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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052609/neuro-ophthalmic-side-effects-of-molecularly-targeted-cancer-drugs
#1
REVIEW
M T Bhatti, A K S Salama
The past two decades has been an amazing time in the advancement of cancer treatment. Molecularly targeted therapy is a concept in which specific cellular molecules (overexpressed, mutationally activated, or selectively expressed proteins) are manipulated in an advantageous manner to decrease the transformation, proliferation, and/or survival of cancer cells. In addition, increased knowledge of the role of the immune system in carcinogenesis has led to the development of immune checkpoint inhibitors to restore and enhance cellular-mediated antitumor immunity...
October 20, 2017: Eye
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051029/recent-advances-in-localized-rcc-a-focus-on-vegf-and-immuno-oncology-therapies
#2
REVIEW
Pearl Subramanian, Naomi B Haas Md
Recent advances in advanced renal cell cancer (RCC) research have produced new drugs and therapies for patients with metastatic disease leading to higher response rates, improvements in progression-free survival, and longer overall survival. These advances have yet to be realized in patients with early-stage kidney cancer, and to date, no drug has been approved for the adjuvant treatment of localized kidney cancer. The current standard of care for localized high-risk kidney cancers is resection of the primary tumor...
October 16, 2017: Urologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048978/antitumor-effect-of-oral-cancer-vaccine-with-bifidobacterium-delivering-wt1-protein-to-gut-immune-system-is-superior-to-wt1-peptide-vaccine
#3
Toshiro Shirakawa, Koichi Kitagawa
Despite the revolutionary progress of immune checkpoint inhibitors (CPIs) for cancer immunotherapy, CPIs are effective only in a subset of patients. Combining CPIs and cancer vaccines to achieve better clinical outcomes is a reasonable approach since CPI enhances cancer vaccine-induced tumor-associated antigen (TAA) specific CTL. Among the various TAAs so far identified, WT1 protein is one of the most promising TAAs as a cancer vaccine target. Until now clinical trials of WT1 vaccine have demonstrated only modest clinical efficacy...
October 19, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048935/chimeric-antigen-receptor-t-cell-therapy-for-solid-tumors-require-new-clinical-regimens
#4
Jinjing Xu, Kang Tian, Haixu Zhang, Liantao Li, Hongyan Liu, Jingjie Liu, Qing Zhang, Junnian Zheng
Chimeric antigen receptor modified T cell (CAR-T) therapy has achieved encouraging breakthroughs in the treatment of hematological malignancies. Nevertheless, this success has not yet been extrapolated to solid tumors. This review focuses on new clinical regimens that could improve the therapeutic efficacy of CAR-T in solid tumors. Areas covered: Herein, the authors reviewed recent clinical trials using CAR-T therapies for the treatment of solid tumors. Specifically, this review covered the following areas: (1) the current status of CAR-T cells in the treatment of solid tumors; (2) the major factors constraining the efficacy of CAR-T cells in solid tumors; and (3) opinions regarding the future of CAR-T as a treatment for solid tumors...
October 19, 2017: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045749/immune-checkpoint-inhibitor-related-myocarditis
#5
Kazuko Tajiri, Kazutaka Aonuma, Ikuo Sekine
Immune checkpoint inhibitors have demonstrated significant clinical benefit in many cancers. The clinical benefit afforded by these treatments can be accompanied by a unique and distinct spectrum of adverse events. Recently, several fatal cases of immune checkpoint inhibitor-related myocarditis were reported. Although its frequency is comparatively lower than that of other immune-related adverse events, myocarditis can lead to circulatory collapse and lethal ventricular arrhythmia. Immune checkpoints, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1), play important roles in establishing peripheral tolerance to the heart...
October 17, 2017: Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045540/phase-ii-trial-of-pembrolizumab-in-patients-with-platinum-refractory-germ-cell-tumors-a-hoosier-cancer-research-network-study-gu14-206
#6
N Adra, L H Einhorn, S K Althouse, N R Ammakkanavar, D Musapatika, C Albany, D Vaughn, N H Hanna
Background: Despite remarkable results with salvage standard-dose or high-dose chemotherapy about 15% of patients with relapsed germ-cell tumors (GCT) are incurable. Immune checkpoint inhibitors have produced significant remission in multiple tumor types. We report the first study of immunotherapy in patients with GCT. Patients and Methods: Single arm phase 2 trial investigating pembrolizumab 200mg IV Q3weeks until disease progression in patients with relapsed GCT and no curable options...
October 17, 2017: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045524/combined-irradiation-and-targeted-therapy-or-immune-checkpoint-blockade-in-brain-metastases-toxicities-and-efficacy
#7
A V Tallet, F Dhermain, E Le Rhun, G Noël, Y M Kirova
Background: Targeted therapies (TT) and immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) are currently modifying the landscape of metastatic cancer management and are increasingly used over the course of many cancers treatment. They allow long-term survival with controlled extra-cerebral disease, contributing to the increasing incidence of brain metastases (BMs). Radiation therapy remains the cornerstone of BMs treatment (either whole brain irradiation or stereotactic radiosurgery), and investigating the safety profile of radiation therapy combined with TT or ICI is of high interest...
