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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29923931/hypertonic-lactate-to-improve-cerebral-perfusion-and-glucose-availability-after-acute-brain-injury
#1
Laurent Carteron, Daria Solari, Camille Patet, Hervé Quintard, John-Paul Miroz, Jocelyne Bloch, Roy T Daniel, Lorenz Hirt, Philippe Eckert, Pierre J Magistretti, Mauro Oddo
OBJECTIVES: Lactate promotes cerebral blood flow and is an efficient substrate for the brain, particularly at times of glucose shortage. Hypertonic lactate is neuroprotective after experimental brain injury; however, human data are limited. DESIGN: Prospective study (clinicaltrials.gov NCT01573507). SETTING: Academic ICU. PATIENTS: Twenty-three brain-injured subjects (13 traumatic brain injury/10 subarachnoid hemorrhage; median age, 59 yr [41-65 yr]; median Glasgow Coma Scale, 6 [3-7])...
June 19, 2018: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29923147/mental-fatigue-impairs-endurance-performance-a-physiological-explanation
#2
REVIEW
Kristy Martin, Romain Meeusen, Kevin G Thompson, Richard Keegan, Ben Rattray
Mental fatigue reflects a change in psychobiological state, caused by prolonged periods of demanding cognitive activity. It has been well documented that mental fatigue impairs cognitive performance; however, more recently, it has been demonstrated that endurance performance is also impaired by mental fatigue. The mechanism behind the detrimental effect of mental fatigue on endurance performance is poorly understood. Variables traditionally believed to limit endurance performance, such as heart rate, lactate accumulation and neuromuscular function, are unaffected by mental fatigue...
June 19, 2018: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29921486/comparison-of-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-mrs-with-arterial-spin-labeling-asl-in-the-differentiation-between-mitochondrial-encephalomyopathy-lactic-acidosis-plus-stroke-like-episodes-melas-and-acute-ischemic-stroke-ais
#3
Xiaodi Li, Yuzhou Wang, Zhanhang Wang, Jianjun Lu, Yan Xu, Jinlong Ye, Zuying Kuang, Bo Li, Mengqiu Pan, Wenming Chen, Shuisheng Lu, Ziyang Zhou, Lina Cheng, Honghao Wang
To compare the utility and limitation of magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and arterial spin labeling (ASL) in the differentiation between mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, plus stroke-like episodes (MELAS) and acute ischemic stroke (AIS), a retrospective review of 17 MELAS and 26 AIS patients were performed. In all patients both MRS and ASL scans were performed within 1 week after admission. Demographic, clinical, laboratory and MR imaging data were reviewed and compared between the two groups...
June 16, 2018: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29917204/sestrin2-aggravates-oxidative-stress-of-neurons-by-decreasing-the-expression-of-nrf2
#4
L-L Zhang, Z-J Zhang
OBJECTIVE: Oxidative injury is an essential part of the pathological changes of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion. Sestrin2 (Sesn2), a conserved antioxidant protein, is activated under stress to protect cells against oxidative stress. This study mainly explored the function and mechanism of Sesn2 during cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R) model of primary neurons was established. MTS and LDH (lactate dehydrogenase) kit were used to detect cell viability and cell damage by colorimetric method...
June 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29915213/the-genotypic-and-phenotypic-spectrum-of-pars2-related-infantile-onset-encephalopathy
#5
Xiaomeng Yin, Beisha Tang, Xiao Mao, Jinxin Peng, Sheng Zeng, Yaqin Wang, Hong Jiang, Nan Li
Mitochondrial aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (mt-aaRSs) are a family of enzymes that play critical roles in protein biosynthesis. Mutations in mt-aaRSs are associated with various diseases. As a member of the mt-aaRS family, PARS2 encoding prolyl-tRNA synthetase 2 was recently shown to be associated with Alpers syndrome and certain infantile-onset neurodegenerative disorders in four patients. Here, we present two patients in a pedigree with early developmental delay, epileptic spasms, delayed myelination combined with cerebellar white matter abnormalities, and progressive cortical atrophy...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29887685/improvement-of-2-vessel-occlusion-cerebral-ischaemia-reperfusion-induced-corticostriatal-electrolyte-and-redox-imbalance-lactic-acidosis-and-modified-acetylcholinesterase-activity-by-kolaviron-correlates-with-reduction-in-neurobehavioural-deficits
#6
Afolabi Clement Akinmoladun, Ibrahim Olabayode Saliu, Boyede Dele Olowookere, Olubukola Benedicta Ojo, Mary Tolulope Olaleye, Ebenezer Olatunde Farombi, Afolabi Akintunde Akindahunsi
Background: Disruption of electrolyte, redox and neurochemical homeostasis alongside cellular energy crisis is a hallmark of cerebral ischaemia and reperfusion injury. Purpose: This study investigated the effect of kolaviron (KV) on cortical and striatal cation imbalance, oxidative stress and neurochemical disturbances as well as neurobehavioural deficits in animals subjected to bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO)-induced ischaemia/reperfusion injury...
