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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235509/in-vivo-metabolic-imaging-of-traumatic-brain-injury
#1
Caroline Guglielmetti, Austin Chou, Karen Krukowski, Chloe Najac, Xi Feng, Lara-Kirstie Riparip, Susanna Rosi, Myriam M Chaumeil
Complex alterations in cerebral energetic metabolism arise after traumatic brain injury (TBI). To date, methods allowing for metabolic evaluation are highly invasive, limiting our understanding of metabolic impairments associated with TBI pathogenesis. We investigated whether 13C MRSI of hyperpolarized (HP) [1-13C] pyruvate, a non-invasive metabolic imaging method, could detect metabolic changes in controlled cortical injury (CCI) mice (n = 57). Our results show that HP [1-13C] lactate-to-pyruvate ratios were increased in the injured cortex at acute (12/24 hours) and sub-acute (7 days) time points after injury, in line with decreased pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) activity, suggesting impairment of the oxidative phosphorylation pathway...
December 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207673/comparison-among-conventional-and-advanced-mri-18f-fdg-pet-ct-phenotype-and-genotype-in-glioblastoma
#2
Maria Consuelo Valentini, Marta Mellai, Laura Annovazzi, Antonio Melcarne, Tetyana Denysenko, Paola Cassoni, Cristina Casalone, Cristiana Maurella, Silvia Grifoni, Piercarlo Fania, Angelina Cistaro, Davide Schiffer
Glioblastoma (GB) is a highly heterogeneous tumor. In order to identify in vivo the most malignant tumor areas, the extent of tumor infiltration and the sites giving origin to GB stem cells (GSCs), we combined positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) and conventional and advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with histology, immunohistochemistry and molecular genetics. Prior to dura opening and tumor resection, forty-eight biopsy specimens [23 of contrast-enhancing (CE) and 25 of non-contrast enhancing (NE) regions] from 12 GB patients were obtained by a frameless image-guided stereotactic biopsy technique...
October 31, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205598/an-auditory-brainstem-nucleus-as-a-model-system-for-neuronal-metabolic-demands
#3
Sonja Brosel, Benedikt Grothe, Lars Kunz
The correlation between neuronal activity and metabolism is essential for coding, plasticity, neurological disorders and the interpretation of functional neuroimaging data. Most likely, metabolic requirements depend upon neuron type and macroscopic energy demands vary with brain region. However, specific needs of individual neuron types are enigmatic. Therefore, we monitored metabolic activity in the lateral superior olive (LSO), an auditory brainstem nucleus containing only one neuron type. LSO neurons exhibit extreme but well described biophysics with firing rates of several hundred hertz and low input resistances of a few megaohms...
December 4, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205357/hexokinase-2-dependent-hyperglycolysis-driving-microglial-activation-contributes-to-ischemic-brain-injury
#4
Yuan Li, Bingzheng Lu, Longxiang Sheng, Zhu Zhu, Hongjiaqi Sun, Yuwei Zhou, Yang Yang, Dongdong Xue, Wenli Chen, Xuyan Tian, Yun Du, Min Yan, Wenbo Zhu, Fan Xing, Kai Li, Suizhen Lin, Pengxin Qiu, Xingwen Su, Yijun Huang, Guangmei Yan, Wei Yin
Hyperglycolysis, observed within the penumbra zone during brain ischemia, was shown to be detrimental for tissue survival due to lactate accumulation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) overproduction in clinical and experimental settings. Recently, mounting evidence suggests that glycolytic reprogramming and induced metabolic enzymes can fuel the activation of peripheral immune cells. However, the possible roles and details regarding hyperglycolysis in neuroinflammation during ischemia are relatively poorly understood...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200367/anesthetic-management-in-mitochondrial-encephalomyopathy-a-case-report
#5
Toru Yamamoto, Noriko Miyazawa, Shinichi Yamamoto, Hiroshi Kawahara
We report on a morbidly obese 16-year-old boy (weight, 116 kg; height, 176 cm; body mass index, 35.5 kg/m2) with mitochondrial encephalomyopathy and a history of cerebral infarction, epilepsy, and severe mental retardation. The patient was scheduled for elective surgery under general anesthesia for multiple dental caries and entropion of the left eye. Preoperative examination results, including an electrocardiogram, were normal. No obvious cardiac function abnormalities were observed on echocardiography. Midazolam (10 mg) was administered orally as premedication 30 minutes before transfer to the operating room; however, the patient was uncooperative, and his body movements were difficult to control upon entering the operating room...
