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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675077/a-tale-of-treatable-infantile-neuroregression-and-diagnostic-dilemma-with-glutaric-aciduria-type-i
#1
Sangeetha Yoganathan, Mugil Varman, Samuel Philip Oommen, Maya Thomas
Nutritional deficiencies related neurological manifestations are not uncommon in infants and children. Here, we describe an infant with Vitamin B12 deficiency due to depleted maternal Vitamin B12 status presenting with progressive encephalopathy and extrapyramidal signs. Diagnosis of infantile tremor syndrome was established in our patient based on the clinical and biochemical parameters. Magnetic resonance imaging had shown frontotemporal atrophy with widened Sylvian fissures and prominent cerebrospinal fluid spaces...
October 2017: Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627993/the-diagnostic-dilemma-of-traumatic-lumbar-puncture-current-standing-of-cerebrospinal-fluid-leukocyte-corrections-and-our-experience-with-cerebrospinal-fluid-biomarkers
#2
Mudasir Nazir, Wasim Ahmad Wani, Khalid Kawoosa, Sheeraz Ahmad Dar, Muzaffar Malik, Naseer Yousuf Mir, Ikhlas Ahmad, Rais Ahmad Bhat, Javeed Iqbal Bhat, Qazi Iqbal Ahmad, Bashir Ahmad Charoo, Syed Wajid Ali
OBJECTIVE: To assess the diagnostic efficiency of cerebrospinal fluid markers of procalcitonin, lactate, and cerebrospinal fluid/serum lactate ratio for detecting bacterial meningitis during traumatic lumbar puncture, and to compare these markers with routinely used uncorrected and corrected leukocyte measurements. METHODS: Infants aged ≤90 days with traumatic lumbar puncture were prospectively studied. The diagnostic characteristics of cerebrospinal fluid assays of uncorrected and corrected leukocyte count, procalcitonin, lactate, and lactate ratio were described and compared...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566695/cerebrospinal-fluid-plasmodium-falciparum-histidine-rich-protein-2-in-pediatric-cerebral-malaria
#3
Kiran T Thakur, Jimmy Vareta, Kathryn A Carson, Samuel Kampondeni, Michael J Potchen, Gretchen L Birbeck, Ian MacCormick, Terrie Taylor, David J Sullivan, Karl B Seydel
BACKGROUND: Cerebral malaria (CM) causes a rapidly developing coma, and remains a major contributor to morbidity and mortality in malaria-endemic regions. This study sought to determine the relationship between cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Plasmodium falciparum histidine rich protein-2 (PfHRP-2) and clinical, laboratory and radiographic features in a cohort of children with retinopathy-positive CM. METHODS: Patients included in the study were admitted (2009-2013) to the Pediatric Research Ward (Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital, Blantyre, Malawi) meeting World Health Organization criteria for CM with findings of malarial retinopathy...
March 23, 2018: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29560372/magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-reveals-abnormalities-of-glucose-metabolism-in-the-alzheimer-s-brain
#4
Roger Mullins, David Reiter, Dimitrios Kapogiannis
Objective: Brain glucose hypometabolism is a prominent feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and in this case-control study we used Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) to assess AD-related differences in the posterior cingulate/precuneal ratio of glucose, lactate, and other metabolites. Methods: J-modulated Point-Resolved Spectroscopy (J-PRESS) and Prior-Knowledge Fitting (ProFit) software was used to measure glucose and other metabolites in the posterior cingulate/precuneus of 25 AD, 27 older controls, and 27 younger control participants...