April 2018: Annals of Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29867713/cerebral-lactate-concentration-in-neonatal-hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy-in-relation-to-time-characteristic-of-injury-and-serum-lactate-concentration
#7
Tai-Wei Wu, Benita Tamrazi, Kai-Hsiang Hsu, Eugenia Ho, Aaron J Reitman, Matthew Borzage, Stefan Blüml, Jessica L Wisnowski
Background: Cerebral lactate concentration can remain detectable in neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) after hemodynamic stability. The temporal resolution of regional cerebral lactate concentration in relation to the severity or area of injury is unclear. Furthermore, the interplay between serum and cerebral lactate in neonatal HIE has not been well defined. The study aims to describe cerebral lactate concentration in neonatal HIE in relation to time, injury, and serum lactate...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29844914/a-collet-sicard-syndrome-due-to-internal-carotid-artery-dissection-associated-with-cerebral-amyloid-angiopathy-related-inflammation
#8
Vanessa Saliou, Douraied Ben Salem, Julien Ognard, Dewi Guellec, Pascale Marcorelles, François Rouhart, Fabien Zagnoli, Serge Timsit
Background: Cerebral amyloid angiopathy-related inflammation is a rare condition with approximately 100 reported cases. Its clinical manifestations are varied. We report here a novel presentation of this disease. Case presentation: A 61-year-old Caucasian man presented with rapidly progressive paralysis of the IX, X, XI and XII right cranial nerves associated with right central facial nerve palsy. Brain computed tomography angiography and cerebral catheter angiography found a focal fusiform enlargement of the distal cervical portion of the right internal carotid artery, related to a pseudo-aneurysm suggesting an evolution of a dissection and intra-cranial vessel dysplasia...
2018: SAGE Open Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29843856/a-raised-serum-lactate-level-is-an-independent-predictor-of-in-hospital-mortality-in-patients-with-isolated-cerebral-gunshot-wounds
#9
V Y Kong, R D Weale, G L Laing, J L Bruce, G V Oosthuizen, B Sartorius, P Brysiewicz, D L Clarke
BACKGROUND: Cerebral gunshot wounds (CGSWs) represent a highly lethal form of traumatic brain injury, and triaging these patients is difficult. The prognostic significance of the serum lactate level in the setting of CGSWs is largely unknown. OBJECTIVES: To examine the relationship between elevated serum lactate levels and mortality in patients with isolated CGSWs. METHODS: A retrospective review of the regional trauma registry was undertaken at the Pietermaritzburg Metropolitan Trauma Service, South Africa, over a 5-year period from 1 January 2010 to 31 December 2014...
April 25, 2018: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29795055/role-of-immuno-polymerase-chain-reaction-i-pcr-in-resolving-diagnostic-dilemma-between-tuberculoma-and-neurocysticercosis-a-case-report
#10
Sonia Ahlawat, Surekha Dabla, Vinay Kumar, Machiavelli Singh, Kiran Bala, Promod K Mehta
BACKGROUND Tuberculoma and neurocysticercosis (NCC) often show similar clinical and neuroimaging features. Differential diagnosis of these 2 diseases is imperative, as tuberculoma is an active infection that requires immediate anti-tubercular therapy (ATT). CASE REPORT We present the case of a 17-year-old Indian girl with fever, severe headache, and right 6th cranial nerve palsy. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed multiple tiny ring-enhancing lesions in bilateral cerebral parenchyma with mild perilesional edema, which were initially thought to be NCC, but subsequently were diagnosed as brain tuberculomas...
