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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435052/neurovascular-neuroenergetic-coupling-axis-in-the-brain-master-regulation-by-nitric-oxide-and-consequences-in-aging-and-neurodegeneration
#1
REVIEW
Cátia F Lourenço, Ana Ledo, Rui M Barbosa, João Laranjinha
The strict energetic demands of the brain require that nutrient supply and usage be fine-tuned in accordance with the specific temporal and spatial patterns of ever-changing levels of neuronal activity. This is achieved by adjusting local cerebral blood flow (CBF) as a function of activity level - neurovascular coupling - and by changing how energy substrates are metabolized and shuttled amongst astrocytes and neurons - neuroenergetic coupling. Both activity-dependent increase of CBF and O2 and glucose utilization by active neural cells are inextricably linked, establishing a functional metabolic axis in the brain, the neurovascular-neuroenergetic coupling axis...
April 20, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432453/the-influence-of-oxo-bridged-binuclear-gold-iii-complexes-on-na-k-atpase-activity-a-joint-experimental-and-theoretical-approach
#2
Aleksandra M Bondžić, Mirjana B Čolović, Goran V Janjić, Božidarka Zarić, Sandra Petrović, Danijela Z Krstić, Tiziano Marzo, Luigi Messori, Vesna M Vasić
The in vitro effects of oxo-bridged binuclear gold(III) complexes, i.e., [(bipy2Me)2Au2(μ-O)2][PF6]2 (Auoxo6), Au2[(bipydmb-H)2(μ-O)][PF6] (Au2bipyC) and [Au2(phen(2Me))2(μ-O)2](PF6)2 (Au2phen) on Na/K-ATPase, purified from the porcine cerebral cortex, were investigated. All three studied gold complexes inhibited the enzyme activity in a concentration-dependent manner achieving IC50 values in the low micromolar range. Kinetic analysis suggested an uncompetitive mode of inhibition for Auoxo6 and Au2bipyC, and a mixed type one for Au2phen...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Biological Inorganic Chemistry: JBIC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429368/-aralar-agc1-deficiency-a-neurodevelopmental-disorder-with-severe-impairment-of-neuronal-mitochondrial-respiration-does-not-produce-a-primary-increase-in-brain-lactate
#3
Inés Juaristi, María L García-Martin, Tiago B Rodrigues, Jorgina Satrústegui, Irene Llorente-Folch, Beatriz Pardo
ARALAR/AGC1 (aspartate-glutamate mitochondrial carrier 1) is an important component of the NADH malate-aspartate shuttle (MAS). AGC1-deficiency is a rare disease causing global cerebral hypomyelination, developmental arrest, hypotonia, and epilepsy (OMIM ID #612949); the aralar-KO mouse recapitulates the major findings in humans. This study was aimed at understanding the impact of ARALAR-deficiency in brain lactate levels as a biomarker. We report that lactate was equally abundant in wild-type and aralar-KO mouse brain in vivo at PND 17...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424764/diffusion-tensor-imaging-colour-mapping-threshold-for-identification-of-ventilation-induced-brain-injury-after-intrauterine-inflammation-in-preterm-lambs
#4
Dhafer M Alahmari, Beatrice Skiöld, Samantha K Barton, Ilias Nitsos, Courtney McDonald, Suzanne L Miller, Valerie Zahra, Robert Galinsky, Qizhu Wu, Michael John Farrell, Timothy J Moss, Stuart B Hooper, James T Pearson, Graeme R Polglase
PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to examine whether advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques can detect early brain injury caused by intrauterine inflammation and inappropriate initial respiratory support in preterm lambs. HYPOTHESIS: Neuropathology caused by intrauterine inflammation is exacerbated by mechanical ventilation at birth and is detectable with advanced MRI techniques. METHODS: Pregnant ewes received intra-amniotic lipopolysaccharide (LPS) 7 days prior to delivery at ~125 days of gestation (85% of gestation), whereupon lambs were delivered and randomised to receive an injurious (LPS + INJ, n = 6) or protective (LPS + PROT, n = 6) ventilation strategy...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413477/isoquercetin-activates-the-erk1-2-nrf2-pathway-and-protects-against-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-vivo-and-in-vitro
#5
Miao Chen, Li-Hua Dai, Aihua Fei, Shu-Ming Pan, Hai-Rong Wang
Isoquercetin has exhibited a wide range of therapeutic properties, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic activities. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of isoquercetin on rats with 2 h middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and evaluate the neuroprotective effect of isoquercetin on a primary culture of rat hippocampal neuronal cells subjected to oxygen-glucose deprivation followed by reoxygenation (OGD/R). In vivo, the rats treated with isoquercetin exhibited a lower degree of neurological dysfunction and smaller infarct volume than the vehicle-treated rats...