2017: Anesthesia Progress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196052/ferulic-acid-loaded-nanostructured-lipid-carriers-a-promising-nanoformulation-against-the-ischemic-neural-injuries
#6
Parichehr Hassanzadeh, Elham Arbabi, Fatemeh Atyabi, Rassoul Dinarvand
AIMS: Treatment of the ischemic stroke has remained a major healthcare challenge. The phenolic compound, ferulic acid (FA), has shown promising antioxidant and neuroprotective effects, however, low bioavailability may negatively affect its efficiency. This, prompted us to incorporate FA into the nanostructured lipid carriers (FA-NLCs) and evaluate its therapeutic potential in in vitro and in vivo models of ischemic stroke. MAIN METHODS: FA-NLCs were prepared by high-pressure homogenization followed by physicochemical characterization, evaluation of the bioactivity of FA-NLCs in oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) and global cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury and implication of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway in this regard...
November 28, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193450/clostridium-butyricum-exerts-a-neuroprotective-effect-in-a-mouse-model-of-traumatic-brain-injury-via-the-gut-brain-axis
#7
H Li, J Sun, J Du, F Wang, R Fang, C Yu, J Xiong, W Chen, Z Lu, J Liu
BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a common occurrence following gastrointestinal dysfunction. Recently, more and more attentions are being focused on gut microbiota in brain and behavior. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is considered as a mediator that links the gut-brain axis. The aim of this study was to explore the neuroprotective effects of Clostridium butyricum (Cb) on brain damage in a mouse model of TBI. METHODS: Male C57BL/6 mice were subjected to a model of TBI-induced by weight-drop impact head injury and were treated intragastrically with Cb...
November 27, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183728/lycium-barbarum-polysaccharide-protects-against-oxygen-glucose-deprivation-reoxygenation-induced-apoptosis-and-autophagic-cell-death-via-the-pi3k-akt-mtor-signaling-pathway-in-primary-cultured-hippocampal-neurons
#8
Yang Yu, Xiuquan Wu, Jingnan Pu, Peng Luo, Wenke Ma, Jiu Wang, Jialiang Wei, Yuanxin Wang, Zhou Fei
Lycium barbarum polysaccharide (LBP) is the main active ingredient of Lycium barbarum, which exhibits several beneficial effects, including neuroprotection, anti-aging and anti-oxidation. However, the mechanism by which LBP protects against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion-induced injury remains obscure. In this study, we found that LBP pretreatment greatly attenuated oxygen glucose deprivation/reperfusion (OGD/R) injury in primary cultured hippocampal neurons. LBP also suppressed OGD/R-induced lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage, and ameliorated oxidative stress...
November 26, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180981/cerebral-microdialysis-monitoring-to-improve-individualized-neurointensive-care-therapy-an-update-of-recent-clinical-data
#9
REVIEW
Laurent Carteron, Pierre Bouzat, Mauro Oddo
Cerebral microdialysis (CMD) allows bedside semicontinuous monitoring of patient brain extracellular fluid. Clinical indications of CMD monitoring are focused on the management of secondary cerebral and systemic insults in acute brain injury (ABI) patients [mainly, traumatic brain injury (TBI), subarachnoid hemorrhage, and intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH)], specifically to tailor several routine interventions-such as optimization of cerebral perfusion pressure, blood transfusion, glycemic control and oxygen therapy-in the individual patient...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163332/clinical-use-of-cerebral-microdialysis-in-patients-with-aneurysmal-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-state-of-the-art
#10
REVIEW
Raimund Helbok, Mario Kofler, Alois Josef Schiefecker, Maxime Gaasch, Verena Rass, Bettina Pfausler, Ronny Beer, Erich Schmutzhard
Objective: To review the published literature on the clinical application of cerebral microdialysis (CMD) in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) patients and to summarize the evidence relating cerebral metabolism to pathophysiology, secondary brain injury, and outcome. Methods: Study selection: Two reviewers identified all manuscripts reporting on the clinical use of CMD in aneurysmal SAH patients from MEDLINE. All identified studies were grouped according to their focus on brain metabolic changes during the early and subacute phase after SAH, their association with mechanisms of secondary brain injury and outcome...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163193/changes-in-muscle-and-cerebral-deoxygenation-and-perfusion-during-repeated-sprints-in-hypoxia-to-exhaustion