May 24, 2018: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793592/protection-of-cerebral-microcirculation-mitochondrial-function-and-electrocortical-activity-by-small-volume-resuscitation-with-terlipressin-in-a-rat-model-of-haemorrhagic-shock
#11
K K Ida, K I Chisholm, L M S Malbouisson, D B Papkovsky, A Dyson, M Singer, M R Duchen, K J Smith
BACKGROUND: During early treatment of haemorrhagic shock, cerebral perfusion pressure can be restored by small-volume resuscitation with vasopressors. Whether this therapy is improved with additional fluid remains unknown. We assessed the value of terlipressin and lactated Ringer's solution (LR) on early recovery of microcirculation, tissue oxygenation, and mitochondrial and electrophysiological function in the rat cerebral cortex. METHODS: Animals treated with LR replacing three times (3LR) the volume bled (n=26), terlipressin (n=27), terlipressin plus 1LR (n=26), 2LR (n=16), or 3LR (n=15) were compared with untreated (n=36) and sham-operated rats (n=17)...
June 2018: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788388/persistent-metabolic-disturbance-in-the-perihemorrhagic-zone-despite-a-normalized-cerebral-blood-flow-following-surgery-for-intracerebral-hemorrhage
#12
Lovisa Tobieson, Sandro Rossitti, Peter Zsigmond, Jan Hillman, Niklas Marklund
BACKGROUND: We hypothesized that reduced cerebral blood flow (CBF) and/or energy metabolic disturbances exist in the tissue surrounding a surgically evacuated intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). If present, such CBF and/or metabolic impairments may contribute to ongoing tissue injury and the modest clinical efficacy of ICH surgery. OBJECTIVE: To conduct an observational study of CBF and the energy metabolic state in the perihemorrhagic zone (PHZ) tissue and in seemingly normal cortex (SNX) by microdialysis (MD) following surgical ICH evacuation...
May 21, 2018: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777940/curcumin-attenuates-cerebral-ischemia-injury-in-sprague-dawley-rats-and-pc12-cells-by-suppressing-overactivated-autophagy
#13
Yan Zhang, Ming Fang, Yameng Sun, Ting Zhang, Nan Shi, Jinfeng Li, Lei Jin, Kangyong Liu, Jianliang Fu
The present study assessed whether the protective effects of curcumin against cerebral ischemia injury were due to the suppression of overactivated autophagy. Curcumin is a well-known natural polyphenolic compound that effectively counteracts oxidation, inflammation, and various types of cancer. Several studies have demonstrated the protective effects of curcumin against ischemia-reperfusion injury in tissues from the lungs, cardiomyocytes, and liver. The present study employed brain injury models induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in rats and PC12 oxygen-glucose-deprived (OGD) cells...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775114/oxygen-dependency-of-mitochondrial-metabolism-indicates-outcome-of-newborn-brain-injury
#14
Gemma Bale, Subhabrata Mitra, Isabel de Roever, Magdalena Sokolska, David Price, Alan Bainbridge, Roxana Gunny, Cristina Uria-Avellanal, Giles S Kendall, Judith Meek, Nicola J Robertson, Ilias Tachtsidis
There is a need for a method of real-time assessment of brain metabolism during neonatal hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE). We have used broadband near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to monitor cerebral oxygenation and metabolic changes in 50 neonates with HIE undergoing therapeutic hypothermia treatment. In 24 neonates, 54 episodes of spontaneous decreases in peripheral oxygen saturation (desaturations) were recorded between 6 and 81 h after birth. We observed differences in the cerebral metabolic responses to these episodes that were related to the predicted outcome of the injury, as determined by subsequent magnetic resonance spectroscopy derived lactate/N-acetyl-aspartate...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772253/interstitial-ion-homeostasis-and-acid-base-balance-are-maintained-in-oedematous-brain-of-mice-with-acute-toxic-liver-failure
#15
Marta Obara-Michlewska, Fengfei Ding, Mariusz Popek, Alexei Verkhratsky, Maiken Nedergaard, Magdalena Zielinska, Jan Albrecht
Acute toxic liver failure (ATLF) rapidly leads to brain oedema and neurological decline. We evaluated the ability of ATLF-affected brain to control the ionic composition and acid-base balance of the interstitial fluid. ATLF was induced in 10-12 weeks old male C57Bl mice by single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of 100 μg/g azoxymethane (AOM). Analyses were carried out in cerebral cortex of precomatous mice 20-24 h after AOM administration. Brain fluid status was evaluated by measuring apparent diffusion coefficient [ADC] using NMR spectroscopy, Evans Blue extravasation, and accumulation of an intracisternally-injected fluorescent tracer...