March 2018: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29554978/peroxiredoxin-2-activates-microglia-by-interacting-with-toll-like-receptor-4-after-subarachnoid-hemorrhage
#5
Yue Lu, Xiang-Sheng Zhang, Zi-Huan Zhang, Xiao-Ming Zhou, Yong-Yue Gao, Guang-Jie Liu, Han Wang, Ling-Yun Wu, Wei Li, Chun-Hua Hang
BACKGROUND: Peroxiredoxin (Prx) protein family have been reported as important damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) in ischemic stroke. Since peroxiredoxin 2 (Prx2) is the third most abundant protein in erythrocytes and the second most protein in the cerebrospinal fluid in traumatic brain injury and subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) patients, we assessed the role of extracellular Prx2 in the context of SAH. METHODS: We introduced a co-culture system of primary neurons and microglia...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29505118/reference-intervals-for-the-activity-of-lactate-dehydrogenase-and-its-isoenzymes-in-the-serum-and-cerebrospinal-fluid-of-healthy-canines
#6
Jennifer H Kopanke, Annie V Chen, Jourdan E Brune, Amanda C Brenna, Stephanie A Thomovsky
BACKGROUND: Lactate dehydrogenase (LD) exists as 5 isoenzymes (LD-1 through LD-5) that are expressed throughout the body and can be detected in both serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). LD and its isoenzymes have been relatively unstudied in veterinary medicine, although studies in human medicine have demonstrated that changes in total LD activity and atypical isoenzyme patterns can indicate disease processes, including neurologic abnormalities. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to establish RIs for LD and its isoenzymes in the serum and CSF of clinically healthy dogs...
March 5, 2018: Veterinary Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29501406/an-infant-case-of-diffuse-cerebrospinal-lesions-and-cardiomyopathy-caused-by-a-bola3-mutation
#7
Makoto Nishioka, Yuji Inaba, Mitsuo Motobayashi, Yosuke Hara, Ryusuke Numata, Yoshiro Amano, Kunihiko Shingu, Yoichiro Yamamoto, Kei Murayama, Akira Ohtake, Yozo Nakazawa
INTRODUCTION: Mitochondrial dysfunction results in a wide range of organ disorders through diverse genetic abnormalities. We herein present the detailed clinical course of an infant admitted for extensive, rapidly progressing white matter lesions and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy due to a BOLA3 gene mutation. CASE: A 6-month-old girl with no remarkable family or past medical history until 1 month prior presented with developmental regression and feeding impairment...
February 28, 2018: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29493139/-protective-effects-of-ginkgo-terpene-lactones-meglumine-injection-on-focal-cerebral-ischemia-in-rats
#8
Yan-Ping Luo, Hong Zhang, Han-Fei Hu, Ze-Yu Cao, Xin-Zhuang Zhang, Liang Cao, Zhen-Zhong Wang, Wei Xiao
To investigate the protective effects of ginkgo diterpene lactone meglumine injection (GDLMI) on cerebral focal ischemia reperfusion injury induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in rats, and explore its possible mechanism. One hundred and forty male SD rats were randomly divided into sham operation group, model group, ginkgo biloba extract injection (Ginaton, 1.0 mL•kg⁻¹) group, nimodipine (0.4 mg•kg⁻¹) group, and GDLMI (5.2, 2.6, 1.3 mg•kg⁻¹) groups; All of rats received corresponding drugs by tail vein injection 4 days before operation (normal saline in model group and sham operation group)...
December 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29492515/-the-glymphatic-system-concept-function-and-research-progresses
#9
Lin-Hui Wang, Zi-Lan Wang, Wen-Yue Chen, Ming-Jia Chen, Guang-Yin Xu
The glymphatic system is a cerebrospinal fluid-interstitial fluid exchange system dependent on the water channel aquaporin-4 polarized on astrocyte endfeet, which is proposed to account for the clearance of abnormal proteins (e.g. β-amyloid) and metabolites (e.g. lactate) from the brain. Accumulating studies have revealed that glymphatic activity during sleep and general anesthesia is dramatically enhanced, while its function is significantly damaged during aging, traumatic brain injury, Alzheimer's disease, stroke, and diabetes...
February 25, 2018: Sheng Li Xue Bao: [Acta Physiologica Sinica]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29490540/cerebrospinal-fluid-lactate-as-a-marker-to-differentiate-between-community-acquired-acute-bacterial-meningitis-and-aseptic-meningitis-encephalitis-in-adults-a-danish-prospective-observational-cohort-study
#10
Kristian Buch, Jacob Bodilsen, Andreas Knudsen, Lykke Larsen, Jannik Helweg-Larsen, Merete Storgaard, Christian Brandt, Lothar Wiese, Christian Østergaard, Henrik Nielsen, Anne-Mette Lebech
BACKGROUND: The ability of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) lactate to distinguish between acute bacterial meningitis (ABM) and aseptic meningitis/encephalitis (AME) is debated. We assessed the diagnostic value of CSF lactate to discriminate between ABM and AME. METHODS: We included 176 patients from a prospective adult cohort with neuroinfections. In total, 51 ABM and 125 AME patients with clinically and/or microbiologically diagnosed acute meningitis were examined with CSF-lactate and traditional markers for infection...
