM-1 rs5498 Glu469Lys, TLR-4 rs4896791 Thr399Ile and TLR-4 rs4896790 Asp299Gly...
October 13, 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954556/an-update-on-new-antibiotic-prophylaxis-and-treatment-for-urinary-tract-infections-in-children
#7
Jean Daniel Delbet, Mathie Lorrot, Tim Ulinski
This review focuses on the treatment of urinary tract infections (UTI) in children and in particular its recent changes. Areas covered: Acute pyelonephritis, acute cystitis and asymptomatic bacteriuria or asymptomatic infections have to be clearly distinguished. Prompt treatment is required in pyelonephritis and cystitis, but not in asymptomatic bacteriuria or infection, in order to avoid selection of more virulent strains. This concept should be considered even in immunocompromised or bedridden children. In case of pyelonephritis, there should be no delay in beginning the antibiotic treatment in order to decrease the risk of long term complication, such as renal scars...
October 2017: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716390/impact-of-cytokine-genetic-polymorphisms-on-the-risk-of-renal-parenchymal-infection-in-children
#8
Almontaser Hussein, Eman Askar, Ahlam Badawy, Khaled Saad, Asmaa Zahran, Ahmad A Elderwy
BACKGROUND: Acute pyelonephritis is associated with renal scarring in up to 30% of patients. Renal scarring may cause significant long-term morbidity. The pathogenesis of acute pyelonephritis remains unclear, although it involves interaction among uroepithelium, the immune system cells, and the locally produced cytokines. That some UTI-prone children develop acute pyelonephritis, and eventually renal parenchymal scarring, suggests a genetic role. Interleukin-6, interleukin-8, chemokine receptor-1 (CXCR1), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα), the key regulators of the host immune responses, are proteins whose secretion is controlled by genes...
July 3, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711547/interobserver-variability-for-interpretation-of-dmsa-scans-in-the-rivur-trial
#9
Tej K Mattoo, Steven J Skoog, Lisa Gravens-Mueller, Russell W Chesney, Alejandro Hoberman, Ranjiv Mathews, Marva Moxey-Mims, Anastasia Ivanova, Saul P Greenfield, Myra A Carpenter
INTRODUCTION: Technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) renal scans are used in the diagnosis of renal scarring. In the Randomized Intervention for Children with Vesicoureteral Reflux (RIVUR) trial that randomized 607 children, DMSA renal scans were used for evaluating the presence and the severity of renal scarring. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to determine interobserver variability in reporting of DMSA renal scans in the RIVUR trial. STUDY DESIGN: We compared DMSA renal scan reports for renal scarring and acute pyelonephritis from all non-reference local radiologists (ALRs) at study sites with adjudicated as well as non-adjudicated reports from two reference radiologists (RRs) of the RIVUR trial...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683358/distinctive-inflammatory-profile-between-acute-focal-bacterial-nephritis-and-acute-pyelonephritis-in-children
#10
Makoto Mizutani, Shunji Hasegawa, Takeshi Matsushige, Naoki Ohta, Setsuaki Kittaka, Madoka Hoshide, Takeshi Kusuda, Kazumasa Takahashi, Kiyoshi Ichihara, Shouichi Ohga
BACKGROUND: Acute focal bacterial nephritis (AFBN) is a severe form of upper urinary tract infection (UTI) with neurological manifestations and focal renal mass lesions on computed tomography (CT). Prolonged antibiotic therapy may improve the renal outcome, but the early differential diagnosis of AFBN from acute pyelonephritis (APN) is challenging. We searched for effective biomarkers of AFBN based on the pathophysiology of upper UTIs. METHODS: Of 52 upper UTI cases treated at Yamaguchi University between 2009 and 2016, 38 pediatric patients with AFBN (n=17) or APN (n=21) who underwent ultrasonography and/or CT were enrolled...