May 14, 2018: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771492/hyperpolarized-13c-mrs-reveals-the-rate-limiting-role-of-the-blood-brain-barrier-on-the-cerebral-uptake-and-metabolism-of-l-lactate-in-vivo
#16
Yuhei Takado, Tian Cheng, Jessica A M Bastiaansen, Hikari Yoshihara, Bernard Lanz, Mor Mishkovsky, Sylvain Lengacher, Arnaud Comment
The dynamics of L-lactate transport across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and its cerebral metabolism are still subject to debate. We studied lactate uptake and intracellular metabolism in the mouse brain using hyperpolarized 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Following the intravenous injection of hyperpolarized [1-13C]lactate, we observed that the distribution of 13C label between lactate and pyruvate, which has been shown to be representative of their pool size ratio, is different in NMRI and C57BL/6 mice, the latter exhibiting a higher cerebral lactate dehydrogenase A (Ldha) expression...
May 17, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768483/transport-of-enniatin-b-and-enniatin-b1-across-the-blood-brain-barrier-and-hints-for-neurotoxic-effects-in-cerebral-cells
#17
Isabel Krug, Matthias Behrens, Melanie Esselen, Hans-Ulrich Humpf
Enniatins are common contaminants of food and feed and belong to the group of the "emerging" mycotoxins, which are produced by various Fusarium species. Although a wide range of toxic effects, like antibacterial, antifungal, insecticidal and cytotoxic properties, have been described in vitro, so far, no cases of mycotoxicosis connected to enniatins in vivo are reported. Among this group of mycotoxins, enniatin B and enniatin B1 are the most prevalent compounds and therefore are present in the human diet...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768283/cerebral-oxygenation-as-a-monitoring-parameter-for-mortality-during-venoarterial-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation
#18
Hyoung Soo Kim, Sang Ook Ha, Kyung-Ho Yu, Mi Sun Oh, Sunghoon Park, Sun Hee Lee, Sang Jin Han, Hyun-Sook Kim, In Bok Chang, Jun Hyong Ahn
There are no recommended guidelines for monitoring parameters during venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO). We evaluated whether regional cerebral oxygen saturation (rScO2) could be a monitoring parameter for mortality during VA-ECMO. We retrospectively searched our database for adult patients who underwent VA-ECMO between April 2015 and October 2016 and identified 21 patients with rScO2 data. Their baseline and clinical characteristics during the first 7 days (vital signs, arterial blood gas results, ECMO variables, rScO2, Swan-Ganz catheter parameters, transthoracic echocardiography parameters, and outcomes) were collected and evaluated for associations with 28 day mortality...
May 15, 2018: ASAIO Journal: a Peer-reviewed Journal of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765403/effect-of-maternal-administration-of-edible-bird-s-nest-on-the-learning-and-memory-abilities-of-suckling-offspring-in-mice
#19
Yong Xie, Hongliang Zeng, Zhiji Huang, Hui Xu, Qunyan Fan, Yi Zhang, Baodong Zheng
Although human brains continue developing throughout the underage developmental stages, the infancy period is considered the most important one for the whole life. It has been reported that sialic acid from edible bird's nest (EBN) can facilitate the development of brain and intelligence. In this study, by oral administration of EBN to female mice during the pregnancy or lactation period, the effects of EBN on the levels of sialic acid in mouse milk were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)...
2018: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760928/aneurysmal-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-intensive-care-for-improving-neurological-outcome
#20
REVIEW
Tomoya Okazaki, Yasuhiro Kuroda
Background: Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage is a life-threatening disease requiring neurocritical care. Delayed cerebral ischemia is a well-known complication that contributes to unfavorable neurological outcomes. Cerebral vasospasm has been thought to be the main cause of delayed cerebral ischemia, and although several studies were able to decrease cerebral vasospasm, none showed improved neurological outcomes. Our target is not cerebral vasospasm but improving neurological outcomes...
2018: Journal of Intensive Care
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