February 28, 2018: Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29483012/lactate-dehydrogenase-as-a-prognostic-marker-in-neoplastic-meningitis
#11
Bernardo Cacho-Díaz, Nydia A Lorenzana-Mendoza, Gervith Reyes-Soto, Allan Hernández-Estrada, Alejandro Monroy-Sosa, Paola Guraieb-Chahin, David Cantu-de-León
This study aimed to establish the prognostic utility of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with neoplastic meningitis (NM). Patients with a confirmed diagnosis of NM at a cancer referral center were included. Data on demographic and oncological background, clinical symptoms, diagnostic tests, treatment, and survival were analyzed. In total, 119 patients were included, 74% of whom were females. The mean age was 44.2 years at the time of cancer diagnosis and 46.6 years at the time between NM diagnosis...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29478290/two-year-follow-up-magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-spectroscopy-findings-and-cerebrospinal-fluid-analysis-of-a-dog-with-sandhoff-s-disease
#12
D Ito, C Ishikawa, N D Jeffery, K Ono, M Tsuboi, K Uchida, O Yamato, M Kitagawa
A 13-month-old female Toy Poodle was presented for progressive ataxia and intention tremors of head movement. The diagnosis of Sandhoff's disease (GM2 gangliosidosis) was confirmed by deficient β-N-acetylhexosaminidase A and B activity in circulating leukocytes and identification of the homozygous mutation (HEXB: c.283delG). White matter in the cerebrum and cerebellum was hyperintense on T2-weighted and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery magnetic resonance images. Over the next 2 years, the white matter lesions expanded, and bilateral lesions appeared in the cerebellum and thalamus, associated with clinical deterioration...
February 25, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470360/oral-supplementation-with-bovine-colostrum-prevents-septic-shock-and-brain-barrier-disruption-during-bloodstream-infection-in-preterm-newborn-pigs
#13
Anders Brunse, Päivi Worsøe, Susanne Elisabeth Pors, Kerstin Skovgaard, Per Torp Sangild
Preterm infants have increased risk of neonatal sepsis, potentially inducing brain injury, and they may benefit from early initiation of enteral milk feeding. Using preterm pigs as models, we hypothesized that early provision of bovine colostrum to parentally nourished newborns protects against sepsis and neuroinflammation during bloodstream infection. Preterm newborn pigs were administered 10 CFU/kg of intra-arterial Staphylococcus epidermidis (SE, an opportunistic pathogen often causing sepsis in preterm infants), followed by administration of total parenteral nutrition (TPN, SE + TPN, n = 15) or oral provision of bovine colostrum with supplementary parenteral nutrition (SE + COL, n = 14), and compared with uninfected, TPN-nourished controls (CON + TPN, n = 11)...
February 21, 2018: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464766/systemic-and-transdermal-melatonin-administration-prevents-neuropathology-in-response-to-perinatal-asphyxia-in-newborn-lambs
#14
James D S Aridas, Tamara Yawno, Amy E Sutherland, Ilias Nitsos, Michael Ditchfield, Flora Y Wong, Rod W Hunt, Michael C Fahey, Atul Malhotra, Euan M Wallace, Graham Jenkin, Suzanne L Miller
Perinatal asphyxia remains a principal cause of infant mortality and long term neurological morbidity, particularly in low resource countries. No neuroprotective interventions are currently available. Melatonin (MLT), a potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic agent offers promise as an intravenous (IV) or transdermal therapy to protect the brain. We aimed to determine the effect of melatonin (IV or transdermal patch) on neuropathology in a lamb model of perinatal asphyxia. Asphyxia was induced in newborn lambs via umbilical cord occlusion at birth...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460911/-masks-of-acute-neuroinfections-and-markers-of-differencial-diagnosis
#15
A S Shishov, I S Petrova, P V Boytsov, V G Leva, V E Malikov, S A Rusanova, A V Surovikina, I A Blank
AIM: To compare thе medical history, clinical features, composition of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), results of laboratory and instrumental examinations of patients with acute neuroinfections and differentiable diseases including a pseudoinflammatory variant of the acute stage of uncomplicated subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), consequences of traumatic brain injury (traumatic SAH, SAN combination with secondary purulent meningitis, posttraumatic nasal liquorrhea, intracerebral hematomas), abscesses and tumors of the brain, lymphoma with proven CNS...