July 3, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638940/laparoscopic-vesico-ureteral-reimplantation-with-lich-gregoir-approach-in-children-medium-term-results-of-159-renal-units-in-117-children
#11
Victor Soulier, Aure Lien Scalabre, Manuel Lopez, Chi-Ying Li, Sodara Thach, Sophie Vermersch, Franc Ois Varlet
PURPOSE: Vesico-ureteral reflux (VUR) represents one of the most significant risk factors for acute pyelonephritis in children. Surgery is an important part of its management. Laparoscopic ureteric reimplantation using the Lich-Gregoir technique is an option for VUR. The aim of this study is to assess short- and medium-term outcomes of this approach. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a retrospective study including all children with VUR treated by laparoscopic extravesical ureteral reimplantation with the Lich-Gregoir technique in University Hospital of Saint-Etienne from August 2007 to May 2016...
November 2017: World Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557737/antibiotic-prophylaxis-for-urinary-tract-infection-related-renal-scarring-a-systematic-review
#12
REVIEW
Ian K Hewitt, Marco Pennesi, William Morello, Luca Ronfani, Giovanni Montini
CONTEXT: Acute pyelonephritis may result in renal scarring. Recent prospective studies have shown a small benefit of antibiotic prophylaxis in preventing symptomatic and febrile urinary tract infections (UTIs), while being underpowered to detect any influence in prevention of renal damage. OBJECTIVES: Review of the literature and a meta-analysis to evaluate the effect of antibiotic prophylaxis on UTI-related renal scarring. DATA SOURCES: Medline, Embase, and Cochrane Controlled Trials Register electronic databases were searched for studies published in any language and bibliographies of identified prospective randomized controlled trials (RCTs) performed and published between 1946 and August 2016...
May 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555450/usefulness-of-parametric-renal-clearance-images-in-the-assessment-of-basic-risk-factors-for-renalnal-clearance-images-in-the-assessment-of-basic-risk-factors-for-renal-scarring-in-children-with-recurrent-urinary-tract-infections
#13
Ewa Pietrzak-Stelasiak, Małgorzata Bieńkiewicz, Wojciech Woźnicki, Krystyna Bubińska, Magdalena Kowalewska-Pietrzak, Anna Płachcińska, Jacek Kuśmierek
BACKGROUND: Clinically confirmed incidents of acute pyelonephritis (APN) following recurrent infections of urinary tract (UTI) form basic risk factors for renal scarring in children. Vesico-uretheral reflux (VUR) of higher grade is additional risk factor for this scarring. Opinions on diagnostic value of summed sequential images of renal uptake phase (SUM) of dynamic renal scintigraphy in detection of renal scars are diverse. However, several publications point to higher diagnostic efficacy of clearance parametric images (PAR) generated from this study...
2017: Nuclear Medicine Review. Central & Eastern Europe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486675/short-course-versus-long-course-oral-antibiotic-treatment-for-infections-treated-in-outpatient-settings-a-review-of-systematic-reviews
#14
Elizabeth E Dawson-Hahn, Sharon Mickan, Igho Onakpoya, Nia Roberts, Matthew Kronman, Chris C Butler, Matthew J Thompson
Purpose: To summarize the evidence comparing the effectiveness of short and long courses of oral antibiotics for infections treated in outpatient settings. Methods: We identified systematic reviews of randomized controlled trials for children and adults with bacterial infections treated in outpatient settings from Medline, Embase, CINAHL, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and The Database of Review of Effects. Data were extracted on the primary outcome of clinical resolution and secondary outcomes...
September 1, 2017: Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404702/corticosteroids-for-renal-scar-prevention-in-children-with-acute-pyelonephritis
#15
REVIEW
Teeranai Sakulchit, Ran D Goldman
Question Acute pyelonephritis in children is of great concern and I usually refer these patients to a pediatrician or send them to the emergency department owing to the risk of renal scarring. Are steroids an acceptable treatment to reduce risk of scarring? Answer Several agents have been studied in an effort to prevent renal scar formation following acute pyelonephritis in children. Use of corticosteroids, in conjunction with standard therapy for acute pyelonephritis, shows promising findings. However, evidence is very limited and steroids should not be offered on a regular basis as part of treatment...
