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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531131/the-role-of-interleukin-18-oxidative-stress-and-metabolic-syndrome-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#1
REVIEW
Johanna O Ojala, Elina M Sutinen
The role of interleukins (ILs) and oxidative stress (OS) in precipitating neurodegenerative diseases including sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD), requires further clarification. In addition to neuropathological hallmarks-extracellular neuritic amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques, neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) containing hyperphosphorylated tau and neuronal loss-chronic inflammation, as well as oxidative and excitotoxic damage, are present in the AD brain. The pathological sequelae and the interaction of these events during the course of AD need further investigation...
May 21, 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530519/does-a-one-size-fits-all-cost-sharing-approach-incentivize-appropriate-medication-use-a-roundtable-on-the-fairness-and-ethics-associated-with-variable-cost-sharing
#2
Jennifer S Graff, Chuck Shih, Thomas Barker, Gabriela Dieguez, Cheryl Larson, Helen Sherman, Robert W Dubois
BACKGROUND: Tiered formularies, in which patients pay copays or coinsurance out-of-pocket (OOP), are used to manage costs and encourage more efficient health care resource use. Formulary tiers are typically based on the cost of treatment rather than the medical appropriateness for the patient. Cost sharing may have unintended consequences on treatment adherence and health outcomes. Use of higher-cost, higher-tier medications can be due to a variety of factors, including unsuccessful treatment because of lack of efficacy or side effects, patient clinical or genetic characteristics, patient preferences to avoid potential side effects, or patient preferences based on the route of administration...
June 2017: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530328/-the-israeli-rat-genome-center
#3
REVIEW
Yoram Yagil, Chana Yagil
The Israeli Rat Genome Center, which is located at the Barzilai Medical Center Campus of the Faculty of Health Sciences of the Ben-Gurion University of the Negev in Ashkelon, was established to provide a repository of unique genetic strains of rats that were created in Israel and that simulate complex diseases. The Center incorporates models of: salt-sensitive hypertension (SBN/y and SBH/y rats), type 2 diabetes (CDr and CDs rats), combined hypertension and diabetes (CRDH) and additional genetic strains (transgenics, consomics, congenics)...
August 2016: Harefuah
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529764/in-vivo-analysis-of-covering-materials-composed-of-biodegradable-polymers-enriched-with-flax-fibers
#4
Tomasz Gredes, Sandra Schönitz, Tomasz Gedrange, Lukas Stepien, Karol Kozak, Christiane Kunert-Keil
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to investigate the in vivo effect of bioactive composites with poly(lactic acid) (PLA) or polycaprolactone (PCL) as the matrix, reinforced with bioplastic flax fibers, on the surrounding muscle tissue. METHODS: Materials of pure PLA and PCL and their composites with flax fibers from genetically modified plants producing poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PLA-transgen, PCL-transgen) and unmodified plants (PLA-wt, PCL-wt) were placed subcutaneous on the M...
2017: Biomaterials Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527522/precision-medicine-genomic-profiles-to-individualize-therapy
#5
REVIEW
Oscar E Streeter, Phillip J Beron, Prashant Natarajan Iyer
Precision medicine is the application of genotypic and Omics biomarkers to determine the most appropriate, outcome-driven therapy for individual patients. To determine the best choice of therapy, institutions use significant information technology-enabled data from imaging, electronic medical records, sensors in the clinic/hospitals, and wearable sensors to determine treatment response. With genomic profiling, targets to affect a disease course are continuing to be developed. As clonal mutational prevalence continues to be understood, information can be communicated to patients to inform them that resistance is common, requiring collection of more genetic mutations from patients with further biopsies or blood collection...
May 17, 2017: Otolaryngologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526280/an-overview-of-medical-risk-factors-for-childhood-psychosis-implications-for-research-and-treatment
#6
REVIEW
Marianna Giannitelli, Angèle Consoli, Marie Raffin, Renaud Jardri, Douglas F Levinson, David Cohen, Claudine Laurent-Levinson
OBJECTIVE: Psychotic disorders in childhood and early adolescence often progress to chronic schizophrenia, but in many cases there are diagnosable medical and genetic causes or risk factors. We reviewed our clinical experience and the relevant literature to identify these factors and to define their clinical features, appropriate work-up and treatment. METHOD: We reviewed the results of comprehensive medical evaluations of 160 psychotic children and adolescents in our center...
May 16, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526149/pharmacogenomics-in-anesthesia
#7
REVIEW
Ramsey Saba, Alan D Kaye, Richard D Urman
A significant number of commonly administered medications in anesthesia show wide clinical interpatient variability. Some of these include neuromuscular blockers, opioids, local anesthetics, and inhalation anesthetics. Individual genetic makeup may account for and predict cardiovascular outcomes after cardiac surgery. These interactions can manifest at any point in the perioperative period and may also only affect a specific system. A better understanding of pharmacogenomics will allow for more individually tailored anesthetics and may ultimately lead to better outcomes, decreased hospital stays, and improved patient satisfaction...