#11
Sarah J Willis, Laurent Alvarez, Grégoire P Millet, Fabio Borrani
During supramaximal exercise, exacerbated at exhaustion and in hypoxia, the circulatory system is challenged to facilitate oxygen delivery to working tissues through cerebral autoregulation which influences fatigue development and muscle performance. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of different levels of normobaric hypoxia on the changes in peripheral and cerebral oxygenation and performance during repeated sprints to exhaustion. Eleven recreationally active participants (six men and five women; 26...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142168/background-data-on-nod-shi-scid-il-2r%C3%AE-null-mice-nog-mice
#12
Kenichiro Kasahara, Yachiyo Fukunaga, Saori Igura, Rie Andoh, Tsubasa Saito, Isamu Suzuki, Hiroyuki Kanemitsu, Daisuke Suzuki, Ken Goto, Daichi Nakamura, Masahiro Mochizuki, Masahiko Yasuda, Ryo Inoue, Kazutoshi Tamura, Mariko Nagatani
To obtain background data of NOD/Shi-scid IL-2Rγ(null) (NOG) mice, severely immunedeficient mice, a total of 120 animals were examined at 7, 26 and 52 weeks-old (20 mice/sex/group). The survival rate at 52 weeks-old was 95% (19/20) in both sexes. Clinically, circling behavior in one direction along the cage wall was observed in males after 8 weeks and females after 47 weeks-old, and hunchback position was found in males after 32 weeks-old. Hematologically, lymphocyte count markedly decreased at all ages, while white blood cell count increased in several mice at 52 weeks-old...
2017: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127193/maintained-exercise-enhanced-brain-executive-function-related-to-cerebral-lactate-metabolism-in-men
#13
Takeshi Hashimoto, Hayato Tsukamoto, Saki Takenaka, Niels D Olesen, Lonnie G Petersen, Henrik Sørensen, Henning B Nielsen, Niels H Secher, Shigehiko Ogoh
High-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) improves cerebral executive function (EF), but the improvement in EF is attenuated after repeated HIIE, perhaps because of lower lactate availability for the brain. This investigation examined whether improved EF after exercise relates to brain lactate uptake. Fourteen healthy, male subjects performed 2 HIIE protocols separated by 60 min of rest. Blood samples were obtained from the right internal jugular venous bulb and from the brachial artery to determine differences across the brain for lactate (a-v difflactate), glucose (diffglucose), oxygen (diffoxygen), and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF; diffBDNF)...
November 10, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123977/sodium-hydrosulfide-attenuates-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-by-suppressing-overactivated-autophagy-in-rats
#14
Wen-Wu Jiang, Bai-Sheng Huang, Yang Han, Lv-Hong Deng, Li-Xiang Wu
Ischemic stroke is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide, and autophagy may be involved in the pathological process of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an endogenous gasotransmitter with protective effects against multiple diseases. Here, we tested the effect of H2S on cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats. Sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS), an H2S donor, improved neurological function and reduced the size of the infarcts induced by transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) followed by reperfusion in rats...
November 2017: FEBS Open Bio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115616/metabolic-alterations-in-the-rat-cerebellum-following-acute-middle-cerebral-artery-occlusion-as-determined-by-1h-nmr-spectroscopy
#15
Zi-Long Hu, Huan-Huan Xia, Yun-Jun Yang, Hong Zheng, Liang-Cai Zhao, Yong-Chun Chen, Qi-Chuan Zhuge, Neng-Zhi Xia, Hong-Chang Gao, Wei-Jian Chen
Supratentorial focal ischemia may reduce cerebral blood volume and cerebellar glucose metabolic rate contralateral to the region of ischemia. The present study investigated the effects of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) on cerebral metabolism in the ischemic cerebral hemisphere and the non‑ischemic cerebellum in rats 1, 3, 9 and 24 h following ischemia using ex vivo proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) spectroscopy. The results demonstrated that focal ischemia induced increases in the levels of lactate and alanine, and a decrease in succinate, as early as 1 h following ischemia in the left cerebral hemisphere and the right cerebellum...