August 2, 2017: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045188/rapid-evolution-of-thyroid-dysfunction-in-patients-treated-with-nivolumab
#8
Grenye O'Malley, Hanna J Lee, Samir Parekh, Matthew D Galsky, Cardinale B Smith, Philip Friedlander, Robert T Yanagisawa, Emily J Gallagher
OBJECTIVE: To describe the evolution of thyroid dysfunction in a series of patients with cancer treated with the immune checkpoint inhibitor anti-programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1) monoclonal antibody, nivolumab. METHODS: Cases of thyroid dysfunction after initiation of checkpoint inhibitor treatment were identified from the Division of Endocrinology clinical practice at Mount Sinai Hospital, New York from April 2016 to February 2017. Charts were reviewed to identify patients treated with nivolumab with new onset of thyroid dysfunction...
October 2017: Endocrine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043574/characterization-and-implications-of-thyroid-dysfunction-induced-by-immune-checkpoint-inhibitors-in-real-life-clinical-practice-a-long-term-prospective-study-from-a-referral-institution
#9
F Guaraldi, R La Selva, M T Samà, V D'Angelo, D Gori, P Fava, M T Fierro, P Savoia, E Arvat
PURPOSE: Autoimmune diseases are typically associated with immune checkpoints blockade. This study aims at assessing, in real-life clinical practice, the prevalence and impact of thyroid disorders induced by immune checkpoint inhibitors. METHODS: 52 patients (30 F; age 61 ± 13 years) with advanced melanoma treated with ipilimumab (3 mg/kg i.v./3 weeks; 4 doses) were included. For disease progression, 29 (16 F) of them received nivolumab (3 mg/kg i.v./2 weeks) or pembrolizumab (2 mg/kg i...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041991/neutrophil-lymphocyte-ratio-and-duration-of-prior-anti-angiogenic-therapy-as-biomarkers-in-metastatic-rcc-receiving-immune-checkpoint-inhibitor-therapy
#10
Ghayathri Jeyakumar, Seongho Kim, Naresh Bumma, Craig Landry, Cynthia Silski, Stacey Suisham, Brenda Dickow, Elisabeth Heath, Joseph Fontana, Ulka Vaishampayan
BACKGROUND: There is an unmet need to determine factors predictive of clinical benefit, to guide therapeutic sequencing and selection in metastatic RCC (mRCC). We evaluated clinical factors such as the neutrophil lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and duration of prior anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibitors, as predictors of response rate, progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in mRCC patients treated with immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI). METHODS: Regulatory approval was obtained...
October 17, 2017: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040995/role-of-immune-checkpoint-blockade-in-the-treatment-for-human-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#11
Naoshi Nishida, Masatoshi Kudo
With the development of molecular targeting therapy, several treatment options for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) have become available in cases where curative and other palliative treatments, such as radiofrequency ablation, surgical resection, and transarterial chemoembolization, are not applicable. However, with the detection of a variety of mutations in cancer-related genes in a single tumor, molecular heterogeneity is commonly observed in HCC. Therefore, mutations in the major cellular signaling pathways underlie the development of resistance to molecular targeting agents...
2017: Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040258/prognostic-and-therapeutic-implications-of-dna-repair-gene-mutations-in-advanced-prostate-cancer
#12
Michael T Schweizer, Emmanuel S Antonarakis
Recent work directed toward understanding the molecular features of advanced prostate cancers has revealed a relatively high incidence of both germline and somatic alterations in genes involved in DNA damage repair (DDR). Many of these alterations likely play a critical role in the pathogenesis of more aggressive prostate cancers-leading to genomic instability and an increased probability of the development of lethal disease. However, because the ability to repair DNA damage with a high degree of fidelity is critical to an individual cell's survival, tumor cells harboring alterations in DDR pathway genes are also more susceptible to drugs that induce DNA damage or impair alternative DNA repair pathways...