June 2017: Anesthesiology Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525818/hypertension-update-jnc8-and-beyond
#8
REVIEW
Tara Shrout, David W Rudy, Michael T Piascik
Hypertension is the most preventable major risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The etiology of elevated blood pressure is a complex process involving the interaction of genetics, demographics, comorbid disorders, and environmental influences. Effective hypertensive therapy has been shown to reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. JNC reports have served as a valuable source of guidelines, and JNC 8 is the most recently updated guideline for the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of hypertension...
May 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525397/an-unusual-case-of-sudden-death-is-there-a-relationship-between-thyroid-disorders-and-fatal-pulmonary-thromboembolism-a-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#9
Isabella Aquila, Silvia Boca, Fiorella Caputo, Matteo A Sacco, Santo Gratteri, Vittorio Fineschi, Pietrantonio Ricci
In adults, the most common cause of sudden death is coronary heart disease or defects in the cardiac conduction system; however, there are many cases of sudden death occurring from other causes such as fatal pulmonary thromboembolism. Several risk factors are recognized, including hospitalization, surgery, obesity, pregnancy, the use of oral contraceptives, traumatic fractures, and genetic conditions, which cause hypercoagulable states such as factor V Leiden mutations. Although many risk factors have been identified, the mortality rate is still high...
May 19, 2017: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525288/inference-of-the-genetic-polymorphisms-of-cyp2d6-in-six-subtribes-of-the-malaysian-orang-asli-from-whole-genome-sequencing-data
#10
Choo Yee Yu, Geik Yong Ang, Vinothini Subramaniam, Richard Johari James, Aminuddin Ahmad, Thuhairah Abdul Rahman, Fadzilah Mohd Nor, Syahrul Azlin Shaari, Lay Kek Teh, Mohd Zaki Salleh
AIMS: CYP2D6 is one of the major enzymes in the cytochrome P450 monooxygenase system. It metabolizes ∼25% of prescribed drugs and hence, the genetic diversity of CYP2D6 gene has continued to be of great interest to the medical and pharmaceutical industries. This study aims to perform a systematic analysis of the CYP2D6 gene in six subtribes of the Malaysian Orang Asli. METHODS: Genomic DNAs were extracted from the blood samples followed by whole-genome sequencing...
May 19, 2017: Genetic Testing and Molecular Biomarkers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523640/biomedical-risk-factors-of-achilles-tendinopathy-in-physically-active-people-a-systematic-review
#11
REVIEW
Maria Kozlovskaia, Nicole Vlahovich, Kevin J Ashton, David C Hughes
BACKGROUND: Achilles tendinopathy is the most prevalent tendon disorder in people engaged in running and jumping sports. Aetiology of Achilles tendinopathy is complex and requires comprehensive research of contributing risk factors. There is relatively little research focussing on potential biomedical risk factors for Achilles tendinopathy. The purpose of this systematic review is to identify studies and summarise current knowledge of biomedical risk factors of Achilles tendinopathy in physically active people...
December 2017: Sports Medicine—Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523413/identification-and-high-level-production-of-pulcherrimin-in-bacillus-licheniformis-dw2
#12
Xiaoyun Li, Dong Wang, Dongbo Cai, Yangyang Zhan, Qin Wang, Shouwen Chen
Pulcherrimin, a potential biocontrol agent produced by microorganisms, has the promising applications in the agricultural, medical, and food areas, and the low yield of pulcherrimin has hindered its applications. In this study, the red pigment produced by Bacillus licheniformis DW2 was identified as pulcherrimin through the spectrometry analysis and genetic manipulation, and the component of the medium used for pulcherrimin production was optimized. Based on our results, the addition of 1.0 g L(-1) Tween 80 could improve the yield of pulcherrimin, and glucose and (NH4)2SO4 were served as the optimal carbon and nitrogen sources for pulcherrimin synthesis, respectively...