2018: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457737/determining-the-value-of-cerebrospinal-fluid-lactate-dehydrogenase-level-in-differentiating-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-from-traumatic-lumbar-puncture
#16
Morteza Saeedi, Elnaz Vahidi, Shirin Asri, Amirhosein Jahanshir
CONTEXT: - Lumbar puncture (LP) is still an important modality in the diagnosis of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Rapid and correct fluid analysis can provide patients with a better prognosis by appropriate intervention. OBJECTIVE: - To determine the value of cerebrospinal fluid lactate dehydrogenase level in differentiation between SAH and traumatic LP. DESIGN: - This was a cross-sectional observational study. Patients with a diagnostic suspicion of SAH, who were admitted to the emergency department, were enrolled in our study based on the inclusion criteria...
February 19, 2018: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434784/effects-of-intratumoral-injection-of-immunoactivator-after-microwave-ablation-on-antitumor-immunity-in-a-mouse-model-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#17
Hao Wu, Bin Chen, Baogang Peng
This study investigated the effects of intratumoral injection of immunoactivator after microwave ablation on antitumor immunity in a mouse model of hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatocellular carcinoma cell line Hepa1-6 was subcutaneously injected into C57/B6 mice to establish a mouse model of hepatocellular carcinoma. When tumor diameter reached 8 mm, microwave ablation was performed for 3 min with temperature controlled at 55°C. Cytokine sustained-release microspheres (CytoMPS) containing human interleukin-2 (hIL-2) and mouse granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (mGM-CSF) were injected into the tumor of mice in the experimental group (n=5) at 3, 7 and 14 days after ablation, while sustained-release microspheres containing no cytokine were used in the control group (n=5)...
February 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423350/primary-psychiatric-disorder-masking-the-diagnosis-of-neuropsychiatric-lupus-in-a-patient-with-altered-mental-status-a-case-report
#18
Osman Perez, Kairavee Dave, Aimee Almanzar, Tajul Prodhan, Livasky Concepion
Neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus (NPSLE) has a wide variety of neurologic and psychiatric features. NPSLE symptoms and the psychotic features of primary psychiatric disorders often overlap with each other. These psychotic features often mask and delay the diagnosis of NPSLE. We present the case of a 59-year-old female previously diagnosed with bipolar disorder and generalized anxiety disorder presenting with altered mental status (AMS), subsequently diagnosed with neuropsychiatric lupus. Initially, medication overdose was suspected as an empty bottle of trazodone was found beside her...
October 23, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29386492/-a-case-of-neurolymphomatosis-that-was-diagnosed-by-acoustic-nerve-biopsy
#19
Asuka Asanome, Kohei Kano, Kae Takahashi, Tsukasa Saito, Jun Sawada, Takayuki Katayama
A 58-year-old female was admitted to our hospital because of recurrent multiple cranial neuropathy (right facial palsy followed by involvement of the left trigeminal, facial, acoustic, pharyngeal, and vagal nerves and the right abducens nerve). Brain MRI showed gadolinium enhancement of the right abducens, bilateral facial/acoustic, and left pharyngeal/vagal nerves, and 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography revealed abnormal FDG uptake in the right facial, acoustic, pharyngeal, and vagal nerves and the left cervical lymph nodes...
January 31, 2018: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29385732/biomarkers-for-detecting-mitochondrial-disorders
#20
REVIEW
Josef Finsterer, Sinda Zarrouk-Mahjoub
(1) Objectives: Mitochondrial disorders (MIDs) are a genetically and phenotypically heterogeneous group of slowly or rapidly progressive disorders with onset from birth to senescence. Because of their variegated clinical presentation, MIDs are difficult to diagnose and are frequently missed in their early and late stages. This is why there is a need to provide biomarkers, which can be easily obtained in the case of suspecting a MID to initiate the further diagnostic work-up. (2) Methods: Literature review. (3) Results: Biomarkers for diagnostic purposes are used to confirm a suspected diagnosis and to facilitate and speed up the diagnostic work-up...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine
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