October 2017: Clinical Advances in Hematology & Oncology: H&O
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040030/nivolumab-plus-ipilimumab-in-patients-with-advanced-melanoma-updated-survival-response-and-safety-data-in-a-phase-i-dose-escalation-study
#13
Margaret K Callahan, Harriet Kluger, Michael A Postow, Neil H Segal, Alexander Lesokhin, Michael B Atkins, John M Kirkwood, Suba Krishnan, Rafia Bhore, Christine Horak, Jedd D Wolchok, Mario Sznol
Purpose The clinical activity observed in a phase I dose-escalation study of concurrent therapy with nivolumab (NIVO) and ipilimumab (IPI) in patients with previously treated or untreated advanced melanoma led to subsequent clinical development, including randomized trials. Here, we report long-term follow-up data from study CA209-004, including 3-year overall survival (OS). Patients and Methods Concurrent cohorts 1, 2, 2a, and 3 received escalating doses of NIVO plus IPI once every 3 weeks for four doses, followed by NIVO once every 3 weeks for four doses, then NIVO plus IPI once every 12 weeks for eight doses...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038249/anti-pd-1-antibody-treatment-promotes-clearance-of-persistent-cryptococcal-lung-infection-in-mice
#14
Jonathan A Roussey, Steven P Viglianti, Seagal Teitz-Tennenbaum, Michal A Olszewski, John J Osterholzer
Activation of immunomodulatory pathways in response to invasive fungi can impair clearance and promote persistent infections. The programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1) signaling pathway inhibits immune effector responses against tumors, and immune checkpoint inhibitors that block this pathway are being increasingly used as cancer therapy. The objective of this study was to investigate whether this pathway contributes to persistent fungal infection and to determine whether anti-PD-1 Ab treatment improves fungal clearance...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036261/development-of-halo-nevi-in-a-lung-cancer-patient-a-novel-immune-related-cutaneous-event-from-atezolizumab
#15
Mathew R Birnbaum, Michelle W Ma, Michael A Casey, Bijal D Amin, Mark Jacobson, Haiying Cheng, Beth N McLellan
Immunotherapy-induced vitiligo is an immune-related adverse event (irAE) observed in metastatic melanoma patients treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors that target the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) and programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) pathways. To date, the development of leukoderma, poliosis, and halo nevi during immunotherapy has largely been reported in metastatic melanoma patients. We report a case of immunotherapy-induced leukoderma presenting as halo nevi in a patient with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with atezolizumab, a programmed cell death ligand (PD-L1) antibody...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Drugs in Dermatology: JDD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036015/transient-pituitary-acth-dependent-cushing-syndrome-caused-by-an-immune-checkpoint-inhibitor-combination
#16
Jeremy Lupu, Cécile Pages, Pauline Laly, Julie Delyon, Marie Laloi, Antoine Petit, Nicole Basset-Seguin, Imen Oueslati, Anne-Marie Zagdanski, Jacques Young, Clara Bouche, Céleste Lebbé, Jean-François Gautier
Immune checkpoint inhibitors have improved survival in numerous advanced malignancies, but are associated with a number of immune-related adverse events, including endocrinopathies. Endogenous Cushing's syndrome (CS) is a rare disorder resulting from exposure to high levels of circulating cortisol. CS can be caused either by adrenal cortex tumors or hyperplasia or by pituitary or extra-pituitary tumors over-secreting ACTH (known as ACTH-dependent CS). We report the first case of transient ACTH-dependent CS, which appeared after combined ipilimumab and nivolumab therapy...
October 13, 2017: Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035907/relationship-between-pd-l1-expression-and-cd8-t-cell-immune-responses-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#17
Chun-Yu Huang, Ying Wang, Guang-Yu Luo, Feng Han, Yong-Qiang Li, Zhong-Guo Zhou, Guo-Liang Xu
As PD-1/PD-L1 immune checkpoint inhibitors exhibited promising clinical outcomes in various types of solid tumors, PD-1/PD-L1 blockades have been explored for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the association of PD-L1 with antitumor immunoregulation is not clearly defined in HCC. Here, we evaluated the characteristics of PD-L1 expression, CD8 T-cell infiltration and their relationship in HCC. A total of 411 resected tumor specimens from HCC patients were immunostained for PD-L1 and CD8...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Immunotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034210/biomarkers-for-response-of-melanoma-patients-to-immune-checkpoint-inhibitors-a-systematic-review
#18
Charissa A C Jessurun, Julien A M Vos, Jacqueline Limpens, Rosalie M Luiten
BACKGROUND: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), targeting CTLA-4 or PD-1 molecules, have shown impressive therapeutic results. However, only 20-40% of advanced melanoma patients have durable responses to ICI, and these positive effects must be balanced against severe off-target immune toxicity and high costs. This urges the development of predictive biomarkers for ICI response to select patients with likely clinical benefit from treatment. Although many candidate biomarkers exist, a systematic overview of biomarkers and their usefulness is lacking...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033261/erratum-to-limitations-and-opportunities-for-immune-checkpoint-inhibitors-in-pediatric-malignancies-cancer-treat-rev-58c-2017-22-33
#19
Jeong A Park, Nai-Kong V Cheung
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 12, 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032709/putative-predictors-of-efficacy-for-immune-checkpoint-inhibitors-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-facing-the-complexity-of-the-immune-system
#20
Giulia Grizzi, Mario Caccese, Anastasios Gkountakos, Luisa Carbognin, Giampaolo Tortora, Emilio Bria, Sara Pilotto
In non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) the recent introduction of immunotherapy in daily clinical practice produced a wave of enthusiasm, however, this was rapidly moderated by the evidence that only some patients could experience a relevant clinical benefit. Therefore, a great effort from the scientific community has been dedicated to the identification and validation of reliable biomarkers able to drive the activity of immunotherapeutic agents. Areas covered. This analysis aims to review the main findings about predictive biomarkers for immunotherapy in lung cancer, retracing the history of PD-L1 and focusing on a series of innovative candidates, such as mutational load, immune cells populations and microbiome...
October 14, 2017: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
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