May 18, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523408/genetics-and-epigenetics-of-varicocele-pathophysiology-an-overview
#13
REVIEW
Viviane Paiva Santana, Cristiana Libardi Miranda-Furtado, Flavia Gaona de Oliveira-Gennaro, Rosana Maria Dos Reis
Varicocele is found in approximately 20% of adults and adolescents and in 19-41% of men seeking treatment for infertility. It is associated with a decrease in sperm count as well as sperm motility and morphology. The currently accepted description of the pathophysiology of varicocele does not explain all its clinical manifestations; therefore, other factors such as genetic and epigenetic changes, associated with the environment, might be involved in causing infertility and decrease in sperm quality. It has been reported that the varicocele-induced deterioration of testicular function is progressive and interferes with fertility; hence, early and efficient assessment of the genetic manifestations in patients would be important for developing future medical interventions...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522734/voluntary-control-of-epileptiform-spike-wave-discharges-in-awake-rats
#14
Jeremy A Taylor, Krista M Rodgers, Florencia M Bercum, Carmen J Booth, F Edward Dudek, Daniel S Barth
Genetically inherited absence epilepsy in humans is typically characterized by brief (seconds) spontaneous seizures, which involve spike-wave discharges (SWDs) in the EEG and interruption of consciousness and ongoing behavior. Genetic (inbred) models of this disorder in rats have been used to examine mechanisms, comorbidities and anti-absence drugs. SWDs have also been proposed as models of complex partial seizures (CPSs) following traumatic brain injury (post-traumatic epilepsy; PTE). However, the ictal characteristics of these rat models, including SWDs and associated immobility, are also prevalent in healthy outbred laboratory rats...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522688/polycystic-kidney-disease-without-an-apparent-family-history
#15
Ioan-Andrei Iliuta, Vinusha Kalatharan, Kairong Wang, Emilie Cornec-Le Gall, John Conklin, Marina Pourafkari, Ryan Ting, Chen Chen, Alessia C Borgo, Ning He, Xuewen Song, Christina M Heyer, Sarah R Senum, Young-Hwan Hwang, Andrew D Paterson, Peter C Harris, Korosh Khalili, York Pei
The absence of a positive family history (PFH) in 10%-25% of patients poses a diagnostic challenge for autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). In the Toronto Genetic Epidemiology Study of Polycystic Kidney Disease, 210 affected probands underwent renal function testing, abdominal imaging, and comprehensive PKD1 and PKD2 mutation screening. From this cohort, we reviewed all patients with and without an apparent family history, examined their parental medical records, and performed renal imaging in all available parents of unknown disease status...
May 18, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521703/recent-advances-in-antiepileptic-herbal-medicine
#16
Stephen M Manchishi
Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders worldwide, with about 80 percent of cases thought to be in developing nations where it is mostly linked to superstition. Most cases of epilepsy are idiopathic, though brain injury, brain tumor, severe systemic infection and genetic mutations have been implicated in some cases. Anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) currently in existence are not sufficient to contain the disorder. This is not only because of their limited availability and cost, but also their adverse side effects...
May 18, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521635/pathologic-characteristics-natural-history-and-prognostic-implications-of-braf-v600e-mutation-in-pediatric-papillary-thyroid-carcinoma
#17
Steven Hardee, Manju L Prasad, Pei Hui, Catherine A Dinauer, Raffaella A Morotti
The BRAF(V600E) mutation is the most common genetic aberration in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC), found in up to 68% of PTC in adults where it is associated with aggressive features. The incidence of this mutation in pediatric PTC is less frequent, reported as 0%-20% in the past and up to 63% in one recent series. Data suggest the mutation is not associated with an aggressive course in children; however, there are limited numbers of reported case series, so the prognostic implications remain poorly understood...
June 2017: Pediatric and Developmental Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521526/the-impact-of-genetics-on-future-drug-discovery-in-schizophrenia
#18
Mitsuyuki Matsumoto, Noah M Walton, Hiroshi Yamada, Yuji Kondo, Gerard J Marek, Katsunori Tajinda
Failures of investigational new drugs (INDs) for schizophrenia have left huge unmet medical needs for patients. Given the recent lackluster results, it is imperative that new drug discovery approaches (and resultant drug candidates) target pathophysiological alterations that are shared in specific, stratified patient populations that are selected based on pre-identified biological signatures. One path to implementing this paradigm is achievable by leveraging recent advances in genetic information and technologies...
May 18, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521197/association-of-%C3%AE-3-adrenergic-receptor-rs4994-polymorphisms-with-the-risk-of-type-2-diabetes-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#19
Jin Ah Ryuk, Xin Zhang, Byoung-Seob Ko, James W Daily, Sunmin Park
AIM: The association of ADRB3 polymorphism with the risk of T2DM remains unclear perhaps due to different ethnicities and small study sizes. We systemically evaluated the association of β3-adrenergic receptor(ADRB3)rs4994 and type 2 diabetes(T2DM) by pooling all of the case-control studies reported, and also elucidated the association according to the ethnicity and obesity of the subjects. METHODS: A literature search was conducted using PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Korean scientific database, Chinese medical databases, and the Indian medical database to identify eligible studies for determining the association of ADRB3 rs4994 and T2DM risk...
May 5, 2017: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520890/vcf-filter-interactive-prioritization-of-disease-linked-genetic-variants-from-sequencing-data
#20
Heiko Müller, Raul Jimenez-Heredia, Ana Krolo, Tatjana Hirschmugl, Jasmin Dmytrus, Kaan Boztug, Christoph Bock
Next generation sequencing is widely used to link genetic variants to diseases, and it has massively accelerated the diagnosis and characterization of rare genetic diseases. After initial bioinformatic data processing, the interactive analysis of genome, exome, and panel sequencing data typically starts from lists of genetic variants in VCF format. Medical geneticists filter and annotate these lists to identify variants that may be relevant for the disease under investigation, or to select variants that are reported in a clinical diagnostics setting...
May 17, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
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