April 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409398/middle-cerebral-artery-blood-flow-velocity-during-a-4%C3%A2-km-cycling-time-trial
#6
Ben Rattray, Brittany A Smale, Joseph M Northey, Disa J Smee, Nathan G Versey
PURPOSE: This study sought to describe middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity (MCAv) during a 4 km cycling time trial, and relate it to different pacing strategies adopted by participants. METHODS: After familiarisation and a standardised exercise protocol, 15 male trained cyclists rode a 4 km time trial on a cycling ergometer. MCAv was assessed via transcranial Doppler ultrasound in the right hemisphere at resting baseline, and throughout the time trial. Mean arterial pressure, end-tidal partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PetCO2) and heart rate were assessed alongside MCAv...
April 13, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405859/effects-of-mild-hypothermia-on-cerebral-large-and-small-microvessels-blood-flow-in-a-porcine-model-of-cardiac-arrest
#7
Junyuan Wu, Wei Yuan, Jiebin Li, Yongzhen Zhao, Jie Li, Zhenhua Li, Chunsheng Li
BACKGROUND: The effect of mild hypothermia (MH) on microcirculation after resuscitation from cardiac arrest is controversial. The aim of this study was to determine whether MH improves or aggravates the disturbance of cerebral microcirculation. METHODS: Twenty domestic male pigs were randomized into the MH group (n = 8), non-hypothermia (NH) group (n = 8) or sham operation group (n = 4). In the MH group, the animals were initiated rapid intravascular cooling at 1 h after return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) from 8 min ventricular fibrillation, and the core temperature was reduced to 33 °C for 12 h and then rewarmed to 37 °C...
April 12, 2017: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398880/cerebrovascular-remodeling-and-neuroinflammation-is-a-late-effect-of-radiation-induced-brain-injury-in-non-human-primates
#8
Rachel N Andrews, Linda J Metheny-Barlow, Ann M Peiffer, David B Hanbury, Janet A Tooze, J Daniel Bourland, Robert E Hampson, Samuel A Deadwyler, J Mark Cline
Fractionated whole-brain irradiation (fWBI) is a mainstay of treatment for patients with intracranial neoplasia; however late-delayed radiation-induced normal tissue injury remains a major adverse consequence of treatment, with deleterious effects on quality of life for affected patients. We hypothesize that cerebrovascular injury and remodeling after fWBI results in ischemic injury to dependent white matter, which contributes to the observed cognitive dysfunction. To evaluate molecular effectors of radiation-induced brain injury (RIBI), real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) was performed on the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC, Brodmann area 46), hippocampus and temporal white matter of 4 male Rhesus macaques (age 6-10 years), which had received 40 Gray (Gy) fWBI (8 fractions of 5 Gy each, twice per week), and 3 control comparators...
March 6, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396174/sirt3-confers-protection-against-neuronal-ischemia-by-inducing-autophagy-involvement-of-the-ampk-mtor-pathway
#9
Shu-Hui Dai, Tao Chen, Xia Li, Kang-Yi Yue, Peng Luo, Li-Kun Yang, Jie Zhu, Yu-Hai Wang, Zhou Fei, Xiao-Fan Jiang
Sirtuin3 (Sirt3) is a member of the silent information regulator 2 (Sir2) family of proteins located in mitochondria that influences almost every major aspect of mitochondrial biology, including ATP generation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Our previous study showed that Sirt3 exerts protective effects against oxidative stress in neuronal cells. In this study, we investigated the role of Sirt3 in neuronal ischemia using an oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) model. Sirt3 was up-regulated by OGD and overexpression of Sirt3 through lentivirus transfection significantly reduced OGD-induced lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release and neuronal apoptosis...