October 27, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110774/epilepsy
#16
Susanne Fauser, Hayrettin Tumani
Epilepsy is worldwide one of the most common neurologic diseases (prevalence 0.5-1%). The diagnostic procedure following a first epileptic seizure includes cerebral imaging, blood examinations, electroencephalography, and an investigation of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in patients seen soon after a seizure in order to exclude dangerous causes which require immediate treatment. Basic CSF investigation comprises the determination of cell counts, glucose, and lactate levels in serum and CSF and of albumin, immunoglobulins, and their quotients...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107441/real-life-experience-with-hydroxyurea-in-sickle-cell-disease-a-multicenter-study-in-a-cohort-of-patients-with-heterogeneous-descent
#17
Paolo Rigano, Lucia De Franceschi, Laura Sainati, Antonio Piga, Frédéric B Piel, Maria Domenica Cappellini, Carmelo Fidone, Nicoletta Masera, Giovanni Palazzi, Barbara Gianesin, Gian Luca Forni
We conducted the first nation-wide cohort study of sickle cell disease (SCD) in Italy, a Southern European country exposed to intense recent flux migration from endemic areas for SCD. We evaluate the impact of hydroxyurea on a total of 652 pediatric and adult patients from 33 Reference Centers for SCD (mean age 24.5±15years, 51.4% males). Hydroxyurea median treatment duration was 7years (range: <1year to 29years) at a mean therapeutic dose of 18±4.7mg/kg/day. Hydroxyurea was associated with a significant increase in mean total and fetal hemoglobin and a significant decrease in mean hemoglobin S, white blood and platelet counts, and lactate dehydrogenase levels...
October 9, 2017: Blood Cells, Molecules & Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103365/whole-body-perfusion-strategy-for-aortic-arch-repair-under-moderate-hypothermia
#18
Christopher L Tarola, Katie L Losenno, Jill J Gelinas, Philip M Jones, Philip Fernandes, Stephanie A Fox, Bob Kiaii, Michael W A Chu
INTRODUCTION: Aortic arch reconstruction under moderate hypothermia is commonly performed with antegrade cerebral perfusion (ACP) for brain protection; however, hypothermia alone is often solely relied upon for visceral and lower body protection. We investigated whether the addition of simultaneous lower body perfusion to ACP (whole body perfusion - WBP) may ameliorate the metabolic derangements of moderate hypothermic circulatory arrest (MHCA). METHODS: Between 2008 and 2014, 106 consecutive patients underwent elective or emergent aortic arch surgery with MHCA, with either ACP only (44 patients, 66±12 years, 30% female) or WBP (62 patients, 61±15 years, 31% female)...
November 1, 2017: Perfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099292/cerebral-metabolism-and-vascular-reactivity-during-breath-hold-and-hypoxic-challenge-in-freedivers-and-healthy-controls
#19
Mark B Vestergaard, Henrik Bw Larsson
The goal of the present study was to examine the cerebral metabolism and vascular reactivity during extended breath-holds (ranging from 2 min 32 s to 7 min 0 s) and during a hypoxic challenge in freedivers and non-diver controls. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to measure the global cerebral blood flow (CBF) and metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2), and magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to measure the cerebral lactate, glutamate+glutamine, N-acetylaspartate and phosphocreatine+creatine concentrations in the occipital lobe...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076947/left-versus-biventricular-assist-devices-in-cardiac-arrest
#20
Erik J S Packer, Grete Slettom, Atle Solholm, Arve Mongstad, Rune Haaverstad, Vegard Tuseth, Ketil Grong, Jan Erik Nordrehaug
Maintaining adequate organ perfusion during cardiac arrest remains a challenge, and various assist techniques have been evaluated. We assessed whether a right ventricular impeller assist device (RVAD) in adjunct to a left ventricular impeller assist device (LVAD) is beneficial. Twenty anesthetized pigs were randomized to maximized circulatory support by percutaneously implanted left- or biventricular assist device(s) during 30 minutes of electrically induced ventricular fibrillation followed by three attempts of cardioversion...
October 20, 2017: ASAIO Journal: a Peer-reviewed Journal of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs
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