April 2017: Canadian Family Physician Médecin de Famille Canadien
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091700/computed-tomography-localization-of-the-appendix-in-the-pediatric-population-relative-to-the-lumbar-spine
#16
John Davis, Albert T Roh, Matthew B Petterson, Tammy R Kopelman, Samantha L Matz, Daniel G Gridley, Mary J Connell
BACKGROUND: Computed tomography (CT) is commonly used to evaluate suspected acute appendicitis. Although very effective, CT uses ionizing radiation, exposing patients to an increased risk of cancer. OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the potential for decreasing the field of view of the CT (and therefore the dose to the patient) in the evaluation of suspected acute appendicitis in children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was a retrospective review of prospectively collected data from 212 consecutive patients who underwent CT for suspected acute appendicitis...
March 2017: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867853/treatment-of-vesico-ureteral-reflux-in-infants-and-children-using-endoscopic-approaches
#17
REVIEW
Manabu Okawada, Ciro Esposito, Maria Escolino, Alessandra Farina, Mariapina Cerulo, Francesco Turrà, Atsuyuki Yamataka
Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) represents one of the most significant risk factors for acute pyelonephritis in children. Endoscopic treatment of VUR dates back to 1981 when Matouschek first described injection of the ureteral orifice in an attempt to correct VUR. In addition, also Politano and colleagues and McDonald described successful correction of reflux using endoscopic techniques. After these reports subureteral Teflon injection (STING) came to be appreciated as a viable new way to less invasively correct one of the most common pediatric urologic problems...
October 2016: Translational pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744618/plasma-neutrophil-gelatinase-associated-lipocalin-a-marker-of-acute-pyelonephritis-in-children
#18
Byung Kwan Kim, Hyung Eun Yim, Kee Hwan Yoo
OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to compare the diagnostic accuracy of plasma neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) with procalcitonin (PCT), C-reactive protein (CRP), and white blood cells (WBCs) for predicting acute pyelonephritis (APN) in children with febrile urinary tract infections (UTIs). MATERIALS AND METHODS: In total, 138 children with febrile UTIs (APN 59, lower UTI 79) were reviewed retrospectively. Levels of NGAL, PCT, CRP, and WBCs in blood were measured on admission...
March 2017: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27734430/validity-of-neutrophil-gelatinase-associated-lipocaline-as-a-biomarker-for-diagnosis-of-children-with-acute-pyelonephritis
#19
Azar Nickavar, Baranak Safaeian, Ehsan Valavi, Farhad Moradpour
PURPOSE: Novel biomarkers have been investigated for various renal disorders, including urinary tract infection (UTI). The aim of this study was to assess whether urine neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocaline (NGAL), could represent a reliable biomarker for diagnosis and treatment of children with acute pyelonephritis (APN). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 37 children (32 females, 5 males) with APN were included in this prospective study. Urine NGAL was measured before and 5-7 days after antibiotic treatment in the UTI group, using ELISA kit and compared with 26 (8 females, 18 males) control group children admitted for other bacterial infections...
October 10, 2016: Urology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27689104/early-prediction-of-renal-parenchymal-injury-with-serum-procalcitonin
#20
Leila Barati, Baranak Safaeian, Mahshid Mehrjerdian, Mohammad-Ali Vakili
INTRODUCTION: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common bacterial infections in children that can be associated with renal parenchymal injuries and late scars. Dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) renal scan is known as golden standard for detecting acute pyelonephritis (APN) that has a lot of difficulties and limitations. OBJECTIVES: we designed this study the accuracy of one inflammatory marker, serum procalcitonin (PCT) to identify as an early predictor of renal injuries...
2016: Journal of Renal Injury Prevention
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