April 7, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388354/haemoglobin-oxygen-saturation-leucocyte-count-and-lactate-dehydrogenase-are-predictors-of-elevated-cerebral-blood-flow-velocity-in-nigerian-children-with-sickle-cell-anaemia
#10
Oyesola Oyewole Ojewunmi, Titilope Adenike Adeyemo, Akinniyi Adediran Osuntoki, Ngozi Awa Imaga, Ajoke Idayat Oyetunji
BACKGROUND: Transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD) scan, which measures blood flow velocity through the time-averaged mean of maximum velocities (TAMMVs) in the internal carotid arteries and middle cerebral arteries, is a useful screening tool for predicting stroke risk in children with sickle cell anaemia (SCA). AIM: To investigate which clinical and laboratory indices predict abnormal TCD velocity in children with SCA. METHODS: Fifty-four SCA patients with normal TCD (TAMMV < 170 cm/s), classified as negative TCD (NTCD), and 93 patients with conditional and abnormal TCD velocities (TAMMV ≥ 170 cm/s) classified as positive TCD were recruited...
April 7, 2017: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380491/association-between-brain-and-kidney-near-infrared-spectroscopy-and-early-postresuscitation-mortality-in-asphyxiated-newborn-piglets
#11
Anne Lee Solevåg, Georg M Schmölzer, Britt Nakstad, Ola Didrik Saugstad, Po-Yin Cheung
BACKGROUND: Early outcome predictors after delivery room cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) of asphyxiated newborns are needed. OBJECTIVES: To investigate if cerebral (rScO2) and renal (rSrO2) tissue oxygen saturation 30 min after return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) are different between surviving versus nonsurviving piglets with asphyxia-induced cardiac arrest and CPR. Further, to investigate the relationship of rScO2 and rSrO2 to cardiac output (CO), blood pressure (BP), and biochemical variables 30 min and 4 h after ROSC...
April 6, 2017: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364680/assessment-of-macro-and-micro-oxygenation-parameters-during-fractional-fluid-infusion-a-pilot-study
#12
Marc-Olivier Fischer, Vincent Bonnet, Emmanuel Lorne, Jean-Yves Lefrant, Olivier Rebet, Benoît Courteille, Charlotte Lemétayer, Jean-Jacques Parienti, Jean-Louis Gérard, Jean-Luc Fellahi, Jean-Luc Hanouz
PURPOSE: The main goal of this study was to assess whether maximal fluid infusion improves both oxygen delivery (DO2) and micro-circulatory parameters during hemodilution. The secondary objective was to assess the ability of baseline micro-circulatory parameters to predict oxygen consumption (VO2) response following fluid infusion. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a postoperative cardiac ICU, patients received repeated fluid infusion until stroke volume (SV) was maximized...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340835/can-patients-who-develop-cerebral-death-in-fulminant-liver-failure-despite-liver-transplantation-be-previously-forseen
#13
K B Sarici, S Karakas, E Otan, V Ince, C Koc, S Koc, H Bayraktar, C Aydin, C Kayaalp, S Gungor, Y Kablan, S Yilmaz
BACKGROUND: The outcome of medical treatment is worse in fulminant liver failure (FLF) developing on acute or chronic ground. Recently, liver transplantations with the use of living and cadaveric donors have been performed in these diseases and good results obtained. In this study, we aimed to present the factors affecting the recovery of cerebral functions after liver transplantation in hepatic encephalopathy (HE) developing in FLF, to identify irreversible patient groups and to prevent unnecessary liver transplantation...
April 2017: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338505/effects-of-hypertonic-saline-and-sodium-lactate-on-cortical-cerebral-microcirculation-and-brain-tissue-oxygenation
#14
Vlasta Dostalova, Jitka Schreiberova, Vlasta Dostalova, Jiri Paral, Jaroslav Kraus, Alena Ticha, Vera Radochova, Pavel Dostal
BACKGROUND: Hyperosmolar solutions have been used in neurosurgery to modify brain bulk. The aim of this animal study was to compare the short-term effects of equivolemic, equiosmolar solutions of hypertonic saline (HTS) and sodium lactate (HTL) on cerebral cortical microcirculation and brain tissue oxygenation in a rabbit craniotomy model. METHODS: Rabbits (weight, 1.5 to 2.0 kg) were anesthetized, ventilated mechanically, and subjected to a craniotomy. The animals were allocated randomly to receive a 3...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331947/-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-of-brain-tumors
#15
P Ditter, E Hattingen
BACKGROUND: Conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) under consideration of clinical information enables the correct diagnosis and therapy for the majority of cerebral space-occupying lesions. Some important differential diagnoses, e. g. low vs. high-grade tumors, require additional MRI methods. OBJECTIVE: This article critically discusses the importance of magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) in brain tumors. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The concentration of normal and pathological brain metabolites can be non-invasively measured by (1)H-MRS...
March 22, 2017: Der Radiologe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323516/does-normobaric-hyperoxia-cause-oxidative-stress-in-the-injured-brain-a-microdialysis-study-using-8-iso-pgf2%C3%AE-as-a-biomarker
#16
Marian Vidal-Jorge, Angela Sánchez-Guerrero, Gemma Mur-Bonet, Lidia Castro, Andreea Rădoi, Marilyn Riveiro, Natividad Fernández-Prado, Jacinto Baena, Maria A Poca, Juan Sahuquillo
Significant controversy exists regarding the potential clinical benefit of normobaric hyperoxia therapy (NBO) in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). This study consisted of two aims: 1) to assess whether NBO improves brain oxygenation and metabolism and 2) to determine whether this therapy may increase the risk of oxidative stress (OxS), using 8-iso-PGF2α as a biomarker. Thirty-one patients with a median admission Glasgow Coma Scale score of 4 (min: 3, max: 12) were monitored with cerebral microdialysis and brain tissue oxygen sensors and treated with FiO2 of 1...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322077/enteral-nutrition-increases-interstitial-brain-glucose-levels-in-poor-grade-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-patients
#17
Mario Kofler, Alois J Schiefecker, Ronny Beer, Maxime Gaasch, Paul Rhomberg, John Stover, Bettina Pfausler, Claudius Thomé, Erich Schmutzhard, Raimund Helbok
Low brain tissue glucose levels after acute brain injury are associated with poor outcome. Whether enteral nutrition (EN) reliably increases cerebral glucose levels remains unclear. In this retrospective analysis of prospectively collected observational data, we investigate the effect of EN on brain metabolism in 17 poor-grade subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) patients undergoing cerebral microdialysis (CMD) monitoring. CMD-values were obtained hourly. A nutritional intervention was defined as the clinical routine administration of EN without supplemental parenteral nutrition...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320179/multimodal-and-simultaneous-assessments-of-brain-and-spinal-fluid-abnormalities-in-chronic-fatigue-syndrome-and-the-effects-of-psychiatric-comorbidity
#18
Benjamin H Natelson, Xiangling Mao, Aaron J Stegner, Gudrun Lange, Diana Vu, Michelle Blate, Guoxin Kang, Eli Soto, Tolga Kapusuz, Dikoma C Shungu
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether CFS patients without comorbid psychiatric diagnoses differ from CFS patients with comorbid psychiatric diagnoses and healthy control subjects in neuropsychological performance, the proportion with elevated spinal fluid protein or white cell counts, cerebral blood flow (CBF), brain ventricular lactate and cortical glutathione (GSH). The results of the study did not show any differences in any of the outcome measures between CFS patients with and without psychiatric comorbidity, thus indicating that psychiatric status may not be an exacerbating factor in CFS...
April 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317262/hydroxytyrosol-restores-proper-insulin-signaling-in-an-astrocytic-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#19
M Carmen Crespo, Joao Tomé-Carneiro, Cristina Pintado, Alberto Dávalos, Francesco Visioli, Emma Burgos-Ramos
Recent epidemiological evidence demonstrated that diabetes is a risk factor for AD onset and development. Indeed, meta-analyses of longitudinal epidemiologic studies show that diabetes increases AD risk by 50-100%, being insulin resistance (IR) the main binding link between diabetes and AD. Astrocytes are the foremost cerebral macroglial cells and are responsible for converting glucose into lactate and transfer it to neurons that use it as fuel, but Aβ(1-42) impairs insulin signaling and glycogen storage. Recent prospective studies showed that the Mediterranean diet is associated with lower incidence of AD...
March 20, 2017: BioFactors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316083/energy-metabolism-in-the-rat-cortex-under-thiopental-anaesthesia-measured-in-vivo-by-13-c-mrs
#20
Sarah Sonnay, João M N Duarte, Nathalie Just, Rolf Gruetter
Barbiturates, commonly used as general anaesthetics, depress neuronal activity and thus cerebral metabolism. Moreover, they are likely to disrupt the metabolic support of astrocytes to neurons, as well as the uptake of nutrients from circulation. By employing (13) C magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in vivo at high magnetic field, we characterized neuronal and astrocytic pathways of energy metabolism in the rat cortex under thiopental anaesthesia. The neuronal tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle rate was 0.46 ± 0...
March 19, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
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